MACMILLAN MASTER SERIESWorkOutI PhysicsLevelandGCSEv AV vnh XiL J i I SHJPKeighleyScanned with CamScannerIS I lill TTPreface ixAcknowledgementsGroups Responsible for Examinations at IntroductionMow to Use this BookRevisionMow to Tackle Different Types of Examination QuestionsA Few Important Pointsxx Some Help with Mathematics Using Mathematical Equations Graphs Significant Figures Powers of Ten Conversion of Units Solidus and Negative Index Notation SI Units Density Pressure and Hookes Law SI Units Weight and Mass Density Pressure Hookes Law Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have you Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Motion Scalars and Vectors Velocity and Acceleration Newtons Laws of Motion Momentum Scalars and Vectors Uniformly Accelerated Motion Independence of Horizontal and Vertical Motion Worked Examples Have you Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to QuestionsvScanned with CamScannerWork Energy Pwer and Machincsd Equilibriumand Power Moments EqiBbrium mentsaji Work Energy Friction Machines Worked Examples AnIranMdHWsdon Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basies Questions Answers and Hints onSolutions to Questions Archimedes Principle and Flotation Archimedes Principle Principle of Flotation Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Expansion Gas Laws Thermometers Kinetic Theory and Molecular Size Expansion The Gas Laws Thermometers Kinetic Theory Evidence for Kinetic Theory Molecular Size The Oil Drop Experiment Linear Expansivity Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Specific Heat Capacity Specific Latent Heat Vapour Pressure RefrigeratiBoiling and Meltingon Specific Heat Capacity Specific Latent Heat Effect of Impurities and Pressure on the Boiling and Melting Points Vapour Pressure Refrigerators Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Transfer of Heat Convectionand the Greenhouse Effect Conduction Radiation Thermos Flask Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Radiation The Greenhouse Effect Worked ExamplesviScanned with CamScanner Iluve You Mastered the Basics Answers to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Mints on Solutions to QuestionsReflection Retraction Colour and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Shadows and Eclipses Laws of Reflection Plane Mirrors Refraction Critical Angle Prisms Colour The Electromagnetic Spectrum Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Lenses the Eye the Camera and the Slide Projector Lenses The Eye and the Camera The Slide Projector Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to QuestionsI Wave Motion Sound Resonance and Stationary Waves Wave Motion and Sound Resonance Youngs Slits Stationary Waves Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions Circuits Scries and Parallel Electrical Units Household Electricity and Electronics Circuits Electrical Power and Energy Earthing Electronics Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questions ISO Magnetism Electromagnetism Motors Dynamos Transformers and Cells Magnetism Electromagnetism Electric Motor and Dynamo Faradays Law and Lenzs LawVIIIScanned with CamScanner Transformers Lefthand Rule Righthand Rule Cells Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints on Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to QuestionsElectrostatics Electron Beams and Radioactivity Electrostatics Beams of Electrons Radioactivity Worked Examples Have You Mastered the Basics Answers and Hints Questions Answers and Hints on Solutions to Questionson Solutions to Have You Mastered the Basics X Scanned with CamScanner
55
ROBERT JOHNSEY
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL SCIENCE
8D
ENGLISH
MACDONALD
1986
SCHOOL OpMinSCIENCE Robert JohpseyMacdonald EducationalScanned with CamScannerContentsIntroduction Elastic EnergyUNIT Elasticpowered rollerUNIT Improving the rollerUNIT Motorised fanUNIT Motordriven toyUNIT Paddle boatUNIT Bottle boat Seeds on the MoveUNIT Part Sycamore keysPart Making models otsycamore keysUNIT Part V ParachutesPart Making the modelparachuteUNIT Experiments with toyparachutesUNIT Explosive seedsUNIT Hanging on Time UNIT Rolling marbleUNIT Longest journeyUNIT Part Watersoak clockPart Making the watersoak clock UNIT PendulumsUNIT Twister alarm clock Wheels jfUNIT Inventing the wheelUNIT Going round the bendUNIT PartH The buggyPart BumpersUNIT Elasticband motorUNIT Wobbly wheels Paper StructuresUNIT Paper towerUNIT Egg boxUNIT CantileverUNIT Tower of strengthUNIT Keep it upUNIT Bridging the gapIndexScanned with CamScanner
59
BORLAND
D BASE IV VERSION 2.0 FOR DOS
16B
ENGLISH
BORLAND INTERNATIONAL
1993
Using dBASE IV Database Files Design Tools Control Center Tools Applications Generator Borland dBASE IV for DOS Scanned with CamScanner Contents Introduction Introduction The Purpose of This Book Conventions in This Manual Sample Files me Chapter Basics of the Menu System The Control Center Reaching the Control Center The Control Center Selecting Files Creating New Files Deleting Files Navigating in the Menu System Using Menus Using the Cursor Navigation Keys Using the Function Keys Reading the Status Bar Using the dBASE IV Help System Reaching the Help System What the Help System Looks Like Ja uuuu ivaanin AA WW Database Files Cell Chapter Designing Databases Reaching the Database Design Screen From the Dot Prompt From the Control Center Moving Within the Database Design Screen Designing Database Files Scanned with CamScanner ds Choosing a HUU Specifying a Field Type Entering the Field Width Entering Decimal Places Indexing a Field Adding a Database Description Adding and Deleting Fields Saving Changes and Continuing Saving Changes as You Work Saving Changes and Exiting Abandoning Changes and Exiting Moving to the Browse or Edit Screen Moving to the Queries Design Screen Printing the Database Structure Chapter Organizing Your Database Files What is a Catalog How Catalogs Differ from Directories Listing a File in Multiple Catalogs Choosing the Initial Catalog Working with Catalogs Changing Catalogs Creating a New Catalog Modifying the Catalog Name Adding or Changing the Catalog Description Understanding File Types Adding a File to the Catalog Removing a File from a Catalog Editing a File Description ala Chapter Displaying Adding and Modifying Data About the Browse and Edit screens Selecting a Database File Adding New Records Changing How Data Is Displayed in the Browse Screen Keeping Important Fields in View Changing the Width of a Field Editing Data Using Insert and Typeover Modes Scanned with CamScanner LOU I N CU TUTUCICUOI Deleting Data from a Field Deleting Data from a Record Editing Only One Field Undoing Changes to a Record Deleting Records Markin Records for Deletion Deleting Marked Records Unmarking Records Marked for Deletion Saving Data Entered in the Browse or Edit Screen Automatic Record Locking on a Network Using Memo Fields Entering Memo Fields Moving Copying and Deleting Text in a Memo Field Exiting Memo Fields Adding Records from the Database Design Screen Appending Records from a dBASE File Adding Records One at a Time Copying Records from a NondBASE File or dBASE II File ICTUS n uvut JOCKES USME INC ACS JO Compex index Chapter Organizing Your Data About Indexes How dBASE IV Indexes Are Stored Number of Indexes per Database File Using Indexes Creating a Simple Index Naming the Index Using an Index Creatin Complex Index Indexing on a Subset of the Records Hiding Duplicate Records Modifying an Existing Index Removing an Index Using Indexes from Earlier dBASE Product Versions Reordering Records Automatically During Editing Searching for Records in the Browse and Edit Screens Using an Index Key Searching Forward or Backward for a Record Capitalization and Searching for Records Sorting the Database File DOTTI WI D U U UC Scanned with CamScanner Design Tools Chapter Queries Creating a View What is a View Where You Create Views The Queries Design Screen Reaching the Queries Design Screen Navigating on the Queries Design Screen Creating a SingleDatabase View Choosing the Database File to be Viewed Adding the Fields to be Used in the View Removing Fields from the View Skeleton Displaying the View Data Moving Fields in a View Renaming a Field in a View Naming and Saving View Queries in Describing the View Organizing the Records in a View Organizing Views with Simple Indexes Organizing Views with Complex Indexes About Indexes in General Sorting Records on More than One Field Limitations on Updating Views Browsing and Editing a View Using a Calculated Field in a View Adding Calculated Fields Removing Calculated fields Relating Multiple Database Files to Form One View Relating Multiple Databases The Common Field Creating a Related MultipleDatabaseFile View Relationship Between Linked Files Linking on a Calculated Field Creating a New Database File from a View Removing Database Files from a View dBASE IV Code Created by View Queries Saving Views Without Exiting Exiting the Queries Design Screen Saving Changes and Exiting Abandoning Changes and Exiting Returning to the ReportFormLabel Design Screen Scanned with CamScanner Processing Quotes Selecom Information on Local B Lsing Query Orer Sammanging Duras Ooung Surmares with a pers Queries Using Two Agregate Operators na lauring Dupucine Values Using Operators in Quens Comparison Operators Sound Searches nen Parter Searches Embedded Test Searches in a Character Field NorEqual Searches AND and OR Condicions AND Conditions OR Coococs Uség AND OR Coccions Together Entering Conditions Using Example Vantable Grouping Query Information Summarizing and Grouping Information Using Calculerad Fas Summarizing and Grouping Information Using Compler Inderas Locating a Specific Record Using the Condition Box Using the Condition Box with Date Fields Using the Condition Box with Memo Fields Removing Old Query Conditions Special Queries on Linked Databases Displaying One of Each Record When Linking Displaying All Records When Linking Displaying Records with No Match SelfJoins Using One Field to Filter Other Fields Os icii Annien Scanned with CamScanner s Choosing a Filter Method Keeping Indexes Created by a Query Saving Queries Chapter Using Update Queries General Information about Updates Replacing Data Preparing the Replace Query Saving the Replace Query Performing the Replace Query Replacing Data Using Linked Databases Deleting Data Marking Individual Records for Deletion Marking Groups of Records for Deletion Saving the Update Query Hiding Records Marked for Deletion Determining Records Marked for Deletion Erasing Records Marked for Deletion Unmarking Groups of Records Appending Records Appending Records from One File App Records from Two or More Files Appending Records Using a Filter Condition w ed for Deletion Chapter Designing and Using Forms What is a Form Form Files Planning Your Form Quick Layout Customizing a Form Removing a Field Adding a Field Identifying the Field Adding a Memo Field Adding a New Calculated Field S Entering Text on the Forms Design Screen Defining Form Width and Height Setting Margins Aligning Text on a Form Scanned with CamScanner Blank Spaces in Livoi MoieciLLLLLLLLLLLILIITT Moving and copying Text and hields Inn Deleting Tenni itiririi Adding in Box Moving it Box Adding a LincLuncurrin Using Color LLLLLL Managing Data Input Using Field Templates Using Picture functions Sorting Limits for Values rrrrrrr Data Entry with Memory Variables Searching and Replacing Text Entering a form Description Saving the form Using STATUS and DISPLAY Settings Using an Existing Form as a Model Using a Different source of Data Opening the form for Data Display and Entry Displaying and Entering Data in Memo Fields Using Forms with Protected Fields Chapter Creating Reports Report Types Quick Report Custom Reports Printing a Quick Report About Custom Reports Column Layout Form Layout ITAINICIC Choosing a Database File or View for the Report Creating a New Report Modifying an Existing Report Designing the Custom Report Reports Design Screen Using the Ruler Rearranging the Page Header Band Adding a Report Introduction Changing the Detail Band L A IT D U I vii Scanned with CamScanner Adding a Page Footer Adding a Report Summary Adding Fields Creating Group Bands Adding a Description Retiping Reports Refining Reports Changing Print Styles Selecting Fonts Adding Lines and Boxes Editing Lines and Boxes Correcting Misaligned Columns Choosing Page Orientation PostScript Printer Only Choosing Paper Length PostScript Printer Only Setting Lines Per Inch PostScript Printer Only Multiple Command Macros PostScript Printer Only Page Eject During Printing PostScript Printer Only Saving a Report Format Viewing a Report Writing a Report to a File Printing Custom Reports NIC I U I I II Chapter Using Mailmerge Accessing a Mailmerge Layout Setting Margins Entering Text and Fields Inserting Fields Inserting a Page Break Using Other Bands Using Other TextEditing Functions Saving a Mailmerge Layout Viewing Mailmerge Documents Suppressing Blank Lines Printing Mailmerge Documents Printing Single Sheets Chapter Creating Labels Accessing the Labels Design Screen Entering Text and Fields Setting Label Dimensions viii Scanned with CamScanner Addin TON Adding Fields Using Spaces in Labels Using Other Capabilities Adding a Description Saving a Label liormat Viewing Labels Sorting Labels Before Printing Printing Labels Using Labels from dBASE III PLUS Control Center Tools Chapter Printing Accessing the Print Menu Printing a Quick Report Printing the Structure of a Database File Printing a Program Ejecting a Page Cancelling and Pausing Printing Viewing Reports and Labels Before Printing Printing Sample Labels Saving and Reusing Print Settings Saving and Naming Print Forms Reusing a Print Form Setting the Default Print Form Specifying the Output Destination Sending Output to a Printer Sending Output to a DOS File Displaying Output While Printing Changing Print Settings rint Size Setting Print Quality Changing Fonts Ejecting Pages Automatically Printing Single Sheets Specifying the Type of Page Advancing DCILII CIC Leidul IIIIILTOINI U WIL JIZO Scanned with CamScanner Specifying Printer Control Codes Special Printing Requests Printing Multiple Copies Printing Specific Pages Specifying the First Page Number Setting Page Dimensions Chapter Using the Tools Menu Accessing the Tools Menu Using Keyboard Macros Creating a Macro Running a Macro Nesting Macros Adding to a Macro Making a Macro Prompt for User Input Editing a Macro Renaming a Macro Deleting a Macro Copying a Macro Viewing the Macro Display Table Displaying a Macro During Execution Loading a New Library ShiftF Macros Prompt Box Importing Files Exporting Files Managing Files and Accessing DOS Using the File List Using the Directory Tree Accessing DOS Displaying Files Sorting Files Marking and Unmarking Files Manipulating Files Exit Menu Changing Settings Changing Options Changing Display Settings Restricting Access to Confidential Files About dBASE Security Login Security Scanned with CamScanner Access Level Security Data Encryption System Password Files Creating a Security System Initiating Protect Data Database Administrator Password Creating User Profiles File Privilege Schemes Printing Security Information Exiting from Protect Data Other Considerations INV IVAL Chapter Using the Program Editor Word Wrap Mode Accessing the Editor for Program Files Using the Ruler in a Report Word Wrap Band the Ruler Setting Margins Creating an Outdent or an Indent Setting Tab Stops Hiding the Ruler Automatic Indenting Editing Text Entering Text Deleting Text Moving and Copying Text Quick Selections Adding a Line Removing a Line Inserting a Page Break Searching For and Replacing Text Using the Program Editor for NonProgram Files Using an External Editor Programs and Files Memo Fields Writing and Reading Text Files Writing Text to a File Reading Text from a File Editing a Different Program Editing the Program Description UUMIS LINIC JJI Scanned with CamScanner Printing Programs Saving the Program Saving Changes and Continuing Saving Changes and Exiting Automatic Backups Abandoning Changes and Exiting Running the Program Running the Debugger Chapter dBASE II Convert Starting dCONVERT Running dCONVERT by Menu Running dCONVERT from the Operating System Conversion Process Converting NonProgram Files Converting Program Files The Applications Generator Chapter Applications and the dBASE IV Applications Generator Whats an Application Whats the Applications Generator Designing an Application Analyzing a Work System Refining the User Interface Chapter Introduction to the Applications Generator Understanding the Applications Generator Starting the Applications Generator Starting from the Dot Prompt Starting from the Control Center Getting to know the Desktop The Applications Generator Menu Bar Selecting Options Help in the Applications Generator The Work Surface Leaving the Applications Generator Scanned with CamScanner Chapter A Sample Application A Sample Application Design Operational Flow Building the Sample Application Defining an Application Object Defining a Menu Derning a Barch Process Assigning Actions to an Object Laying out the Application Generating Object Documentation and Code Saving Changes and Exiting Printing Object Documentation and Code Testing Your Application Enhancing the Application Chapter Building Your Own Application About Dialog Boxes Making Choices Creating NonApplications Generator Objects Saving and Exiting About Catalogs About Generic Applications About Inheritance Giving Users More Control Creating a Pick List Embedding Code About Testing Your Application Syntax and Runtime Errors Design Errors About MultiUser Environments Design Horizontal Bar Menu Popup Menu DUIUCIUIC L ISL Files List Structure List Values List Batch Process JY Object Menus Application Menu List and Batch uch Common Options Application xiii Scanned with CamScanner Menu List Batch Item Show Item loformation Change Action whose or View Override Assigned Database or View Embed Code Bypass Item on Condition Position Record Pointer Reassign Index Order Define Logical Window Write Help Text Assign Message Line Prompt Generate Begin Generating Select Template Display During Generation Preset Signon Defaults Display Options Environment Settings Application Search Path Exit Save All Changes and Exit Abandon All Changes and Exit Appendixes TIJ Appendix A Menu Trees Appendix B Function Key Table Appendix C Cursor Navigation Keys Appendix D Work Surfaces xiv Scanned with CamScanner
90
RUSSELL A STULTZ
ILLUSREATED D BASE IV VERSION 1.1
21B
ENGLISH
BPB
1991
VERSION hCOMPLETE COMMAND REFERENCE WITH TUTORIALQtVMscanned wun uamscanneConfrnls ContinuedTillMIHIIIIKJ Mncro CATKCominti COKIINI d jiiiiiViuV MACHOMODIFY JOMMANIWIIMVl MODIFY STKWjjnJIMONMMfiJiiKliv ON MW ON ItliADUIlHOK KKVOOAHD wUONMFNIJV AOON IAI SHSIONMO mul POPUPwiBicnwVoiur withPARAMETERS Print Commands PRINTJOU KNDPBINTJOBPRIVATE PUBLICPROCEDUREPROTECT Syslom SocurllyQUITRENAMEREPLACERESETRETRYRUN ISAVERESTORE SCREEN SAVERESTORE WINDOWSCAN ENDSCANSELECT SET RELATIONSET CommandsSHOW MENU SHOW POPUPSORTSQL Commnnds nnd FunctionsSTORE RELEASE SAVE RESTOREliijH Hi DQs f SUM SUSPEND RESUME Syslom Mnmory Variables TEXT ENDTEXT TOTAL TYPE UPDATEGG USE WAIT ZAPAppondix A Filo TyposAppondix D dlJASE Command Summary Appondix C dBASE FunctionsAppondix D dBASE OperatorsAppondix E dBASE Control KoysAppondix F Common Terms nnd DefinitionsAppondix G dBASE IV ExorcisosIndoxlvscanned wun uamscanne
92
ANGWOON CHUAN
MINI SCIENCE ENCYCLOPEDIA
8D
ENGLISH
MANTHATTAN PRESS
1988
MINISCIENCENCYCLOPEMAScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSMATTER WEATHER FORECASTWhere can you get information about tomorrows weather How do we predict tomorrows weather What is done at the meteorological service stations Do you understand the weather forecast What is a wind sock What is a typhoon Message from the clouds WATER CHANCES AND AIRHow can you get salt from sea water Can we drink sea water Why dont seas and lakes get more and more saltyWhy then is the Dead Sea so salty Why is a car wet in the early morning even if it has not been raining What are mists and fogs Why does your spectacles become blur when you step out from your airconditionedcarWhat are some uses of hot air Can you see steam Is there air in soil and water How do you find the volume of these irregular objects FOOD AND HEALTH What are vitamins How were vitamins discovered How was bacteria in milk discovered Where do our vitamins come from What is penicillium How safe are these foods Canyourecognisethese POLLUTIONDo you know that noise can kill What noise is considered too loud Can you believe it vScanned with CamScannerWhat are the visible and invisible particles that pollute the air Tap water is it safe for drinking What is sewage What are sewers Where does our tap water come from What happens at our sewage treatment works SolHoOttThiENERGYOilWl SPACE DCS HeWhat make up the Solar System How much do you know about comets and meteors What are satellites used for Do you know which was the first space shuttle flight Do you know which was the first orbiting space station What are space probes What do you know about the sun What do you know about the moon Why does the moon change shape NeWlWlTcCftISHft LICHT AND SHADOWSHow did early men tell time without clocks What is a lighthouse Are lights on top of tall buildings for warning too Why are warning lights usually red in colour What is an eclipse How to view an eclipse hrftWftftft ELECTRICITY HftDo all electrical appliances use up the same amount of electricity ftDo you know what will happen when you leave an electric bulb on until the next day What about torchlights Can electrical energy be changed into other forms of energy Do you know what changes of energy take place when we use these appliances Can other forms of energy be changed into electricity What is lightning What is thunder Why dont you see lightning and hear thunder at the same time What is heat lightning What to do when lightning strikes ftftv FORMS OF ENERGY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION Do you know Scanned with CamScannerSolar energy How does a solar heater help to save fuel Other ways of trapping solar energy directlyThe ideal house FUELSOil refinery — what does it do What liquid fuels do we get from petroleum What are these fuels used for Do hydroelectric power stations need fuel to produce electricity How do other power stations work New sources of energy What is town gas What is LPC Town gas — how it is produced and piped to you MAGNETS What is a compass Is this magic How can these iron nails be removed What devices make use of magnets HEAT How did early men start fires Why is it dangerous to smoke in these places Why doesnt the paper burn What shrinks when heated Why are there gaps in these structures Why does this metal strip change shape when heated How do you remove these Why does the steel chair feel hotter than the wooden chair Why does the metal spoon feel colder than the plastic spoon Why does the spiral spin around How do you make hot drinks cool down quickly What is a clinical thermometer WORK FORCE AND MACHINES When is friction a nuisance In what ways is friction helpful How do levers help us in our work Can you recognise these wheel and axle machines in what ways are these pulleys useful What is a telpher line How does it work Why are mountain roads built in this way Scanned with CamScanner LANT PLANT PARTS AND WHAT THEY DO IvWhat are the mam parts of a plant HOW do flowers develop into fruits HOW are plants with weak stems supported Do stems store food too Why are these roots special HOW do seeds develop into a fully grown plant HOW SEEDS AND FRUITS ARE SCATTEREDWhat are the main ways through which seeds and fruits are scattered Can you tell how each of these are scattered HOW PLANTS MAKE NEW PLANTSWhat is vegetative propagation What are some ways of reproducing new plants How are orchids reproduced Can plants grow without soil ALL ABOUTTREES VHow are trees useful to man Do you know all these come from trees Can you recognise them Do you know these trees HARMFUL AND USEFUL PLANTSAre plants harmful Do you know these beautiful plants are poisonous Do plants have medicinal value Do you know these come from plants ANIMAL LIFE HARMFUL ANIMALS How can animals harm people Do you know these dangerous animals Local deadly sea creatures mScanned with CamScanner EATING AND BEING EATEN What do animals feed on Do you know these herbivores plant eaters Do you know these carnivores meat eaters Do you know these insect feeders Do you know these omnivores mixed feeders How do insects feed Can you believe it VANISHING ANIMALS Why are some animals not here anymore How can animals be protected What are dinosaurs Why did some dinosaurs grow to such a great size Why did the dinosaurs die outIf dinosaurs are extinct how do we know so much about them Why are dinosaurs always painted brown Could they have been multicoloured or evenstripedDo you know these animals are extinct Can you believe it ECOLOGY What is ecology What do these food chains tell us Pond communityWhat can we expect to find in a pond habitat Whats special about pond plants Why are plants important to a pond How do plants in the pond grow in number How is animal life distributed in a pond How do pond animals breathe in water How do animals move in water Can you believe it Can you believe it Leaf litter community Whydoanimalsliveinaleaflitter How is the population in a leaf litter controlled f What are decomposers Attap hut communityCan all these animals live in a hut What do you know about termites AquariumIWhat fishescanbekeptina freshwater aquarium i JScanned with CamScannerinteresting facts about some freshwater fishes More freshwater fishes Do you know these seafishes Interesting facts about some seafishes Fish talk PETSCSnails as pets How can terrapins be kept Snakes as pets Scanned with CamScanner
93
LIN LIAN SEK
NEW MATHEMATICS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SYLLABUS D1
7C
ENGLISH
MANIHATTAN PRESS
1987
Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPTER WHOLE NUMBERS Development of Number Symbols Place Value Order of CalculationTests of DivisibilityPrime Numbers and Prime FactorizationHighest Common FactorLeast Common MultiplePerfect Square and Square RootFRACTIONS AND DECIMALSProper and Improper FractionsFractions as DivisionEquivalent FractionsReduction to Lowest TermsTest of Equivalent FractionsAddition and Subtraction of FractionsAdditionSubtraction Multiplication and Division of FractionsMultiplicationDivision Decimal NotationAddition of DecimalsSubtraction of DecimalsMultiplication of DecimalsDivision of Decimals Conversions between Fractions and Decimals Rounding offCHAPTER REAL NUMBERS IntegersOrder of Integers Addition and Subtraction of IntegersAdditionSubtraction Multiplication and Division of IntegersMultiplicationDivision Order of Calculation The Real Number LineRational NumbersReal Numbers Arithmetic GeneralizationScanned with CamScannerrCHAPTER SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS AND EQUATIONS Evaluation ot Algebraic Expressi Removing Brackets Collecting Terms Polynomials Open Sentences EquationsEquivalent EquationsIdentitiesSolving Equations Evaluation of Formulae Manipulation of FormulaeOils JCHAPTER SIMPLE ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRAIC PROBLEMS Simple Arithmetic Problems Algebraic Problemsn CHAPTER BASIC GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES Line Segments Lines and RaysAnglesTypes of Angles Perpendicular and Parallel LinesSimple Constructions CHAPTER POLYGONS PolygonsTrianglesQuadrilaterals Angle Properties of Triangles Angle Sum of a PolygonCHAPTER MENSURATION Area and Perimeter of Rectangle Area of Parallelogram Triangle and Trapezium Circumference and Area of Circle Volume and Surface Area of Cuboid and CylinderCuboidCylinder Harder Problems on Mensuration DensityAPPROXIMATIONS Estimation Table of Square RootsTable of Reciprocals Absolute ErrorRelative ErrorL CHAPTER Scanned with CamScanner Significant Figures Standard Form A x Powers of Scientific Notation fijCHAPTER RATIO AND PERCENTAGE RatioRatesDirect and Inverse ProportionProportional Parts PercentageApplication of Percentages Profit and LossCommissionDiscounts Simple InterestCompound InterestHire Purchase TaxationMoney Exchange Scales and Simple Map ProblemsCHAPTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES ANSWERSScanned with CamScanner
100
JOSEPH SCHMULLER
DYNAMIC HTML
16C
ENGLISH
BPB
1998
Joseph Schmuller DYNAMIC HTML MASTER THE ESS ENNALS Master the Technology Shaping the Webs New Loo Optimize the Layout and Functionally of Your Web Scanned with CamScanner Contents at a Glance Introduction PARTI FORMING THE FOUNDATIONS Exploring and Navigating Dynamic HTML Learning the Basics of HTML Text Hypertext and Frames Kills Learning the Basics of HTML Graphics and Tables Cascading Style Sheets Orienting Toward Objects Getting into Scripting PART II · GETTING DYNAMIC Adding Animation Multiplying the Media skills Adding Interactivity Dragging and Dropping Working with Data and Dialog Boxes Working with Text Dynamically Changing Content PART III STORMING THE FOUNDATIONS Understanding Browser Object Models skills Working with VBScript Working with JavaScript Summing Up Dynamically Glossary · Index Scanned with CamScanner
102
MARTIN REDFERIM
KINGFISHER BOOK OF PLANET EARTH
8D
ENGLISH
KINGFISHER
19912001
Vrhe Kingfisher Book ofMartin RedfernScanned with CamScannerm MK w vi IKBirth of tlir Kart Water Bower Floods and Droughts Lands of Ice Spaceship EarthSky and SMantle lChangingUnder the Sea FIFE STORYEarth Revealed A Changing Times W The Dawn of Life Wonderful Life The Fossil Sky Invasion of the Land The Real Jurassic Park Kingdom of the Giants Extinction The Birds and the Bees Creatures of the Ice Our Ancestors The Living CoreRINGS OF FIREEruption Anatomy of a Volcano Hot Spots Blowing its Top Volcanoes and People EARTHEarthquake Earthquakes and People Prediction and Prevention Mountains PEOPLE AND THE PLANETFuel from the Earth fWEXf Metals from the Earth Gems from the Deep Human Creators Human Destroyers AIR The End of the Earth The Wind The Weather Weird Weather The Climate Climate Threat REFERENCEEarth Facts Glossary Index Acknowledgements Scanned with CamScanner
135
DAVID BERGAMINI
THE UNIVERSE
8D
ENGLISH
TIME LIFE
1964
Scanned with CamScannerContentsPAGEIntroduction Myths and Misconceptions Probing the Universe Planets Meteorites and Comets Biography of the Sun What Our Galaxy Is Made Of The Birth and Death of Stars Beyond the Milky Way Space Time and the Universe AppendixGlossary and TablesBibliographyIndexCreditsScanned with CamScanner
182
NEIL ARDLEY
MY SCIENCE BOOK OF LIGHT
8E
ENGLISH
DORLING KINDERSLEY
1991
ww N I t MVSCIENCEBOOK OFILIGHTIScanned with CamScanner
186
BORLAND
D BASE IV VERSION 2.0 FOR DOS
16B
ENGLISH
BORLAND INTERNATIONAL
1993
Getting Started Installation and Configuration Whats New Exploring dBASE IV Borland dBASE IV for DOS Scanned with CamScanner Contents Introduction Getting Started Installation and Configuration Whats New Exploring dBASE IV Send Your Warranty Registration Card Conventions Used in dBASE IV Manuals About the Manuals Installation and Configuration Chapter Installing dBASE IV Hardware and Software Requirements Types of Installation Running the dBASE Installation Utility Things Youll Be Asked During Installation Migrating From Previous Versions of dBASE If You Have Microsoft Windows Configuring Windows Program Manager Initialization File Allocating Memory to dBASE IV If You Have OS Starting dBASE IV Quitting dBASE IV Using the dBASE IV Tutorial Chapter Configuring dBASE IV Setting Default Options in the Configuration File Using DBSETUP Installing Printer Drivers Replacing the Printer Drivers File Speeding Up MultiUser dBASE IV Gateway to the Operating System Other Configdb Menu Options Other DBSETUP and Configdb Defaults Scanned with CamScanner Configuration File Syntax Printer Control Codes PostScript Printers Selecting a PostScript Printer in DBSETUP Printer Command Macros Changing PostScript Defaults Page Size and Orientation Print Offset Printer Fonts Font Names Chapter Setting Up dBASE IV on a Network Before You Begin Hardware and Software Requirements Networks Supported Step Install MultiUser dBASE IV on the Server Step Share the dBASE IV Directory and Create Links to Workstations Com Share Network Novell Network IBM PC LAN IBM LAN Server Lantastic ComOpen and MS LAN Manager Networks Banyan Vines DEC Pathworks Step Configure Server and Each Workstation All Supported Networks IBM PC LAN IBM LAN Server MS LAN Manager Banyan Vines ATT Stargroup and Com Networks DEC Pathworks Network IBM PC LAN and IBM LAN Server Networks Running dBASE IV Starting dBASE IV Adding and Subtracting Users Chapter MultiUser dBASE IV For the User What It Looks Like Logging In to dBASE IV MultiUser Compared to SingleUser dBASE I Starting MultiUser dBASE IV About the Current Session Updating Files and Records Printing in a Shared Environment Scanned with CamScanner Transaction Processing dBASE IV Security PROTECT Command For the Developer Testing for a Network Moving a SingleUser Program to a MultiUser Environment Application Considerations Transaction Problems Restricting Access to Confidential Files Other dBASE IV MultiUser Commands Summary of MultiUser Commands and Functions The Sample Application For the System Administrator Installing dBASE IV Onto a Network User Count Setting Up User Accounts Security Considerations Protecting and Recovering from Problems Whats New lew Chapter Whats New in dBASE IV Version Improved Performance New Highperformance Filter Optimization Virtual Memory Management Data Buffer Manager DOS Protected Mode Interface DPMI Support Language Enhancements New and Enhanced Menu Commands New Menu Functions New Mouse Commands and Functions Other New and Enhanced Commands and Functions Other New Features Increased Array Sizes New VGA Video Modes New Block Size Limit New Debugger Keys Improved Error Trapping Support For Two Code Pages Compatibilitychecking of Language Drivers Options that Have been Removed SO SO S SS SS SS SS O oo oo oo ooyyy Scanned with CamScanner Chapter Changes Since dBASE III PLUS Using This Chapter Upgrading From dBASE III PLUS Performance Improvements Interface Enhancements General Functionality Improvements Programming Enhancements Upgrading From dBASE IV Version Performance Improvements Performance Tuning Ability New Menu Commands New Mouse Commands Increased Array Sizes Ability to Create Conditional Indexes Access to Organize Menu from Browse and Edit Ability to Size Query Columns Fewer Restrictions on Using UDFs and ON Commands Support for PostScript Printers SQL Improvements Summary of Commands and Functions Modified Since dBASE III PLUS Commands SET Commands Functions Keywords Miscellaneous Changes Exploring dBASE IV Chapter Database Basics Preparing for This Chapter What is a Database How Database Management Systems Work Records and Fields Database Files Two Ways to Show Data Displaying the Control Center How Control Center Panels are Used Creating a Database File Working with Database Files Displaying Data Editing Data in the File Adding a New Record Reorganizing Data iv Scanned with CamScanner Filtering Data Printing Data Summary Chapter The Menu System Preparing for This Chapter Basic Screen Elements Menu Bar Clock Status Bar Navigation Line Message Line Using Menus Displaying Menus Selecting Options Types of Menu Options Function Keys Getting Help F Help Key Title Line Text Area Buttons Navigation Line Using Help Quitting dBASE IV Summary Chapter A Tour of the Control Center Preparing for This Chapter Control Center Screen Menus Catalog Name Panels Navigating in Panels Choosing Files Working with Files Queries Forms Reports Labels Applications Summary Chapter Entering and Editing Data Preparing for This Chapter Scanned with CamScanner Usinging a change temo OTTOF Displaying Data in a Database File Adding New Records to a File Editing Existing Data Updating a Database Using the Ins Key Blanking a Field Undoing a Change to Data Entering and Editing Memo Text Opening and Closing Memo Fields Editing Text in a Memo Field Adding Text to a Memo Field Removing Records from a Database File Marking Records for Deletion Unmarking Marked Records Erasing Marked Records Copying Data Copying a dBASE IV File Adding Data from Another dBASE IV File Summary Chapter Finding and Arranging Data Preparing for This Chapter Finding Records Paging Up and Down Locating the First and Last Records Locating a Record by Number Locating a Record by Field Data Organizing Data Indexing Creating an Index Sorting Summary Chapter Printing in dBASE IV Preparing for This Chapter Printing Data Quickly Creating a Report Printing a Report Print Submenus Modifying Print Settings Saving Print Settings Labels Print Menu Previewing Summary Scanned with CamScanner Chapter Dot Prompt Basics Preparing for Dot Prompt Chapters Preparing for This Chapter Accessing the Dot Prompt Using Commands Entering Commands Getting Help Redisplaying Commands Command Building Blocks Expressions Fields Memory Variables Functions Operators Customizing Your Working Environment SET Commands Configdb File Quitting dBASE IV Summary U Chapter Displaying and Modifying Data Preparing for This Chapter Opening a File USE Command Listing and Printing Data Record Pointer DISPLAY Command LIST Command Function Key Shortcuts Custom Reports Creating a Database File Entering Data Modifying Data EDIT Command BROWSE Command REPLACE Command Deleting Records DELETE Command SET DELETED Command RECALL Command PACK Command Closing Files Quitting dBASE IV Summary vii Scanned with CamScanner Chapter Organizing Data Preparing for This Chapter Sorting Sorting by a Single Field Sorting by Multiple Fields Sorting a Subset of Records Indexing Types of Index Files Creating Multiple Index Tags Establishing a Master Index Opening Other Multiple Index Files Using Single Index Files Querying Index Information Keeping Indexes Current Reinstating Natural Order Closing Indexes Deleting Index Tags Deleting Single Index Files Quitting dBASE IV Summary Chapter Locating Records Preparing for This Chapter Searching a Database File Searching in an Indexed File SEEK Command Exact or Partial Matching Controlling the Record Pointer Defining Query Conditions Specifying a Subset of Records Specifying a Subset of Fields Creating a Query File Using an Existing Query File Quitting dBASE IV Summary Chapter Relating Files Preparing for This Chapter Relating Database Files Using Multiple Files Work Areas and Aliases SELECT Command USE Command Relating Files SET RELATION Command viii Scanned with CamScanner Displaying Child Records Saving Relation Conditions Quitting dBASE IV Summary Chapter Where to Go from Here Other Manuals On Your Own Appendix Appendix A Using a Mouse with dBASE IV Applications Generator Boxes Data Entry Box Error or Prompt Box Warning Box Browse Edit and Form Screens Browse Screen Edit Screen Form Screen Control Center Database Design Screen Design Surfaces Forms Labels Reports Dot Prompt Help Screen Lists Macros Menus Navigation Line Program Editor Queries Design Screen Windows Word Wrap Mode Glossary Index Scanned with CamScanner
219
SEY MOUR LIPSCHUTZ
THEORY AND PROBLEM DATA STRUCTURE
21E
ENGLISH
McGRAW HILL
1996
DATASTRUCTURESEYMOURLIPSHUTJScanned with CamScannerContentsChapter INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Introduction Basic Terminology Elementary Data Organization Data Structures Data Structure Operations Algorithms Complexity TimeSpace TradeoffI IIChapter PRELIMINARIES Introduction Mathematical Notation and Functions Algorithmic Notation Control Structures Complexity of Algorithms Subalgorithms Variables Data TypesChapter STRING PROCESSING Introduction Basic Terminology Storing Strings Character Data Type String Operations Word Processing Pattern Matching AlgorithmsChapter ARRAYS RECORDS AND POINTERS Introduction Linear Arrays Representation of Linear Arrays in Memory Traversing Linear Arrays Inserting and Deleting Sorting Bubble Sort Searching Linear SearchS Binary SearchMultidimensional Arrays Pointers Pointer Arrays Records Record StructuresKXIScanned with UamScannerCONTENTS Representation of Records in Memory Parallel Arrays Matrices Sparse MatricesChapter LINKED LISTS Introduction Linked Lists Representation of Linked Lists in Memory Traversing a Linked List Searching a Linked List Memory Allocation Garbage Collection Insertion into a Linked List Deletion from a Linked List Header Linked Lists TwoWay ListsfiChapter STACKS QUEUES RECURSION Introduction Stacks Array Representation of Stacks Arithmetic Expressions Polish Notation Ouicksort an Application of Stacks Recursion Towers of Hanoi Implementation of Recursive Procedures by Stacks Oueucs Deques Priority QueuesChapter TREES Introduction Binary Trees Representing Binary Trees in Memory Traversing Binary Trees Traversal Algorithms Using Stacks Header Nodes Threads Binary Search Trees Searching and Inserting in Binary Search Trees Deleting in a Binary Search Tree Heap Heapsort Path lengths Huffmans Algorithm General TreesiScanned witn UamScannerCONTENTSChapter GRAPHS AND THEIR APPLICATIONSft I Introduction Graph Theory Terminology Sequential Representation of Graphs Adjacency Matrix Path Matrix Warshalls Algorithm Shortest Paths Linked Representation of a Graph Operations on Graphs Traversing a Graph Posets Topological SortingSChapter SORTING AND SEARCHING Introduction Sorting Insertion Sort Selection Sort Merging MergeSort Radix Sort Searching and Data Modification HashingS INDEX Scanned with Uamscanner
240
ENGEWOOD CLIFFS
MC 68020 32BIT MICROPROCESSOR USER'S MANUAL
21C
ENGLISH
MOTOROLA
1985
I V M iV Ityi IiiM£a ¥£SSESJTSvlL MisI so tiMCE STANDARD—DQk QJjTlShVScanned with CamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSParagraphNumber PagoTltlo NumberSection IntroductionData Types and Addressing Modes Instruction Set OverviewVirtual MemoryMachine Concepts Virtual MemoryVirtual MachinePipelined Architecture Section Data Organization and Addressing CapabilitiesOperand SizeData Organization in RegistersData RegistersAddress RegistersControl RegistersData Organization in Memory Instruction Format ProgramData References AddressingRegisters Notation ConventionsEffective AddressRegister Direct ModesData Register DirectAddress Register DirectRegister Indirect ModesAddress Register IndirectAddress Register Indirect with PostincrementAddress Register Indirect with Predecrement Address Register Indirect with Displacement Register Indirect with Index ModesAddress Register Indirect with Index Bit Displacement Address Register Indirect with Index Base Displacement Memory IndirectMemory Indirect PostIndexedMemory Indirect ProIndexedProgram Counter Indirect with Displacement ModeProgram Counter Indirect with Index ModesPC Indirect with Index Bit Displacement vScanned with CamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedPageParagraph Number Title NumberPC Indirect with Index Base DisplacementProqram Counter Memory Indirect Modes Program Counter Memory Indirect PostIndexedProgram Counter Memory Indirect Prelndexed Absolute Address ModesAbsolute Short AddressAbsolute Long AddressImmediate Data Effective Address Encoding SummarySystem StackUser Program StacksQueues Section Instruction Set SummaryData Movement Integer Arithmetic Operations Logical OperationsShift and Rotate OperationsBit Manipulation OperationsBit Field OperationsBinary Coded Decimal OperationsProgram Control OperationsSystem Control OperationsMultiprocessor Operations Section Signal DescriptionFunction Code Signals FCO through FC Address Bus AO through AData Bus DO through DTransfer Size SIZ SIZAsynchronous Bus Control SignalsExternal Cycle Start ECSOperand Cycle Start OCSReadModifyWrite Cycle RMCAddress Strobe ASData Strobe DSReadWrite RWData Buffer Enable DFiCache DisaWeB Acknowlede DSACKO DSACK viScanned with CamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumberPageTitle NumberInterrupt Control SignalsInterrupt Priority Level IPLO IPL IPLInterrupt Pending IPENDAutovector AVECBus Arbitration SigjTalsBus Request BRBus Grant BGBus Grant Acknowledge BGACKBus Exception Control SignalsReset RESETHalt HALTBus Error BERRClock CLKSignal Summary Section Bus OperationOperand Transfer MechanismDynamic Bus SizingMisalignment of Bus TransfersEffects of Dynamic Bus Sizing and Operand MisalignmentAddress Size and Data Bus RelationshipsBus OperationRead CyclesWrite CycleReadModifyWrite CycleCPU Space CyclesInterrupt OperationInterrupt LevelsRecognition of InterruptsInterrupt Acknowledge Sequence IACKSpurious InterruptIACK GenerationBreakpoint Acknowledge CycleCoprocessor OperationsBus Error and Halt OperationBus Error OperationRetry OperationHalt OperationDouble Bus FaultsReset OperationBus Arbitration viiScanned with CamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumber Title PageNumberRequesting the BusReceiving the Bus GrantAcknowledgement of MastershipBus Arbitration ControlThe Relationship of DSACK BERR and HALTAsynchronous versus Synchronous OperationAsynchronous OperationSynchronous OperationSection Processing StatesPrivilegeStatesUse of Privilege StatesSupervisor StatesUser StateChange of Privilege StateAddress Space TypesCPU SpaceException ProcessingException VectorsException Stack FrameException TypesException Processing SequenceMultiple ExceptionsException ProcessingDetailResetAddress Error Bus Error Instruction TrapsBreakpointsFormat ErrorIllegal or Unimplemented InstructionsPrivilege ViolationsTracingInterruptsReturn From ExceptionBus Fault RecoverySpecial Status WordCompleting the BusCyclesCompleting the Bus Cycles via SoftwareCompleting the Bus Cycles via RTE MC Exception Stack Frames viiiScanned with UamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumberPageTitle NumberNormal Four Word Stack FrameThrowaway Four Word Stack FrameNormal Six Word Stack FrameCoprocessor MidInstruction Exception Stack FrameShort Bus Cycle Fault Stack FrameLong Bus Cycle Fault Stack FrameStack Frame Summary Section OnChip Cache MemoryCache Design and OperationOnChip Cache OrganizationCache Control Cache Control RegisterE — Enable CacheF — Freeze CacheCE — Clear EntryC — Clear CacheCache Address RegisterCache Disable InputCache Initialization Section Coprocessor Interface Description Introduction MC Family Coprocessor Interface OverviewInterface FeaturesConcurrent Coprocessor Operation SupportCoprocessor Instruction FormatM Coprocessor System InterfaceM Coprocessor Bus InterfaceCPU Address SpaceCoprocessor Interface Register CIR SelectionCoprocessor Instruction TypesCoprocessor General InstructionsFormat Protocol Conditional Coprocessor InstructionsBranch On Coprocessor Condition InstructionsFormatProtocol ixScanned with CamScannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumberPageTitle NumbfBSet On Coprocessor ConditionFormatProtocolTest Coprocessor ConditionDecrement and BranchFormatProtocolTrap On Coprocessor ConditionFormatProtocolCoprocessor Context Save and Context RestoreCoprocessor Context SaveFormatProtocolCoprocessor Context RestoreFormatProtocolCoprocessor Internal State FramesCoprocessor Format WordsEmptyReset Format WordNot Ready Format WordInvalid Format WordsValid Format WordsS Coprocessor Interface Register CIR SetResponse CIR ControlSControl CIR Restore CIR Operation Word CIR Command CIR ACondition CIR SEOperand CIR Register Select CIR Instruction Address CIR Operand Address CIR CCoprocessor Response Primitives Introduction Coprocessor Response Primitive Format ScanPCCoprocessor Response Primitive Set DescriptionBusy Format OperationxScanned with UamscannerTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumber PageTitle Number Null No OperandsFormatOperationSupervisor CheckFormatOperationTransfer Operation WordFormatOperationTransfer from Instruction StreamFormatOperationEvaluate and Transfer Effective AddressFormatOperationEvaluate Effective Address and Transfer Data FormatOperationWrite to Previously Evaluated Effective AddressFormatOperationTake Address and Transfer DataFormatOperationTransfer ToFrom Top of StackFormatOperationTransfer Single Main Processor RegisterFormatOperationTransfer Main Processor Control RegisterFormatOperationTransfer Multiple Main Processor RegistersFormatOperationTransfer Multiple Coprocessor RegistersFormatOperationTransfer Status Register and ScanPCFormatOperation xiScanned with CamScannerNTABLE OF CONTENTSContinuedParagraphNumberPagoTltlo NumborException Processing Roquost PrimitivesTake ProInstruction ExceptionFormatOperationTake MidInstruction ExceptionFormatOperationTake PostInstruction ExceptionFormatOperationCoprocessor ClassificatonsExceptionsCoprocessor Detected ExceptionsCoprocessor Detected Protocol ViolationsCoprocessor Detected Illegal Command or ConditionWordsCoprocessor Data Processing ExceptionsCoprocessor System Related ExceptionsFormat ErrorMain Processor Detected ExceptionsProtocol ViolationFLine Emulator ExceptionsPrivilege ViolationscpTRAPcc Instruction TrapsTrace ExceptionsInterruptsAddress and Bus ErrorsMain Processor Detected Format ErrorsCoprocessor ResetCoprocessor Instruction Format SummaryCoprocessor Response Primitive Format Summary Section Instruction Execution Timing Timing Estimation FactorsInstruction Cache and PrefetchOperand MisalignmentConcurrencyOverlapInstruction Stream Timing ExamplesInstruction Timing TablesFetch Effective Address xiiScanned with uamscannerTABLE OF CONTENTSConcludedParagraphNumberPageTitle NumberFetch Immediate Effective AddressCalculate Effective AddressCalculate Immediate Effective Address Jump Effective AddressMOVE InstructionSpecial Purpose MOVE InstructionArithmeticLogical OperationsImmediate ArithmeticLogical OperationsBinary Coded Decimal OperationsSingle Operand InstructionsShiftRotate InstructionsBit Manipulation InstructionsBit Field Manipulation InstructionsConditional Branch InstructionsControl InstructionsException Related InstructionsSave and Restore Operations Section Electrical SpecificationsMaximum Ratings Thermal Characteristics — PGA PackagePower Considerations DC Electrical Characteristics AC Electrical Characteristics — Clock InputAC Electrical Characteristics — Read and Write CyclesAC Electrical Characteristics — Typical CapacitanceDerating Curves Section Ordering Information and Mechanical DataStandard MC Ordering InformationPackage Dimensions and Pin Assignment APPENDICESA Condition Codes Computation AB Instruction SetC Instruction Format SummaryD Advanced TopicsE MC Extensions to M FamilyBCDExiiiScanned with CamScannerLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSPageFigure NumberNumber TitleM MC Block Diagram User Programming Model Supervisor Programming ModelSupplement Status Register MC Pipeline Memory Operand Addressing Memory Data Organization Instruction Word General Format SingleEffectiveAddress Instruction Operation Word Functional Signal Groups Relationship Between External andInternal Signals Sample Window MC Interface to Various Port Sizes Internal Operand Representation Example of Long Word Transfer to Word Bus Long Word Operand Write Timing Bit Data Port Example of Long WordTransfer to Byte Bus Long Word Operand Write Timing Bit Data Port Misaligned Long Word Transfer to Word Bus Example Misaligned Long Word Transfer to Word Bus Example of MisalignedWordTransfer to Word Bus Misaligned Word Transfer to Word Bus Misaligned Long Word Transfer to Long Word Bus Misaligned Write Cycles to Bit Data Port Byte Data Select Generation for and Bit Ports Long Word Read Cycle Flowchart LongWord Read Cycle Timing Bit Data Port Byte Read Cycle Flowchart Byte and Word Read CycleTimingBit Data Port Write Cycle FlowchartByte and Word Write Cycle Timing Bit Data Port ReadModifyWrite Cycle Flowchart ReadModifyWrite CycleTimingBit PortCASInstruction MC CPUSpace Address Encoding Interrupt Acknowledge Sequence Flowchart xivScanned witn uamScannerLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSContinuedFigureNumberPageTitle Number Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Timing Autovector Operation Timing MC Breakpoint Operation Flow Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing Opcode Returned Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing Exception Signalled Bus Error Timing Exception Taken Delayed Bus Error Exception Taken Delayed Bus Cycle Retry Timing Retry Operation Timing Halt Operation Timing External Reset Operation Timing j Processor Generated Reset Operation Bus Arbitration Flowchart for Single Request Bus Arbitration Operation Timing Bus Arbitration State Diagram Bus Arbitration Bus InactiveException Stack Frame Special Status Word SSWFormat — Four Word Stack FrameFormat — Throwaway Four Word Stack FrameFormat — Six Word Stack FrameFormat — Coprocessor MidInstruction ExceptionStack Frame WordsFormat A — Short Bus Cycle Fault Stack Frame WordsFormat B — Long Bus Cycle Fault Stack Frame WordsStack Frame Format Definitions MC OnChip Cache Organization Cache Control Register Cache Address Register FLine Coprocessor Instruction Operation Word MC CPU Space Address Encodings Coprocessor Interface Register Set Map Coprocessor Address Map in MC CPU Space M Coprocessor Interface Signal Usage Coprocessor General Instruction Format cpGEN Coprocessor Interface Protocol for General Category Instructions Coprocessor Interface Protocol for Conditional CategoryInstructions Branch on Coprocessor Condition Instruction cpBccW Branch on Coprocessor Condition Instruction cpBccLxvScannedwitiTCamScanner LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSContinuedFigureNumber PageTitle Number Set on Coprocessor Condition cpScc Test Coprocessor Condition Decrement and Branch InstructionFormat cpDBcc Trap on Coprocessor Condition cpTRAPcc Coprocessor Context Save Instruction Format cpSAVE Coprocessor Context Save Instruction Protocol Coprocessor Context Restore Instruction Format cpRESTORE — Coprocessor Context Restore Instruction Protocol Coprocessor State Frame Format in Memory Control CIR Format Condition CIR Format Operand Alignment for Operand CIR Accesses Coprocessor Response Primitive Format Busy Primitive Format Null Primitive Format Supervisor Check Primitive Format Transfer Operation Word Primitive Format Transfer From Instruction Stream Primitive Format Evaluate and Transfer Effective Address Primitive Format Evaluate Effective Address and Transfer Data Primitive Format Write to Previously Evaluated Effective Address Primitive Format Take Address and Transfer Data Primitive Format Transfer Single Top of Stack Primitive Format Transfer Main Processor Register Primitive Format Transfer Main Processor Control Register Primitive Format Transfer Multiple Main Processor Registers Primitive Format RegisterSelect Mask Format Transfer Multiple Coprocessor Registers Primitive Format Operand Format Transfer Multiple Coprocessor Registers to An Transfer Status Register and ScanPC Primitive Format PreInstruction Exception Primitive Format MC PreInstruction Stack Frame Take MidInstruction Exception Primitive Format MC MidInstruction Stack Frame Take PostInstruction Exception Primitive Format MC PostInstruction Stack Frame Coprocessor Instruction Formats Simultaneous Instruction Execution Instruction Execution for Instruction Timing Purposes Processor Activity for Example xviScanned with UamscannerLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSConcludedFigureNumber PageTitle Number Processor Activity for Example Processor Activity for Example Processor Activity for Example RESET Test Load HALT Test Load Test Loads Clock Input Timing Diagram Read Cycle Timing Diagram Foldout Write Cycle Timing Diagram Foldout Bus Arbitration Timing Diagram Address Capacitance Derating Curve DS AS IPEND and BG Capacitance Derating Curve DBEN Capacitance Derating Curve ECS and OCS Capacitance Derating Curve RW FC SIZSIZ and RMC Capacitance Derating Curve Data Capacitance Derating CurveFoldoutxviiScanned with CamScannerLIST OF TABLESTableNumber Title PaNun Addressing Modes Instruction Set Summary Effective Address Specification Formats ISIIS Memory Indirection Encodings Effective Address Encoding Summary Data Movement Operations Integer Arithmetic Operations Logical Operations Shift and Rotate Operations Bit Manipulation Operations Bit Field Operations Binary Coded Decimal Operations Program Control Operations System Control Operations Multiprocessor Operations Function Code Assignments Signal Summary SIZE Output Encodings Address Offset Encodings MC Internal to External Data Bus Multiplexor DSACK Codes and Results Memory Alignment and Port Size Influence on Bus Cycles Data Bus Activity for Byte Word and Long Word Ports Interrupt Control Line Status for Each Requested Interrupt Leveland Corresponding Interrupt Mask Levels DSACK BERR and HALT Assertion Results Address Space Encodings Exception Vector Assignments Exception Groups Privileged Instructions Tracing ControlxviiiScanned with CamScannerLIST OF TABLESConcludedTableNumber PageTitle Number cpTRAPcc Opmode Encodings Coprocessor Format Word Encodings Null Coprocessor Response Primitive Encodings Valid Effective Address Codes Main Processor Control Register Selector Codes Exceptions Related to Primitive Processing Example Instruction Stream Execution Comparison Instruction Timings for Timing Tables Observed Instruction TimingsxixxxScanned with CamScanner
241
MANISH JAIN
PROGRAMMING IN GW BASIC
21E
ENGLISH
BPB
1996
PROGRAMMING INGWBASICHZUJSUBROUTINES zoNUMERICAL GC START trMETHODS zINPUT P R T LUoFILE PROCESSINGCi P X R X T KR RAO MANAGER A SHARMA STENO MATARAJAN CLERK I GENIUS OF GWBASICAHMAD ALISHABPB PUBLICATIONSScanned witn uamScannerCONTENTSPreface Genius or GWBASIC What is BASIC What is GWBASIC Advantages of GWBASICCharacter SetNumeric Constants String Constants GWBASIC wordsNumeric Variables String Variables Arithmetic Operators Order of Preference Arithmetic ExpressionsRelational OperatorsLogical OperatorsReview Questionsv v v GWBASIC EnvironmentFirst BASIC Program Starting GWBASIC Command ModeInstant CalculatorProgram ModeInsert ModeReview Questions Algorithms and Flowcharts How to Solve a Problem AlgorithmsLoopsFlowchartsReview QuestionsFlowcharts ProblemsScanned with uamscannerH Prnvramming in C YBASICRunning a ProgramWhat is Syntax REM Statement INPUT Statement LEI Statement PRINT Statement END Statement IF THEN ELSE GOTO Statement Alt Key Questions Review QuestionsProgramming Problems Loops FOR NEXT Loop WHILE WEND Loop Nested LoopsREAD DATA StatementsRESTORE Statement Review Questions Programming Problems ArraysListsTable HandlingMemory Requirements Deleting ArraysReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Functions and SubroutinesSingleline FunctionsSubroutines Review QuestionsProgramming Problems Scanned with UamScannerContents iii String Handling ASCII CodeOperations on StringsArithmetic FunctionsReview QuestionsProgramming Problems File ProcessingSequential FilesCreating a FileNaming a FileReading from a FileWriting into a FileAdding to a FileOpening Several Files at a TimeReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Searching and SortingLinear SearchBinary SearchSorting Methods Bubble SortSelection SortInsertion Sort Review Questions Programming Problems Matrix Operations What is Matrix Matrix Addition Matrix Multiplication System of Linear EquationsGauss Elimination MethodMatrix InverseReview Questions Programming ProblemsScanned witn uamscannerScanned with CamScanner
242
ROBERT COWART
THE ABC'SBASE III PLUS
21B
ENGLISH
BPB
1986
mfiiV scanned witn uamscanneOHlTHlSvvliintroductionKVWHViiiHfw tnlv Thf BofAComrniiom Ut n Thr bookCHAPTER What Is a DatabaseWhit Is J QMttetelWhy Ute a ComputertWhit Is dBASf HI HuSfComputer Basicsthe keyboardSaving your work PTER Getting OrientedHow to Bring Up dBASEIf you have a harddisk systemIf you have a floppydisk systemHow to Make Menu SelectionsHow to Get Help When You Need Itscanned witn camscanneixCHAPTER Creating Your First Database Ilow to Name tho DatabaseHow to Create the Database StructurePlanning the structureCreating the structureVerifying the structureHow to Take a BreakCHAPTER Modifying the Structure How to Modify the Structure How to Make the ChangesIf you had already added dataCHAPTER Entering Data How to Enter Your First RecordHow to Fix TyposThe Insert modeMaking the Help boxes disappearHow to Complete Our Sample DatabaseHow to Make Backups of Your DataCHAPTER Retrieving the Data How to List All the Records Listing only certain fields scanned witn uamscanneHowio List Only Certain RecordsSpecifying by record numberUsing rtxord numbers lo sfHdfythe scope of a listinglisting records that meet a Sfxx Hird conditionExact and inexact searchingUpfXrcase and lowercase are not the sameIhe Display and locate commandsExperimenting on your ownroCHAPTER More Search Techniques How to Combine Search Criteria Using ANDUsing ORHow to Enter Commands from the Dot PromptGetting out of Assist modeHow to Convert from Lowercase to UppercaseHow to Find Embedded StringsHow to Take It from HereCHAPTER Rearranging Records for Faster AccessHow to Sort Your DatabaseAscending vs descending orderSorting on a Character fieldMultilevel sortingscanned witn uamscannexiHow to Index Your DatabaseActivating an index from the AssistantActivating an index from the Dot promptMultilevel indexingSeeing which index is activeHow to Find Data the Fast Way—with SeekA few more notes on indexingCHAPTER Keeping Your Databases UptoDate How to Modify Data with Edit How to Modify Data with BrowseMoving and editing in Browse modeLocking fields in Browse modeA few more points about Browse modeHow to Delete Unwanted RecordsWhos already deletedOops Or undeleting recordsPacking your databasenoCHAPTER l Creating ProfessionalLooking Reports How to Name and Title the Report How to Set Up the ColumnsHow to View or Print the ReportOther options for reportsscanned witn uamscannexiiCHAPTER Printing Mailing LabelsHow to Prepare the Label DataHow to Print the LabelsModifying a label formatCHAPTER Working with NumbersHow to Use OperatorsArithmetic operatorsComparison operatorsHow to Use SumHow to Calculate AveragesHow to Make CountsHow to Use Arithmetic Operators with ReplaceCHAPTER Working with Dates How to Use Date FieldsAdding a Date fieldUsing the Date field for conditional searching How to Use Date Functions from the Dot Prompt How to Display the Date of the Last EditHow to Do Date CalculationsHow to Sort and Index on Date FieldsOhe last trickscanned wun uamscanneItCHAt U N iyrklny with Logical Holds I low to AtM r t oKK d I toldIiowto IM logical Fields tor Finding Datato Make IlieWide Changebased on Logical FieldsAdditional examplesItowCHAPTER m Working with Multiple Databases IUrn to Append Data from Another DatabaseRules tot merging tiles with AppendHow to Use Two or More Data Files Simultaneously Preparing the tiles for a VewOpening the tiles for a ViewSetting up the relationship for the ViewSelecting the fields listEnjoying the ViewOther View optionsHow to Update a Master List from a Related FileRules for updating CHAPTER Creating CustomizedDataEntry and Report Screens How to Get Started with the Screen PainterHow to Begin the Modifications scanned wun uamscanneIV rtvn FormatWlily YuwAdding I lirlf rnMWAddingthe Picture Templatetherking fnuung ifjFinishing tfjucfHUsing the format screen USome dditiuna points about format srnnin UPrinting yur t°rms jAPPENDIX At Installing dBASE III PLUSfor Your ComputerTypes of ComputersHardware requirementsSoftware requirementsFormatting Blank DisksInstallation on a FloppyDisk SystemInstallation on a HardDisk SystemHarddisk compatibilityNonstandard harddiskinstallation—without SUPERLoKRunning dBASE on a hard diskwithout SUPERLoKStandard harddisk installation with SUPERLoKUninstalling dBASE III PLUSWarning Before using BACKUPand RESTORE scanned WITH uamucanneiXVAPPENDIX Bl Additional Optionswith the Report Generator Options Menu Selectons Group Menu Selections APPENDIX C dBASE III PLUSCommands and Functions ConventionsCommandsFunctions by CategoryIndexScanned with CamScanne
251
RUSSELL A STULTZ
THE ILLUSTRATED D BASE III PLUS
16B
ENGLISH
BPB
1987
The ILLUSTRATED dBASE III PLUS Book For Learning Teaching and Reference Russell A Stultz Scanned with CamScanner Contents Page Title Module db About This Book dBASE III Plus Overview Recommended Learning Sequence ACCEPT INPUT APPEND ASCO CHRO ASSIST AT Positioning Text and Data AVERAGE BROWSE CALL LOAD CANCEL RETURN CHANGE CLEAR ALL CLEAR TYPEHEAD CLOSE CLOSE ALTERNATE COPY DELIMITED SDF COUNT CREATE CREATE FROM ID THUM CREATE MODIFY LABEL LABEL FORM CREATEMODIFY QUERY CREATE MODIFY REPORT REPORT FORM CREATEMODIFY SCREEN CREATEMODIFY VIEW DATE TIME DELETE RECALL PACK DIR DISPLAY LIST CLEAR DO DO CASE OTHERWISE ENDCASE DO WHILE EXIT LOOP ENDDO EOFU EDIT EJECT ERASE ZAP ERASE LAP EXPORTIMPORT LABURIIIVIPURI FIND SEEK GET GET PICTURE CLEAR GETS READ GO GOTO GO BOTTOM GO TOP SKIP HELP IF ELSEENDIF N Scanned with CamScanner Contents Cont C INDEX REINDEX INSERT INSERT BEFORE INSERT BLANK Interactive Mode RECNOO JOIN LOCATE CONTINUE MODIFY COMMAND Developing Command Files MODIFY STRUCTURE NOTE or ON ERRORESCAPEKEY INKEYO PARAMETERS Cat PRIVATE PUBLIC All Except Like PROCEDURE QUIT RENAME Was FILE RENAME REPLACE RUN Was with DO RUN SAY SAY GET SAY PICTURE CLEAR GETS READ SELECT SET RELATION SET Functions SORT STORE RELEASE SAVE RESTORE SUM was SUM TOTAL SUSPEND RESUME TEXT ENDTEXT TOTAL was with SUM TOTAL TYPE was with DISPLAYLIST UPDATE USE WAIT SOR T APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G APPENDIX H APPENDIX I File Types dBASE Commands dBASE Operators dBASE Control Keys dBASE String Functions dBASE Date and Time Functions dBASE Record Pointer and Status Functions Common Terms and Definitions dBASE Exercises INDEX Scanned with CamScanner
283
LAURA HOWELL
EARTH AND SPACE
8D
ENGLISH
USBRONE
2006
Scanned with CamScannervCONTENTS Earth and space The universe Galaxies Stars The Sun The inner planets Earth and Moon The outer planets Space debris Space exploration The early Earth Earths structure The atmosphere Life on Earth Seas and oceans Rivers Weather Climate World population Earths resourcesThlt huge loopof fiery gai li calledprominenceIt erupts out Intoipece from theturtece ot the Sun—v Facts and lists Test yourself AZ of scientific terms Index AcknowledgementsScanned with CamScanner
284
KEN SWAN
NELSON MAHTHS FOR THE CSF II
7C
ENGLISH
NELSON
2001
mrcftfor the CSFIIoTKen SwanRoss AdamsonMai CockingDavid Adamsseries editorrTHOMSONNELSONJ E——UAY foDATEACC NOCALL NOSHELF NOdgSUiJECTiy Pvtl D aporas CHINIOT ——ISUMiASCH ———r “ LSLnearatos by Slo i oSolving near equations—toy ba cktrackingIntroduc ioAcknowlSolving harder equationsby inverse operationsTransposition of formulasSketching linear equationsGradient of a linear equationSolving simultaneousequationsSolving simultaneousequations graphicallySolving simultaneousequations algebraicallySolving harder simultaneousequationsWord problemsReviewRightangled trianglesSquares and square rootsFinding the hypotenuseFinding a shorter sidePythagoras in real life situations Pythagorean triadsReview ExponentialsStandard form or scientificnotationOperations in scientificnotationExponent or index formExponential graphsThe exponent keyThe index lawsIndex law Multiplyingnumbers in index formIndex law Dividing indices Index law Raising to apowerIndex law DistributingpowersIndex law Zero power law Index law Negativeindex lawUsing all index lawsReview Revision for chapters to MeasurementTimesheets and wagesTime zonesWorld timesScale factorsPerimeterCircumference and thevalue of tComposite FiguresArea Areas of quadrilateralsAreas of trianglesAreas of circles and sectors Surface area Volumes of prisms andcylindersReview Linear equationsSolving linear equationsSolving linear equationsgraphicallySolving linear equationsusing guess and check r iii AScanned with CamScannerAlgebraic fractionsReviewRevision for chapters to Interpreting shapesMeasuring anglesAngles and linesConstructing angles and lines Constructing regular polygons Congruent trianglesApplying angle propertiesin trianglesQuadrilateral propertiesThe platonic solidsTessellationsReview Applying numberMeaning of percentagePercentages as fractionsFractions as percentagesDecimals and percentagesConverting between fractionsdecimals and percentages Repeating or recurringdecimalsWriting percentagesPercentages of quantitiesCommissionFinding of a quantityPercentage decrease discountand depreciationPercentage increase markupand appreciationSimple interestCompound interestReview ChanceProbability or chance ofoutcomesProbability and predictingoutcomesVenn diagramsDrawing Venn diagramsSolving problems withVenn diagramsPredicting outcomes for acombination of eventsReview Similarity andtrigonometrySimilar FiguresSimilar trianglesApplications with similartrianglesRightangled trianglesTrigonometric ratios sineand cosineFinding sides using sineand cosineFinding the hypotenuseFinding angles using sineand cosineTrigonometric ratioine cosine or tangent Trigonometry at workReview Algebra skills Expressing generalitySimplifying expressionsAdding and subtractinglike termsMultiplying and dividingpronumeralsExpanding expressions thedistributive lawFactorising by commonfactorsFactorising by groupingSubstituting into algebraicexpressionsExpanding binomial products Difference of perfect squares Factorising quadratictrinomials tangent i iv IfScanned with CamScanner Topology and networks Draw and describe networks The bridges of Konigsberg Comparing networksTraversability of networks Travel routesMinimum connector graphs Using networks to solveproblemsNetworks without crossings Critical path analysisMap colouringSquashed solidsReviewSolving quadratic equationsby factorisingSolving quadratic equationsby guess and checkProblem solving usingquadraticsReview Ratios and ratesFractions and ratiosRatios with more than twoquantitiesRatio and proportionRatesSpeed and distancetimegraphsGraphs describing other rates Review Data and statisticsGathering dataYear Student SurveyTypes of variablesOrganising and displayingdataSummarising dataBoxplots and ogivesReview Transformations andsymmetryTranslationsDescribing translationsRotationsReflectionsDescribing specialreflectionsDilations enlargementsand reductionsReview Revision for chapters to The parabola Plotting pointsConstructing parabolasGraphing parabolasSolving quadratic equationsgraphicallySolving quadratic equationsalgebraicallyThe null factor lawRevision for chapters to Answers Index kScanned with CamScanners
288
CHRIS WIECEK
PHYSICS IN CONTEXT SECOND ED.PRELIMINARY
7E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2005
PhysicshContextT H E F O R C E S O F L I F ESecond Edition Preliminary BILL ZEALEV MARGARET HYNOJAGDISH MATHUR IAN TATNELLHRIS WIECEKOXFORDContentsPrefaceAcknowledgments viSyllabusPhysics Skills vilvChapter Introduction The Breadth of Physics Observation and Measurement Physical Laws Units of Measurement Units and Dimensions Significant Figures Handling Data Graphical Analysis How to be a Scientific Sherlock Holmes A Case Study Experiments Review Questions and Problems DATE fl MAY ACC NO—CALL NOSHELF NOSUBJECTCHINIOT ISLAMIA SCHOOL COLLEGEChapter The World Communicates Waves Energy and Information Transfer Waves and Information Transfer Key Concept Visualising TwoDimensional Wave Motion using HuygensPrinciple Sound Waves and Communication Key Concept Superposition ofWaves Xrays Light and Radio Waves are all Electromagnetic Waves Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves Key Concept Drawing Ray Diagrams for Plane Mirrors Drawing Ray Diagrams for Convex Mirrors for Concave Mirrors Key Concept Key Concept Drawing Ray DiagramsDigital Data and Communication Experiments Review Questions and Problems Scanned with CamScannerP h y s i c s i n C o n t e x t T h e F o r c e s o f L i f eChapter Encounters with Electricity Electrical Energy in the Hoi Society and Electricity Electric Circuits and Electric Charge Electrical Circuits JKey Concept Series and Parnllol Circuits Electrical Energy and Power Electrical Safety Magnetism and Magnetic Fields Currents and Magnetic FieldsKey Concept Righthand RuleExperimentsReview Questions and ProblemsChapter Moving About Vehicles in Motion External Forces and Accelerating Vehicles Force and Change in Momentum Kinetic Energy and Moving Vehicles Vehicle Safety Experiments Review Questions and Problems Chapter The Cosmic Engine Our Place in the Cosmos The Big Bang Key concept Doppler Shifts and Distances Stars and SupernovaeKey concept TheTotal Power Radiated by the Black BodyKey concept The HertzsprungRussell Diagram Nuclear Reactions Our Sun An Active StarExperiments Review Questions and Problems Answers AppendicesGiossary Index Scanned with CamScanner
298
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATH3 4th ed.
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2001
Teh Keng Seng tic oipu Looi Chin Keong ssc Dtp sCONTENTS Solutions of Quadratic EquationsSolving Quadratic Equations by FactorisationSolution by Completing the SquareComplex RootsGeneral Solution of a Quadratic EquationProblems Involving Quadratic EquationsSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapProblem SolvingJ O Indices and Algebraic ManipulationsFractional IndicesFurther Examples on Changing the Subject of a FormulaFurther Examples on Algebraic FractionsEquations Involving Algebraic FractionsSummaryFut On Your Thinking Cap Coordinate GeometryRevisionDistance between Two Gien PointsGeneral CaseMidpoint of Two Given PointsFormula for MidpointThe Idea of a GradientGradient of a Straight LineGeneral CaseAngle of Slope of a Straight LineSigns of the GradientGradients of Parallel LinesCollinear PointsEquation of a Straight LineSi ContentsScanned with CamScannerSummaryPul On Your Thinking CapiProblem SolvingS Linear InequalitiesRevisionLinear Inequalities with One VariableLinear Inequalities with TWo VariablesGreatest and Least ValuesSummaryPul On Your Thinking CapRevision Exercise I No Pul On Your Thinking Cap Variations Direct Variation ProportionOther Forms of Direct VariationInverse VariationSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapProblem Solving Functions and Graphs of FunctionsRelationsFunctionsNotationsInverse FunctionsGraphs of Cubic FunctionsGraphs of Reciprocal and Hyperbolic FunctionsGraphs of the Form I J aAGraphs or Exponential FunctionsSketches of Some Important GraphsSummaryOn Your Thinking Capr —— Pul AVH Syllabus MathematicsScanned with CamScanner Graphical Solution of EquationsRevisionGraphical Solution of Quadratic EquationsComplex GraphsSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapProblem SolvingProblem Solving Graphs Applied to KinematicsDistanceTime GraphsGradients of a DistanceTime CurveSpeedTime GraphsSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapRevision Exercise II No MidYear Examination Specimen Papers Problem Solving TrigonometryTrigonometrical RatiosTrigonometrical Ratios of Some Angles ° ° °The Area of a TriangleThe Sine RuleThe Cosine RuleBearingSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapProblem Solving ThreeDimensional ProblemsLines and Planes in SpaceNormal to a PlaneAngles between Lines and PlanesFurther ExamplesContentsScanned with CamScannerSummaryPul On Your Thinking Capof Circles Geometrical PropertiesSymmetrical Properties of CirclesAngle Properties of CirclesCyclic QuadrilateralsProblems on Angle Properties of CirclesE IwSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapProblem Solving Tangents and Alternate Segment TheoremTangentsTangents from an External PointThe Alternate Segment TheoremSummaryRevision Exercise EH No Frequency DistributionRevisionGrouped Frequency DistributionHistogramHistogram with Unequal ClassFrequency PolygonsSummaryPut On Your Thinking Caproblem SolvingIntervals MeasuresRevisionFindi°f Central TendencyComuPed DataPutation of thYan of a e MeanFrequency DistubThe Mutionfliimmniyl iil On Your lllinking Cap Cumulative Frequency DistributionCmmilnllve Frequency TableMedian Quaillles and PereonlllesInlerquarllle RangeSummaryProblem SolvingInl On Your Thinking CapRevision Exercise IV No Final Year ExaminationSpecimen Papers AnswerstScanned with CamScanner
299
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATH4 4th ed.
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2000
SBIIIXI ill ill OXJORDmCONTENTl Loci and Constructionstsass DiscussionVxi InTwo Dimensionsof Loci rrjrjzz lociv jsr Or Tour Thinking Capit VectorsTejsr and Vector Quantitiesof a Vector and NotationpresentationOe Magnitude of a VectorEqual VectorsColumn VectorsMagnitude of a Column VectorEquality of Column VectorsNegative VectorsAddition of VectorsAddition of Column VectorsZero VectorsDifference of Two VectorsSubtraction of Column VectorsScalar Multiple of a VectorParallel VectorsExpression of a Given Vector in Terms of Two VectorsPosition VectorsSummary Put On Your Thinking Cap Geometrical TransformationsReflectionRotationTo Find the Centre and Angle of RotationTranslation SummaryPut On Your Thinking CapScanned with CamScanner Further Geometrical TransformationsEnlargementRevisionTo Find the Centre of EnlargementArea of Enlarged FiguresStretchTwoway Stretch or Double StretchShearCombining TransformationsSummaryPut On Your Thinking CaptinooI Simple ProbabilityIntroductionExperimentsClassical Definition of ProbabilitySample Space and EventsPossible Outcomes in the Sample SpacePossibility DiagramsTree DiagramAdding Probabilities Mutually Exclusive EventsMultiplying Probabilities Probability TreeIndependent and Dependent EventsSummaryPut On Your Thinking CapM MJ Revision Topics ArithmeticRevision Exercise aRevision Exercise b Algebra IRevision Exercise a Algebra liRevision Exercise b MensurationRevision Exercise Graphs and Kinematic ProblemsRevision Exercise GeometryRevision Exercise Scanned with CamScannerV Angle Properties of Circles Revision Exercise TrigonometryRevision Exercise Loci and ConstructionsRevision Exercise Inequalities and Coordinate GeometryRevision Exercise VectorsRevision Exercise ProbabilityRevision Exercise StatisticsRevision Exercise Geometrical TransformationsRevision Exercise Specimen Papers A to B Answers IndexScanned with CamScanner
300
CHRIS WIECEK
PHYSICS IN CONTEXT SECOND ED.HSC
7E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2005
PhysicsContextT H E F O R C E S O F L I F ESecond EditionCHRIS WIECEK Bill ZEAIEV MARGARET HYNJAGDISH MATHUR IAN TATNEUOXFORDContentsPrefaceAcknowledgments viSyllabusPhysics SkillsvviiChapter Space Understanding the Final Frontier The Earths Gravitational Field Key Concept Newtons Law of Gravitation The First Step Into Orbit Key Concept Projectile Motion in D Time Space and Relativity Experiments Review Questions and Problems Chapter Motors and Generators Forces on CurrentCarrying Wires in Magnetic Fields Key Concept Force on a Single Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Induction Generators Provide LargeScale Power Production Transformers and Voltage Conversion Motors in the Home and Industry Experiments Review Questions and Problems Chapter From Ideas to Implementation Cathode Rays and Television The Photon Model of Light Semiconductors Key Concept Conductors Insulators and Semiconductors Superconductivity Experiments Review Questions and Problems Chapter Medical Physics Ultrasound Electromagnetic Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool Radioactivity as a Diagnostic Tool Magnetic Resonance Imaging Experiments Review Questions and Problems Scanned with CamScannerP h y s i c s i n C o n t e x t T h e F o r c e s o f L i f eChapter From Quanta to Quarks Atomic Models The Limitations of Classical PhysicsKey Concept Wave Characteristics of Particles Nuclear Physics and TransmutationsKey Concept Conservation Laws International Projects and Applications The Structure of MatterExperiments Review Questions and ProblemsChapter Astrophysics Observational Astronomy Distance Measurements Spectroscopy Photometry Binary and Variable Stars Stars Evolve and Die Experiments Review Questions and Problems Answers Appendices Glossary Index Scanned with CamScanner
316
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MAYH.1 3RD ED
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1982
JvContentsSquares f ew Common am Square Mulnpfc Rooti jCube and ufv K f Mental Estimation if ulafor orncrfN V Inverse KeyRLU Nare KnoSquarc KeNumber Sequence Im f f l Kao faOla AtfivjfieSummart Fraction And thrJmahFractionEquivalent Fractions Simplifying FractionFrnper and improper FncUow and MrwfNumbersOrder of FractionsComparing FractionsArWfion and Subtraction of Fraction wttSame DtenonumWocAddition and SuNntctann of FmaomtbDifferent DrnomiMftyv h O f Muhipirattan of a Fraction h a wpofcNumberFractions of QtsnttitfrMultiplication of FractionsDoiiHTi of a FVXGMI by a Whole NumberDo t Mon of a Fractmo by AnotherArtfftmenval nperatiori on FractionDtVMtuahOttverwn of Fraction info DecimalConversion of Decimal into FractionsRecurring DecimalsCIASS ActivitiesOrder of DecimalAddition and Subtraction of DecimalsGeneral Multiplication of DecimalsMultiplication of a Decimal by a WholeNumber Division Multiplication of a Decimal of a Decimal by a Decimal by powers of Division of a Decimal by powers ol MoneyRounding Off DecimalsCalculator ComerSummary Real NumbersNegative NumbersIntegerslIWhole NumberNatural NumberWhole NumberThe Number meOrder on the Number l mrEven ami Odd NumhrrAddition of Wholr NumberCommutative law of AdditionAssociative law of AdditionCsr of Conumitatoe ILaw in Mental CalculationsPlace ValueHarder AdditionSubtraction of Whole NumbersHarder SubtractionMultiplication of Whole NumbersCommutative Law of MultiplicationAssociative Law of MultiplicationDistributive finopemMenucalculations using e JOO and H A kaw and ASSCH iaiveS VftIfti Harder MuffrpJitation inVfmaCalculations Involving dif ilNumberDivision l ting Place ValueOrdo of OperationsSome Simple Rule for PrrfrtmimgAmhmrtieaJ OperationRounding OffCalculator ComerOperations on Whole Number No KiMur Memory Fhtc KeyMemory Recall KngOcir Keyn fina r tsiLnid Result Key f I r I£i All Cleat KeCamionUse of Memory KeySummary Checking Accuracy by Estimation FactoiSet Notati IT ri nr MultiplyIm Pactccr Si Athvity of Dptne FmrW H et visibility Sitiannation mort b fiJScanned with CamScannerContentsNumerical Value of an IntegerAddition of IntegersSubtraction of IntegersMultiplication of IntegersDivision of IntegersRules for Operating on IntegersRational NumbersIrrational NumbersReal NumbersCalculator Comerj l Sign Change KeynPi Entry KeySummary Square metre mHectare haSquare kilometre kmArea of RectanglesArea of ParallelogramsArea of TrianglesArea of TrapeziumsMiscellaneous Examples on AreaPerimeter Circumference of a CircleArea of a CircleSummary Volume And Surface AreaVolumeUnits of VolumeVolume of CuboidsSurface Area of a CuboidVolume of FluidsDensityRight PrismVolume of a PrismTotal Surface Area of a PrismCylindersVolume of a CylinderSurface Area of a CylinderHollow CylindersSummary Estimation And ApproximationClass ActivityRounding OffClass ActivitySignificant FiguresRules for Writing Significant FiguresAbsolute Error of a MeasurementApproximate Measurements in CalculatorsSummary Revision Exercise I No to Basic AlgebraFundamental AlgebraNotations in AlgebraAlgebraic ExpressionsVariables Coefficients and Constant TermsSome Rules in AlgebraThe Use of Brackets in SimplificationAddition and Subtraction of PolynomialsSummary Revision Exercise II No to Midyear Examination Specimen Papers to Ratio Rate and ProportionRatioEquivalent RatiosIncrease and Decrease in RatioRateTimeAverage SpeedProportionDirect ProportionReciprocalsInverse ProportionProportional PansSummary Algebraic Equations Equations with One VariableSolving Simple EquationsFormulaeConstruction of FormulaeProblems on Algebraic ExpressionsAlgebraic Problems Involving Linear Equations Summary Perimeter And Area of Simple GeometricalFiguresPerimeterUnits of Length or DistanceMetre mCentimetre cmMillimetre mmKilometre kmClass ActivitySimple AreaUnits of AreaSquare centimetre cmSquare millimetre mm Arithmetical ProblemsPercentagesPercentages Fractions and DecimalsChanging a Fraction to a PercentageExpressing One Quantity as a Percentage ofAnotherFinding a Percentage of a NumberPercentage ChangeProfit and LossPercentage Profit and Percentage LossDiscountCommission Li Scanned with CamScannerviKileSum of the Interior Angles of a PolygonSum of the Exterior Angles of a PolygonTessellation of Regular PolygonsSummaryRevision Exercise III No to Similarity And CongruenceCongruent FiguresNotation for CongruencySimilar FiguresSimilar PolygonsClass activitySummary Scales and MapsScale DrawingsScales on MapsArea ScaleSummarySimple InterestHire PurchaseMoney ExchangeTaxationProperly TaxValueadded TaxIncome TaxClass ActivityClass ActivitySummary Basic Geometrical Ideas And PropertiesPointsLinesPlanesSolidsCurved SurfacesIntersecting LinesAnglesThe Protractor and Angle MeasureDifferent Kinds of AnglesComplementary AnglesSupplementary AnglesAdjacent Angles on a Straight LineTo Construct an Angle using a ProtractorVertically Opposite AnglesParallel LinesDrawing Parallel Lines using a Setsquareand RulerPerpendicular LinesDrawing Perpendicular Lines using a Setsquareand RulerUse of CompassesClass ActivityPerpendicular Bisector and Angle BisectorSummary Angle Properties of PolygonsPolygonsTrianglesTypes of TrianglesConstruction of TrianglesAAngle Simple Properties Proof of TrianglesExterior Angles and Interior QuadrilateralsTrapeziumParallelogramRectangleRhombusSquare SymmetryLine Symmetry in Two DimensionsClass ActivitThe Mirror Image of a PointThe Mirror Image of a LineRotational SymmetryThe Symmetries of Regular PolygonsClass ActivityTriangles with SymmetryIsosceles TrianglesEquateral TrianglesQuadrilaterals with SymmetryKitesIsosceles TrapeziumsParallelogramsRhombusesRectanglesSquaresPlane SymmetryRotational SymmetrySummaryRevision Exercise IV NoC PPosite Angles I to FinalYear Examination SpecimenPapers to AnswersIndex Scanned with CamScanner
483
AHAMAD ALI SHAH
PROGRAMMING IN GW BASIC
21C
ENGLISH
BPB
1994
PROGRAMMING INGWBASICf—zLUSUBROUTINES ZCO Z EE START ODCNUMERICAL METHODS Qio zo INPUT p R T LUoRLE PROCESSING LL COI P X R X T CDoK R RAO MANAGER A SHARMA STENO MATARAJAN CLERK GENIUS OF GWBASICAHMAD ALISHABPB PUBLICATIONSscanned wr arriScannerCONTENTSPreface Genius of GWBASIC What is BASIC What is GWBASIC Advantages of GWBASICCharacter Set Numeric Constants String ConstantsGWBASIC wordsNumeric Variables String VariablesArithmetic Operators Order of Preference Arithmetic ExpressionsRelational Operators Logical Operators Review Questions u li r GWBASIC EnvironmentFirst BASIC Program Starting GWBASIC Command ModeInstant CalculatorProgram Modeinsert Mode T Review Questions Algorithms and FlowchartsIlow to Solve a Problem AlgorithmsljoopsFlowchartsReview QuestionsFlowcharts Problemsi scanned with Uamscannerii Programming in GWBASIC Running a ProgramWhat is Syntax RUM Statement INPUT Statement LIH Statement PRINT Statement LIND Statement IF THEN ELSE GOTO Statement Alt Key Questions Review Questions Programming Problems Lups FOR NEXT Loop WHILE WEND Loop Nested Loops READ DATA StatementsRESTORE Statement Review Questions Programming Problems x ArraysListsTable Handling Memory Requirements Deleting Arrays Review Questions Programming Problems Functions and SubroutinesSingleline FunctionsSubroutinesReview QuestionsProgramminc Problems Scanned with uamscannerContents iiiString Handling ASCII CodeOperations on StringsArithmetic Functions Review Questions Programming Problems File ProcessingSequential FilesOeating a FileNaming a FileReading from a FileWriting into a FileAdding to a FileOpening Several Files at a TimeReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Searching and Sorting Linear SearchBinary SearchSorting Methods Bubble SortSelection SortInsertion SortReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Matrix Operations What is Matrix Matrix Addition Matrix Multiplication System of Linear EquationsGauss Elimination MethodMatrix InverseReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Scanned withCascannertv Progmmmirg in uWBAS C Numerical Methods Errors in ComputationSolution of EquationsBisection MethodRcgula FalsiNewtonRaphson Method InterpolationNewtons Forward DifferenceIntepolation FormulaNewtons Backward DifferenceIntepolation FormulaLagranges Interpolation Formula Review QuestionsProgramming Problems Computer GraphicsASCII Code for Graphic Characters Screen Modes LinesRelative CoordinatesCircles and EllipsesMixing Text with GraphicsBar ChartPic Chart Painting the DiagramsCreating Windows AnimationReview QuestionsProgramming Problems Appendix Lists of Words Generatedby Alt KeyAppendix GWBASC Reserved Words Index Scanned with Camscanner
503
RUSSELL A STULTZ
THE ILLUSTRATED dBASE III PLUS BOOK
21B
ENGLISH
BPB
1987
f The ILLUSTRATE idBASEUIPUISIII Ai mmI Pi iBnf i WTii RIjra vI cannea witn uamiScanneContentsModulo Title PaRo About Tills Book dBASE III Plus Overview Pecommondcd Learning Sequence ACCEPT INPUT APPEND ASC CHR ASSIST AT Positioning Ifext and Data AVERAGE BROWSE CALL LOAD CANCEL RETURN CHANCE CLEAR ALL CLEAR TYPEHEAD CLOSE CLOSE ALTERNATE COPY DELIMITED SDF COUNTIf CREATE CREATE FROM CREATEMODIFY LABEL LABEL FORM CREATEMODIFY QUERY CREATEMODIFY REPORT REPORT FORM CREATEMODIFY SCREEN CREATEMODIFY VIEW DATE TIME DELETE RECALL PACK DIR DISPLAY LIST CLEAR DO DO CASE OTHERWISE ENDCASE DO WHILE EXIT LOOP ENDDO EOF EDIT EJECT ERASE ZAP EXPORTIMPORT FIND SEEK GET GET PICTURE CLEAR GETS READ GO GOTO GO BOTTOM GO TOP SKIP HELP IF ELSEENDIFl scanned wnn uamscanneContents Cont S SrXBETOFEINSERTBLANK Interactive Modo RECNO JOIN LOCATE CONTINUE MODIFY COMMAND Developing Command Files MODIFY STRUCTURE NOTE or ON ERRORESCAPEKEY INKEY PARAMETERS Print Statement PRIVATE PUBLIC AH Except LiJceJ PROCEDURE QUIT RENAME Was FILE RENAME REPLACE RUN Was with DO RUN SAY SAY GET SAY PICTURE CLEAR GETS READ SELECT SET RELATION SET Functions SORT STORE RELEASE SAVE RESTORE SUM was SUM TOTAL SUSPEND RESUME TEXT ENDTEXT TOTAL was with SUM TOTAL TYPE was with DISPLAYLIST UPDATE USE WAITQ APPENDIX A File Types APPENDIX E dBASE CommandsAPPENDIX C dBASE OperatorsAPPENDIX D dBASE Control KeysAPPENDIX E dBASE String Functions APPENDIX F dBASE Date and Time Functions APPENDIX G dBASE Record Pointer and Status FunctionsAPPENDIX H Common Terms and DefinitionsAPPENDIX I dBASE ExercisfsINDEXviscanned witn uamscanne
537
NIAZ MUHAMMAD
BAGHBANI
8B
URDU
JAHANGEER

ki fehrist mazameen inteshaar mazameen mazameenwalon ki ummat sardar poora aur iss ke mujhe o baagaat ke liye wazan meinbaagaat mein ab pashi baagaat ke liye khad un ki daagh bi dawn aur korn walay pouday Barak ny bunyadi usool o me poudoun ki aur dhoop aurzair kaari mein bayan mariyaan aur ilaaj ki ghizai pasti baghbani zari Pakistan ki ki kamyaab baghban kar harChishti
548
SHABBIR HUSSAIN
JADEED CHEMISTRY
7B
ENGLISH
ZAID PUBLISHER

CONTENTSCHAPTER INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRYCHAPTER CHEMICAL REACTION ANDCHEMICAL EQUATIONSiCHAPTER WATER AND SOLUTIONS In WaterCHAPTER ACIDS BASES AND SALTSCHAPTER THE PERIODIC TABLEIf CHAPTER IATOMIC STRUCTURECHAPTER CHEMICAL BONDINGCHAPTER HYDROGEN AND THE ACTIVE METALSCHAPTER IRON COPPER ZINC AND LEADC H A P T E R CARBON SILICON AND NITROGEN CHAPTER OXYGEN SULPHUR AND CHLORINE CHAPTER AN INTRODUCTION TOORGANIC CHEMISTRYOBJECTIVESIMPLE RECALLMULTIPLE CHOICEIMPORTANT EQUATIONSI
557
MCGRAW HILL
EARTH
8E
ENGLISH
MACGRAW HILL
1974
ARTH I zz vJ AScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPageOur planet EarthSoil from rocksSoil erosion and conservationWhat soil is made up ofSoil contains airSoil contains waterSoil contains humusSoil and plant growthLife in the soilScanned with CamScanner
575
ADNA YOUST
MASHOOR SIENCEDAN KHAWATEEN
8F
URDU
URDU ACADEMY
none un khawateena kili scanneu wilit lainscfehrist mazameen Ú taor Ú meter ast an Saier hog meem elizebath rail figure brown chain Ú o uth sakay koi jilin kiran daan strit wa ÚÚ Ú Iranis yard naakí¬í† ìœ í¸ìíŠ¸íŠ¸í™€scauneu wili wamso
582
NICHOLAS HORSBURGH
INSECTS
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1992
VSNatural History for SindhInsectsNicholas HorsburghOxford University Press PakistanScanned with CamScannerContentsWhat is an insect Life cycles Breathing and feedingMovement Senses Survival Insect builders Hunters and parasites The food chain Water insects Helpful insects Harmful insects How and why Watching insects Index Scanned with CamScanner
587
IRA M FAREEMAN
PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
HEINMANN
1983
Made SimpleIRA M FREEMAN PhDadvisory editorWESLEY MORGAN BSc MEd M nslPTable of ContentsSECTION ONEr—MATTERy MATTER AND ENERGYThree Forms of MatterSolidLiquidGasGeneral Characteristics of MatterMass and WeightWhat is EnergyElectrical Chemical Mechanical Energyl HOW WE MEASURE THINGSMeasurement of LengthThe Metric System The MetreMeasurement of Area and VolumeThe Units of MeasurementMeasuring Mass and WeightThe KilogramTimeThe SecondDerived Units DensityFundamental UnitsArea and VolumeSI Units LIQUIDSLiquid PressureWhat is Force What is PressurePressure Depends on DepthCalculating the PressureApplications of Fluid PressureBuoyancy and FlotationArchimedes luiw of BuoyancyApplications of FlotationVTHE AIR AND OTHER GASES AirPressureT he barometerTorricellis ExperimentsviiScanned with CamScannerviii Physics Made SimpleTheAtmospherfrBoyles LawBuoyancydnGasesUses of Air PressureAirResistanceThe Aeroplane Bernoullis LawOther ApplicationsSECTION TWO—FORCE MOTION AND ENERGYFORCESRepresentation of Forces VectorsResultant of a Set of ForcesEquilibrium of ForcesCentre of GravityTorque and RotationGravitation y MOTIONSpeed and VelocityAccelerationMotion with Constant AccelerationFalling Motion ProjectilesForce and MotionNewtons LawsLaw of InertiaCentripetal Force SatellitesThe Second LawThe Third Law Action and ReactionRotational Inertia j WORK ENERGY AND MACHINESWorkThe Energy PrinciplePotential EnergyKinetic EnergyPowerMachinesPerpetualmotion MachineOLECULESAtoms and MoleculesThe Kinetic TheoryGas PressureMolecular Forces in SolidsOther Properties of SolidsSurface TensionCapillarityyu Scanned with CamScannerTable of Contents hSECTION THREE—HEATTHE NATURE OF HEATTemperature and Its MeasurementExpansion of Solids and LiquidsExpansion of Gases Absolute TemperatureConduction of HeatConvectionRadiation y HEAT ENERGY Quantity of HeatHeat UnitsFusion of a SolidVaporization of a LiquidMoisture in the AirConservation of EnergyHeat EnginesRefrigerationSECTION FOUR—SOUNDTHE NATURE OF SOUNDSound WavesTemperature EffectsReflection of WavesContinuous WavesFrequency and Wavelengthy ACOUSTICSPitch and FrequencyIntensity and LoudnessIndoor SoundStationary WavesVibrations of StringsWaves in a PipeResonance Forced VibrationsQuality of SoundsSECTION FIVE—LIGHTLIGHT AND LIGHTINGLight Travels in Straight LinesSpeed of LightPhysics Made SimplexLight SourcesFilament LampCarbon ArcTubetype LightingFluorescent LampsIlluminationTheories of Light REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF LIGHT Reflection of LightLaw of ReflectionPlane MirrorCurved MirrorsRefraction of LightLaw of RefractionWave Theory of RefractionTotal Reflection MiragesLensesImage FormationDiverging LensesSome Optical InstrumentsCamera and EyeMicroscopes and Telescopes WAVE OPTICS AND COLOUR The SpectrumColour MixingMixing PigmentsThe SpectroscopeElectromagnetic WavesDiffractionInterferencePolarizationLasersCSECTION SIX—MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY MAGNETS AND ELECTRIC CHARGES MagnetismMagnet PolesMagnetic FieldsThe Earths MagnetismStatic ElectricityElectric ChargesAtoms and ElectricityConductors and InsulatorsElectrostatic InductionElectric FieldsPotential and CapacitanceJ Scanned with CamScannerTable of Contents xiELECTRIC CURRENTS Current StrengthAction of a Cell IonsBatteriesElectrolysisA Simple CircuitOhms LawPD in a CircuitResistors in SeriesResistors in ParallelElectric Power and EnergyHEATING AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRICCURRENTSHeat Developed in a ConductorApplications of the Heating EffectOersteds DiscoveryField Due to a CurrentCoilsUses of ElectromagnetsForce on a CurrentMovingcoil MetersMotorsf INDUCED CURRENTS Faradays ExperimentsElectromagnetic InductionLenzs LawGeneratorsGenerating DCBack VoltageThe TransformerThe TelephoneOther Sound ReproducersEddy CurrentsSECTION SEVEN—ELECTRONICS ANDNUCLEAR PHYSICS ELECTRONICSCathode RaysProduction of XraysElectron Tubes ValvesRadioAmplitude ModulationFrequency ModulationThe TransistorScanned with CamScannerxii Physics Made SimpleTelevisionRadarThe Electron MicroscopeThe Photoelectric EffectThe Quantum TheoryMicroelectronics NUCLEAR PHYSICSPositive Rays Mass SpectraIsotopesNatural RadioactivitySize of the Nucleus Bohrs TheoryArtificial Nuclear ChMassEnergy EquivalenceEinsteins Theory of RelativityRadioisotopesCosmic RaysElementary ParticlesNuclear FissionNuclear Reactors Fission BombsUses of ReactorsNuclear Fusionanges ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONSIMPORTANT FORMULAE AND RELATIONSINDEX
595
IVAR UTIAL
101 SCIENC E EXPERIMENTS
8D
ENGLISH
PUSTAK MAHAL
1987
A t m i civf ii N J V tf WRtotiScanned with CamScanner SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS Is a visibly empty vessel really empty Keep a funnel on the mouth of a bottle and fill half of it with water Now while filling the remaining halfof the bottle raise the funnel a little hygher Does thespeed with which the water fill the bottle remainunchanged in both the cases N Let us see how much is the stamina of your lungs s The atmospheric air pressure is extremely beneficial for us for its absence would have made it Iimpossible for us to drink anything through the straw “ The device used for measuring the atmospheric pressure is called a barometer Why don t you makeone yourself and see how it works arid measures the atmospheric pressure S What is the effect of heat on the air Another experiment to prove that the air expands when heated What happens when the air inside a flask onefourth filled with water and having a fixed rubber corkpierced through by a long glass tube whose lower end is lying sunken in the water is heated Does the air contract as it cools in the same way as it expands when heated Has air any weight Everyone knows that the wind blows But how What is the reason of its motion Cold water is heavy but ice which is another form of cold water floats on water despite beingsolid—how does it happen What is evaporation Can you tell why we feel colder when air touches our body soon after taking a bath What is the effect of the strong wind and heat on evaporation When you pour some cold chilled drink into a tumbler you will find some droplets shining on theouter side of the tumblerhowever carefully you pour it Do you know why it so happens During rains a lot of water falls from the skySometimes the rain continues for hours Where doessomuch water come from In the extremely cold regions the water in rivers ponds etc gets frozen and changes into ice On thisice how is it possible for the people to slide with the help of special type of footwears known as iceskates Can you explain the cause behind it Some very small insects can be seen moving with great ease on the surface of water How are theyable to move on the surface of a liquid “” when few drop of Jimopaqueness Is there any such state There is a state of translucence between transparence andbetween solubility and insolubilityScanned with CamScannerr is there is a game known as the cage of death In thknon the inner walls of a spherical cage of iron But hlT motorcyclist dris motorcycleI SPen he is upsidc d°wn WHy GS fa °ff the motorcVcleevenSitln faSt m°VinS WhiCle bend rward adoes a person sittiqg in a stationary vehicle get pulled back whensuddenly Vou might be knowing that the dams constructed onbroader than the upper portion Can you tell why Besides other ingredients our food contains starch and fat Can theirI of simple experiments The Galileo had proyed by dropping some pebbles from the leaning tower Is of itPfb possible ett that doyou euhold dfference a test mtube welin ht your a hand inwhich edwater the earth is being at theboiled sametime But yout What is the effect of heat on the volume of water Does the weight of water undergo any change when heated In winter we are protected from cold when we wear woollen clothes Why it is so Do the metals expand on heatingi Can solid objects transmit heatt Metals are good conductors of heat but is copper a better conductor than brass andaluminium How can acids and bases be identified How can it be known that the air we exhale contains carbondioxide gas Does carbondioxide really help in putting out fireen the vehiclethe vehicle starts movingthe rivers have their lower portion muchpresence be detected by means What happens when a lighted candle is kept inside a closed vessel Is there any easier method to prove that carbondioxide is heavier than air How does the process of rusting affect the atmosphere An electric bulb continues to give light for many hours yet its filament does not get burnt up How How is it that a heavy load which you fail to lift with all your strength gets lifted quite easily with thehelp of the pulleys What are jet aircrafts and which is the principle they operate on How does an aircraft fly You get your cars tank filled up with petrol and can drive wherever you wish to But are you awarei the principle on whose basis you are able to do so Sometimes You must have theyseen are red the sometimes flames coming yellow outor ofblue the or burning greenwood But have These youflames ever thought areute where co our tne That light travels in a straight line is a fact we quite frequently utilize One of its practical u camera whose function is basically dependent on this principle et us see Our Is it true eyesthat see the every distance objectbetween upside down the image thisahd statement the mirror is asisamusing equa oas it is juetween howthr object and the mirrorScanned with CamScanner Why is it that you can see your image in the mirror only when you are just in front of it whereas yQIsee scores of the things which are not in front of the mirror We study the celestial bodies with the help of a telescope But what after all is this telescope and Cjfwhat principle does it work The apparent depthof thebottomof a vessel filled with water appearsless thanitsactualdepthwherviewed from a higher position Why You see an object only when the light reflected from that object reaches your eyes It means theverything reflects light Why does not then everything have the properties of a mirror The sunlight is a combination of seven colours—how far is this statement true Have you ever seen a circular disc which appears colourful if stationary but totally white when—rotating The world around us is full of so many colourful things But have you ever thought how they appearcolourful to you — Is there any relation between the colours and reflection of light — Why do we like to wear clothes of light shade in summer How do the pictures on the cinema screen appear to be dancing jumping and moving Can the properties of a magnet be produced in an ordinary needle — There is a device called compass whichis usedfor determiningthedirectionsLet usmakeit andseejhow it works — You know that a magnet possesses the power to attract But can you tell which things get attractedby it The strength of a magnet is not at all related to its size—is it a true statement A very easy method for controllingtheelectric current passing throughanelectromagnet so that thecurrent may flow or stop at your will Like all other types of magnets does an electromagnet too has two poles To prove by a simple experiment that the unlike electric charges attract each other Is there any suchmethod withthe help of whichelectricity couldbe generatedanywhereat any time jwithout much ado about it A game of the puffed rice grains suspended by a silk thread Is it possible to store safely the static electricity for future use While climbing up or down the stairs do you ever think how the bulb gets lighted by pressing eitherswitch fitted at the top or at the bottom of the stairs You must have heard of the fuse getting blown off when the electric power in your house goes out jWhat is a fuse and what is its advantage The moment any good or bad event occurs in your house the friends and the relatives areinformedof it immediately by means of a telegram But how this telegram or wire is sent An experiment to show that a magnet rotatingin a coil of wire causes flow of electric current in thecoil What is sound and how is it produced — Does sound necessarily need a medium in reaching you interesting Your heart But beats you round better the know clock how and it becomes you can yourself possiblehear the sound of its beating Isnt i downwards Can it be proved by an experiment that the trunk of a tree always grows upwards and the rootScanned with CamScanner° a parsH She water absorbed by the roots from the surroundingso reach theother thparts oT to thethe water water drawn by the rootsfrom theearth giveslife tothe plantsand trees buthen wha happens Aind vane isa device usedfor jdetermined Now tell wh the heP of whlch determining devhe dthe rection direction of the of the wind wind a anear verythe high surface altitude of the is eartht Anemometer The wind does is the not device alwayswith blowwhich at the you same canspeed measure now theitvelocity is slowof now thefast windand Make now one veryall fast by K correct The yourself wind direction blows from in which one direction it is blowing to another You can A device also make called one Wind if you Vane so wish is used to find outthe II The nameinstrument it might appear used for tomeasuring be a difficult thedevice humidity butinitthe is not atmosphere difficult toisunderstand known as Hydrometer how it functions By its HowiLet us see The device used for measuring the specific gravity of a liquid is known as Hydrometer What kind of device this Hydrometer is Why dont you make it yourself and see You can see the rain falling but you cannot measure the amount of rainfall merely by observationThe instrument devised to measure rainfall is known as Rain Gauge It is very easy to make a RainGauge What What is area the Photometer turbinesand Youhow cando understand they rotate itswith process the help of working of water by means of a simpleexperiment You all have heard the name of the microscope It is an optical device to magnify objects too small tobe seen by the naked eve Let us make one with smaller dimensions ourselves Can you measure the height of a building or a tree etc without climbing on it The effect of the atmosphere on the silver articles is such that they lose their glitter after some timeand a blackish layer covers them Do you know any easy method to remove it What are stalactites and stalagmites and how are they formedHow do fingerprints help in detecting the criminalsThe footprints like the fingerprints too play an important role in detecting the criminals How arefootprints preserved as an evidence — How is it possible to measure the distance between the earth and various heavenly bodies soaccurately while sitting on the earth Do you knowHow can we measure the temperature of the moon and other heavenly bodies astronomers have their own method of recording the temperature of thecelestial bodies Whajt is actually Is it possible that your tongue may Is it ever possible that the sensitivity of your s When your own eyes deceive youa particular tasteat times deceive you in recognisingkin may deceive you too Scanned with CamScanner
599
MARK HEWISH
EARLY AIR CRAFT
8F
ENGLISH
PURNELL
Early AircraftConsuftanf EditorSa tScanned with CamSc
601
IMAM AHMED RAZA KHAN
A FAIR GUIDE ON THE REVOLVING SUN & THE STATIC EARTH
8E
ENGLISH
PURNELL
1989
A FAIR GUIDE ON THEtEVOLVING SUNAND THESTATIC EARTHmImam Ahmed Raza KhanScanned with CamScanner
602
IFTIKHAR HUSAIN
EYE DONATION FOR THE CORNEAL BLIND
8C
ENGLISH
PAK EYE SONS
1988
EYE DONATIONFOR THECORNEALDifr CV y A fc Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSMessagePrefacePrefaceForewardFtrewardChapter IChapter IIChapter IIIChapter IVChapter VChapter VIChapter VII Casework and Rehabilitation of PatientsChapter VIII Motivation Centres and Training of WorkersChapter IX Eye Donation in the Muslim WorldChapter X Why Human CorneaEpilogueAcknowledgements First EditionAppendix Religious OpinionsAppendix II Dr FG Hudson SilvaAppendix JIT Scleral GraftAppendix IV Technical Functions of Eye BanksDonor Criteria Evaluation of Donor CorneasSpecular Microscopy arid Tissue PreservationWill Card and Acknowledgement CardBegum Raana Liaquat Ali KhanRevised EditionFirst EditionRevised EditionFirst Edition The BeginningBreaking the ObstaclesThe StruggleExtension NationwideImport of Eyes from Sri LankaLocal Successes IKHSpecimen
615
ELISABETH SACEKET
THE WONDER OF NATURE
8F
ENGLISH
CHRISTENSEN PRESS
1985
I WOFNATUREf tV Ir Vk— OUdlllltJU VVIlll UdlllOLContentsThe World We Do Slot SeeFeeding TimeHow Animals MoveAnimal BuildingsBreeding HabitsAnimals and their YoungLife StoriesLiving TogetherAnimal Senses andCommunicationAnimal JourneysAnimal DefencesLife in WaterOn the SeashoreThe World of BirdsBirds in FlightThe World of InsectsAnimal RecordsWonders of the Plant WorldIndex VO VSVVVS A p SScanned with CamSc
V O Y A G E U R W I L D E R N E S S B O O K SIOVE OF LGDNSKate Crowley and Mike LinkPhotography by Peter RobertsCONTENTSForeword by Paul Strong Acknowledgments Call It Arsefoot The Loons Past The Loon Today Song and Dance The Loon Family Loon Aggression Legs and Wings Flocking and Migrating Poison in the Water Humans and Loons Zoo Loon The Loon Lady of Ten Mile Lake Loonessay The Photographers StoryPerspectives Loon OrganizationsBibliography Index Scanned with CamScanner
622
JOHN PATON
THE CHALLENGE OF SPACE
8E
ENGLISH
CHRISTENSEN PRESS
1985
Scanned with CamScannerContentsThe ChallengeStudying the StarsRocket PowerEarly SpacecraftThe Apollo MissionsMan on the MoonProbes to the PlanetsMission Outer SpaceManMade MoonsSatellites at WorkSpace StationsThe Space ShuttleLife in SpaceMission ControlMysteries of SpaceThe Future in SpaceSpace ColoniesAliens and UFOsIndexScanned with CamScanner
623
PURNELL
LEARN ABOUT DINOSAURS
8B
ENGLISH
PURNELL
1978
mMJ o wScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS s i UAtt ACCMO V CALLNXWSHELF NOiSUBJECTFCitlicmmmt ifrvmk SCHOOL mwWT cupst hlmmnupWillsEk layer Monstors of t hi I Jeep The Sky LizardIfi Df fith of tho HimoKfHir
629
SEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ
THEORY AND PROBLEMS WITH PROG.FORTRAN
21E
ENGLISH
McGRAW HILL
1982
flSffil STUDENT EDITIONUTLINE SERIESIncluding ifSlNRANSEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZARTHUR POEScanned with CamScannerContentsChapter INTRODUCTION PROGRAM ORGANIZATION Introduction Keypunching Fortran StatementsStoring Numbers fComputers and Languages Fortran Package Reading in Data Making Decisions OverviewChapter ARITHMETIC STATEMENTS Introduction Numerical Constants Numbers Variable Names Namesof Storage Locations Type Statements—Integer Real Arithmetic OperationsStatement of Operations —Integer and Computer Real BuiltArithmetics inArithmetics Mathematical Arithmetic FunctionsExpressions Arithmetic Mixed Assignment ModeChapter NUMERICAL INPUTOUTPUT Introduction Unformatted InputOutput Introduction to FormattedInputOutput Formatted Input and Input Field Specifications FormattedWRITE Statements and Carriage Control Output Field Specifications LiteralField Records Multiple Records Slash Repetition Factor SimpleComplete ProgramChapter TRANSFER OF CONTROL FLOWCHARTS Introduction Unconditional Transfer Conditional Transfer Relational Expressions Logical IF Statement Controlling a Loop Arithmetic IF Statement Computed GO TO Statement Algorithms Header Card and Trailer CardChapter DO LOOPS Introduction CONTINUE Statement Simple Uses of the DOStatement DO Statement Rules on the Use of the DO Loop Exit froma DO Loop Transfer within and to a DO Loop Necessity of theCONTINUE Statement Nested DO LoopsaChapter ARRAYS SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES Introduction Onedimensional Arrays DIMENSION Statements Arithmetic Expressions for Subscripts Examples Using Arrays Multidimen Array InputOutput Implied DO Loops Programmingsional ArraysTechnique ExampleLScanned with UamscannerCONTENTSChapter FUNCTIONS AND SUBROUTINES Introduction FUNCTION Subprograms Calling FUNCTION Subnro grams FUNCTION Subprograms Computing Several Values Arrays andFUNCTION Subprograms Variable Dimension Arithmetic Statement Fundi Subroutines SUBROUTINE Versus FUNCTIONChapter PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES AND NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS Introduction Sorting Merging Searching Update HornersMethod Solutions of Certain Equations Numerical Integration Vectorsand Matrices Linear EquationsChapter CHARACTER INFORMATION LOGICAL VARIABLES ANDOPERATIONS Introduction Storing Characters AField Manipulating CharacterInformation HField Logical Constants and Logical Variables LogicalOperators and Logical Expressions Assigning Logical Values LField Hierarchy of OperationsChapter ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF INPUTOUTPUT Introduction Data Statement TField GFIELD ScaleFactor LeftParenthesis Rule ExecutionTime Format GraphingChapter MISCELLANEOUS FEATURES OF FORTRAN Introduction Type Statements IMPLICIT Statement DoublePrecision Complex Numbers Assigned GO TO Statement ASSIGNStatement Multiple Entries and Returns to a Subprogram UnlabcledCOMMON Statements Labeled COMMON Statements EQUIVALENCEStatements I LI I BLOCK DATA ExternalChapter STRUCTURED FORTRAN IFSlruclures LoopControl StructuresLIBRARY FUNCTIONSINTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF DATAAppendixAppendix B INDEXScanned witn UamScanner
633
SEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ
THEORY AND PROBLEM DATA STRUCTURE SCHAUM'S OUTLINE
21E
ENGLISH
McGRAW HILL
2000
STRUCTURESSEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZINCLUDING SOLVED PROBLEMSSCHAUMS OUTLINE SERIES INYSxm INTERNATIONAL y EDITIONS JSchaum s Outline SeriesBmiscanned witn uamscannerContentChapter INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Introductiog Basic Terminologyjflfmpntary Data Organization Data Structures Data Structure Operation AlgorithmsComplexity TimeSpace Tradeoffv Chanter PRELIMINARIESi Introduction Mathematical Notation and Functions Algorithmic Notation Control Structures Complexity of Algorithms Subalgorithms Variables Data Types Chapter STRING PROCESSING Introduction Basic Terminology Storing Strings Character Data Type String Operations Word Processing Pattern Matching Algorithmsr Chapter ARRAYS RECORDS AND POINTERS Introduction Linear Arrays Representation of Linear Arrays in Memory Traversing Linear Arrays Inserting and Deleting Sorting Bubble Sort Searching Linear Search Binary Search Multidimensional Arrays Pointers Pointer Arrays Records Record Structures orScanned with uamscannerCONTENTS Representation of Records in Meraorv Para Arrays Matrices Sparse Matrices Chapter LINKED LISTS Introduction Linked Lists Representation of Linked Lists ia Memory Traversing a Linked List Searching z Linked List Memory Allocation Garbage Collection Insertion into a Linked List Deletion from a Linked List Header Linked Lists I TwoWay Lists Chapter STACKS QUEUES RECURSION Introduction Stacks Array Representation of Stacks Arithmetic Expressions Polish Notation Quicksort an Application of Stacks Recursion Towers of Hanoi Implementation of Recursive Procedures by Stacks Queues Deques Priority QueuesSISOISSSChapter TREES Introduction s Binary Trees Representing Binary Trees in Memory Traversing Binary Trees Traversal Algorithms Using Stacks Header Nodes Threads Binary Search Trees Searching and inserting in Binary Search Trees Deleting in a Binary Search Tree Heap Heapsort Path Lengths Hutignans Algorithm General Trees SScanned with UamScannerfCONTENTSChaplcr GRAPHS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Introduction Graph Theory Terminology Sequential Representation of Graphs Adjacency Matm Path Maim Warshall i Algorithm Shortest Paths Linked Representation of a Graph Operations on Graphs Traversing a GraphK Posets Topological SortinghMrrChapter SORTING ANO SEARCHING Introduction Sorting Insertion Sort Selection Sort Merging MergeSort Radix Sort Searching and Data Modification Hashing ViINDEX VScanned with CamScanner
637
JOHN G SAMSON
ADVENTURE IN THE THE WILD
8D
ENGLISH
ARRO WOOD

A t m i civf ii N J V tf WRtotiScanned with CamScanner SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS Is a visibly empty vessel really empty Keep a funnel on the mouth of a bottle and fill half of it with water Now while filling the remaining halfof the bottle raise the funnel a little hygher Does thespeed with which the water fill the bottle remainunchanged in both the cases N Let us see how much is the stamina of your lungs s The atmospheric air pressure is extremely beneficial for us for its absence would have made it Iimpossible for us to drink anything through the straw “ The device used for measuring the atmospheric pressure is called a barometer Why don t you makeone yourself and see how it works arid measures the atmospheric pressure S What is the effect of heat on the air Another experiment to prove that the air expands when heated What happens when the air inside a flask onefourth filled with water and having a fixed rubber corkpierced through by a long glass tube whose lower end is lying sunken in the water is heated Does the air contract as it cools in the same way as it expands when heated Has air any weight Everyone knows that the wind blows But how What is the reason of its motion Cold water is heavy but ice which is another form of cold water floats on water despite beingsolid—how does it happen What is evaporation Can you tell why we feel colder when air touches our body soon after taking a bath What is the effect of the strong wind and heat on evaporation When you pour some cold chilled drink into a tumbler you will find some droplets shining on theouter side of the tumblerhowever carefully you pour it Do you know why it so happens During rains a lot of water falls from the skySometimes the rain continues for hours Where doessomuch water come from In the extremely cold regions the water in rivers ponds etc gets frozen and changes into ice On thisice how is it possible for the people to slide with the help of special type of footwears known as iceskates Can you explain the cause behind it Some very small insects can be seen moving with great ease on the surface of water How are theyable to move on the surface of a liquid “” when few drop of Jimopaqueness Is there any such state There is a state of translucence between transparence andbetween solubility and insolubilityScanned with CamScannerr is there is a game known as the cage of death In thknon the inner walls of a spherical cage of iron But hlT motorcyclist dris motorcycleI SPen he is upsidc d°wn WHy GS fa °ff the motorcVcleevenSitln faSt m°VinS WhiCle bend rward adoes a person sittiqg in a stationary vehicle get pulled back whensuddenly Vou might be knowing that the dams constructed onbroader than the upper portion Can you tell why Besides other ingredients our food contains starch and fat Can theirI of simple experiments The Galileo had proyed by dropping some pebbles from the leaning tower Is of itPfb possible ett that doyou euhold dfference a test mtube welin ht your a hand inwhich edwater the earth is being at theboiled sametime But yout What is the effect of heat on the volume of water Does the weight of water undergo any change when heated In winter we are protected from cold when we wear woollen clothes Why it is so Do the metals expand on heatingi Can solid objects transmit heatt Metals are good conductors of heat but is copper a better conductor than brass andaluminium How can acids and bases be identified How can it be known that the air we exhale contains carbondioxide gas Does carbondioxide really help in putting out fireen the vehiclethe vehicle starts movingthe rivers have their lower portion muchpresence be detected by means What happens when a lighted candle is kept inside a closed vessel Is there any easier method to prove that carbondioxide is heavier than air How does the process of rusting affect the atmosphere An electric bulb continues to give light for many hours yet its filament does not get burnt up How How is it that a heavy load which you fail to lift with all your strength gets lifted quite easily with thehelp of the pulleys What are jet aircrafts and which is the principle they operate on How does an aircraft fly You get your cars tank filled up with petrol and can drive wherever you wish to But are you awarei the principle on whose basis you are able to do so Sometimes You must have theyseen are red the sometimes flames coming yellow outor ofblue the or burning greenwood But have These youflames ever thought areute where co our tne That light travels in a straight line is a fact we quite frequently utilize One of its practical u camera whose function is basically dependent on this principle et us see Our Is it true eyesthat see the every distance objectbetween upside down the image thisahd statement the mirror is asisamusing equa oas it is juetween howthr object and the mirrorScanned with CamScanner Why is it that you can see your image in the mirror only when you are just in front of it whereas yQIsee scores of the things which are not in front of the mirror We study the celestial bodies with the help of a telescope But what after all is this telescope and Cjfwhat principle does it work The apparent depthof thebottomof a vessel filled with water appearsless thanitsactualdepthwherviewed from a higher position Why You see an object only when the light reflected from that object reaches your eyes It means theverything reflects light Why does not then everything have the properties of a mirror The sunlight is a combination of seven colours—how far is this statement true Have you ever seen a circular disc which appears colourful if stationary but totally white when—rotating The world around us is full of so many colourful things But have you ever thought how they appearcolourful to you — Is there any relation between the colours and reflection of light — Why do we like to wear clothes of light shade in summer How do the pictures on the cinema screen appear to be dancing jumping and moving Can the properties of a magnet be produced in an ordinary needle — There is a device called compass whichis usedfor determiningthedirectionsLet usmakeit andseejhow it works — You know that a magnet possesses the power to attract But can you tell which things get attractedby it The strength of a magnet is not at all related to its size—is it a true statement A very easy method for controllingtheelectric current passing throughanelectromagnet so that thecurrent may flow or stop at your will Like all other types of magnets does an electromagnet too has two poles To prove by a simple experiment that the unlike electric charges attract each other Is there any suchmethod withthe help of whichelectricity couldbe generatedanywhereat any time jwithout much ado about it A game of the puffed rice grains suspended by a silk thread Is it possible to store safely the static electricity for future use While climbing up or down the stairs do you ever think how the bulb gets lighted by pressing eitherswitch fitted at the top or at the bottom of the stairs You must have heard of the fuse getting blown off when the electric power in your house goes out jWhat is a fuse and what is its advantage The moment any good or bad event occurs in your house the friends and the relatives areinformedof it immediately by means of a telegram But how this telegram or wire is sent An experiment to show that a magnet rotatingin a coil of wire causes flow of electric current in thecoil What is sound and how is it produced — Does sound necessarily need a medium in reaching you interesting Your heart But beats you round better the know clock how and it becomes you can yourself possiblehear the sound of its beating Isnt i downwards Can it be proved by an experiment that the trunk of a tree always grows upwards and the rootScanned with CamScanner° a parsH She water absorbed by the roots from the surroundingso reach theother thparts oT to thethe water water drawn by the rootsfrom theearth giveslife tothe plantsand trees buthen wha happens Aind vane isa device usedfor jdetermined Now tell wh the heP of whlch determining devhe dthe rection direction of the of the wind wind a anear verythe high surface altitude of the is eartht Anemometer The wind does is the not device alwayswith blowwhich at the you same canspeed measure now theitvelocity is slowof now thefast windand Make now one veryall fast by K correct The yourself wind direction blows from in which one direction it is blowing to another You can A device also make called one Wind if you Vane so wish is used to find outthe II The nameinstrument it might appear used for tomeasuring be a difficult thedevice humidity butinitthe is not atmosphere difficult toisunderstand known as Hydrometer how it functions By its HowiLet us see The device used for measuring the specific gravity of a liquid is known as Hydrometer What kind of device this Hydrometer is Why dont you make it yourself and see You can see the rain falling but you cannot measure the amount of rainfall merely by observationThe instrument devised to measure rainfall is known as Rain Gauge It is very easy to make a RainGauge What What is area the Photometer turbinesand Youhow cando understand they rotate itswith process the help of working of water by means of a simpleexperiment You all have heard the name of the microscope It is an optical device to magnify objects too small tobe seen by the naked eve Let us make one with smaller dimensions ourselves Can you measure the height of a building or a tree etc without climbing on it The effect of the atmosphere on the silver articles is such that they lose their glitter after some timeand a blackish layer covers them Do you know any easy method to remove it What are stalactites and stalagmites and how are they formedHow do fingerprints help in detecting the criminalsThe footprints like the fingerprints too play an important role in detecting the criminals How arefootprints preserved as an evidence — How is it possible to measure the distance between the earth and various heavenly bodies soaccurately while sitting on the earth Do you knowHow can we measure the temperature of the moon and other heavenly bodies astronomers have their own method of recording the temperature of thecelestial bodies Whajt is actually Is it possible that your tongue may Is it ever possible that the sensitivity of your s When your own eyes deceive youa particular tasteat times deceive you in recognisingkin may deceive you too Scanned with CamScanner
643
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATH 1
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1997
VContents xLeast Common Multiple LCMSquares and Square RootsvCtiljes and Cube RootsMental EstimationCalculator ComerV Ayhole NumbersNatural NumbersWhole NumbersThe Number LineOrder on the Number LineEven and Odd NumbersAddition of Whole NumbersCommutative Law of AdditionAssociative Law of AdditionUse of Commutative Law and AssociativeLaw in Mental CalculationsPlace ValueHarder AdditionSubtraction of Whole NumbersHarder SubtractionMultiplication of Whole NumbersCommutative Law of MultiplicationAssociative Law of MultiplicationDistributive PropertyMental calculations using and INvl Inverse KeylVv l Square RootSquare KeyI Power Raising and Root KeyClass Number Activities SequencesSummary Fractions And DecimalsFractionsEquivalent FractionsSimplifying FractionsProper and Improper Fractions and MixedNumbersOrder of FractionsComparing FractionsAddition and Subtraction of Fractions withSame DenominatorAddition and Subtraction of Fractions withDifferent DenominatorsAddition and Subtraction of Mixed Numbers Multiplication of a Fraction by a WholeNumberFractions of QuantitiesMultiplication of FractionsDivision of a Fraction by a Whole Number fiDivision of a Fraction by AnotherArithmetical Operations on FractionsDecimalsConversion of Fractions into DecimalsConversion of Decimals into FractionsRecurring DecimalsClass ActivitiesOrder of DecimalsAddition and Subtraction of DecimalsGeneral Multiplication of DecimalsMultiplication of a Decimal by a WholeNumberMultiplication of a Decimal by powers of Division of a Decimal by a Decimal Division of a Decimal by powers of MoneyRounding Off DecimalsCalculator ComerSummaryReal NumbersNegative NumbersIntegers Harder MultiplicationMental Calculations Involving digitNumbersDivision Using Place ValueOrder of OperationsSome Simple Rules for PerformingArithmetical OperationsRounding OffCalculator ComerOperations on Whole Numbers Numeral KeysMini ElMemory Enter E Operation Key and Result Keys MRMemoryRecallKeyClear KeylACl All Clear KeyCautionUse of Memory KeyChecking Accuracy by EstimationSummaryFactors set Notation And MultiplesFntne Class tors Activity Numbers and MultiplesHghest Co AItirlfli SSSJ nunonFactr HCF Scanned with CamScannerContents VNumeric al Value of an IntegerAddition of IntegersSubtraction of IntegersMultiplication of IntegersDivision of IntegersRules for Operating on IntegersRational NumbersIrrational NumbersReal NumbersCalculator ComerfSign Change Key Pi Entry KeySummary Square metre mJHectare haSquare kilometre kmJArea of RectanglesArea of ParallelogramsArea of TrianglesArea of TrapeziumsMiscellaneous Examples on AreaPerimeter Circumference of a CircleArea of a CircleSummaryOlIJKMKMKMKM Volume Anri Surface AreaVolumeUnits of VolumeVolume of CuboidsSurface Area of a CuboidVolume of PluidsDensityRight PrismVolume of a PrismTotal Surface Area of a PrismCylindersVolume of a CylinderSurface Area of a CylinderHollow CylindersSummary Estimation And Approximation Class ActivityRounding OffClass ActivitySignificant FiguresRules for Writing Significant FigAbsolute Ermr of a MeasurementApproximate Measurements in CalculatorsSummarynoHIIt tires J Retision Exercise I No I to by fiasic AlgebraFundamental AlgebraNotations in AlgebraAlgebraic ExpressionsVariables Coefficients and Constant TermsSome Rules in AlgebraThe Use of Brackets in SimplificationAddition and Subtraction of PolynomialsSummary Rcsisinn Exercise II No I to Midyear Examination Specimen Papers I t Ratio Rate and ProportionRatioEquivalent RatiosIncrease and Decrease in RatioRateTimeAverage SpeedProportionDirect ProportionReciprocalsInverse ProportionProportional PartsSummary Algebraic EquationsEquations with One VariableSolving Simple EquationsFormulaeConstruction of FormulaeProblems on Algebraic ExpressionsAlgebraic Problems Involving Linear EquationsSummary Perimeter And Area of Simple JeometricnlFiguresPerimeterUnits of Length or DistanceMetre mCentimetre cmMillimetre mmKilometre kmClass ActivitySimple AreaUnits of AreaSquare centimetre cmSquare millimetre mm II Arithmetical ProblemsPercentagesPercentages Fractions and DecimalsChanging a Fraction to a PercentageExpressing One Quantity as a Percentage otAnotherFinding a Percentage of a NumberPercentage ChangeProfit and LossPercentage Profit and Percentage LossDiscountCommissionScanned with CamScannervi KiloSum of ilie Interior Angles or u pjvSum ol the Exterior Angles of i ynTessellnlion of Regular PolygonsSummaryRevision Exercise III No I lo Simple InterestHire PurchaseMoney ExchangeTaxationProperty TaxValueadded TaxIncome TaxClass ActivityClass ActivitySummary HROH H Ih Slmllnrlly And CongruenceCongruent FiguresNotation lor CongruencySimilar FiguresSimilar PolygonsClass activitySummary X X Hasic iconictrical Ideas And PropertiesPointsLinesPlanesSolidsCurved SurfacesIntersecting LinesAnglesThe Protractor and Angle MeasureDifferent Kinds of AnglesComplementary AnglesSupplementary AnglesAdjacent Angles on a Straight LineTo Construct an Angle using a ProtractorVertically Opposite AnglesParallel Lines Hi Scales and MapsScale DrawingsSeales on MapsArea SealeSummaryIIII Symmetry JlLine Symmetry in Two DimensionsClass ActivityThe Mirror Image of a PointThe Mirror Image of a LineRotational SymmetryThe Symmetries of Regular PolygonsClass ActivityTriangles with SymmetryIsosceles TrianglesEquateral TrianglesQuadrilaterals with SymmetryKitesIsosceles TrapeziumsParallelogramsRhombusesRectanglesSquaresPlane SymmetryRotational SymmetrySummaryRevision Exercise IV No to FinalYear Examination SpecimenPapers I to AnswersIndex Drawing Parallel Lines using a Setsquare and RulerPerpendicular LinesDrawing Perpendicular Lines using a Setsquareand RulerUse of CompassesClass ActivitySummary AnC BiSeClr JP Angle Properties of PolygonsPolygonsTrianglesTypes of TrianglesConstruction of Trianglesnglc Properties of TriA Simple ProofWSittAnlciTrapeziumParallelogramRectangleRhombusSquare angles J Scanned with CamScanner
659
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MAYH2 3RDH ED
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1997
r Contents ProblerNummaryChallenge YoidneajvlneInequalities Arithmetic ProblemsRate Ratio Proportion and SpeedPercentagesPersonal and Household Finances andSimple Financial TransactionsChallenge Yourself Indices and Standard FormZero and Negative IndicesEquations involving IndicesStandard Form or Scientific NotationClass ActivityCalculator ComerSummaryChallenge Yourself ms nvoivjurseif lualijiesChallenge oummary Solving Inequa Yourself jitlesstssr Graphs of Equations oftheftm saiGraphs Graphs Graphs of of of Equations Equations Equations of of of the the the Fon Form FonnJSolving Simultaneous Linear Bpusing Graphical MethodsGraphs of Quadratic FunctionsClass ActivitiesQuadratic Functions of the ForaptGraphs of General Quadratic FunctusSummaryChallenge Yourself Solving Quadratic Equations Further ExpansionsDivision of Polynomials OptionalFactorisationPerfect Squares and Difference of TwoSquaresFactorisation of Quadratic Polynomialsmm Factorisation by GroupingW Solution of Quadratic Equations byFactorisationProblems involving Quadratic EquationsSummaryChallenge Yourself Simple Formulae Algebraic Algebraic Manipulation FractionsAnd JMultiplication apd Division of AlgebraicFractions Highest Common Factor HCF ofAlgebraic ExpressionsLeast Common Multiple LCM ofAlgebraic ExpressionsAddition and Subtraction of AlgebraicFractionsEquations involving Fractions V Problems involving Algebraic Fractions Summary SUbjCCt °f FormulaRevision sQIenge Exercise Yourself I No to Substitution Method Interpretation Graphs In Practical and UseSituations of GraphsTravel GraphsDrawing of GraphsSummaryChallenge YourselfRevision Exercise II No H° Examination SptfntnMidyear Paper to Mensuration CiArea and CircumferencRevision Length of Arc Volume and SurfacePyramids Volume of a PyraJIClass ActivityCircular Cones of aVi and Area Scanned with CamScannerVolume of a ConeCurved Surface Area of a ConeThe SphereVolume of a SphereSurface Area of a SphereSummaryChallenge Yourself Combining TransformationsSummaryChallenge Yourself Pythagoras Theorem And TrigonometricalRatiosPythagoras TheoremClass ActivitiesTrigonometrical RatiosTo Obtain Values of TrigonometricalFunctionsCalculator ComerPractical Applications of TrigonometryAngles of Elevation and DepressionMiscellaneous ExamplesSummaryChallenge Yourself Congruent and Similar TrianglesCongruent TrianglesCongruency TestsSome Simple Applications of CongruentTrianglesSimilar TrianglesClass ActivitiesTests for Similarity between Two TrianglesSummaryChallenge YourselfRevision Exercise IV No to II Area And Volume Of Similar FiguresAnd SolidsAreas of Similar FiguresVolumes of Similar FiguresSummaryChallenge YourselfFinalYear Examination SpecimenPapers to AnswersIndexRevision Exercise III No to Appendix Statistics Collection and Organisation of DataDisplaying DataPictogramsBar ChartsPie ChartsLine GraphsStatistical SurveysFrequency TablesHistogramsClass ActivityMeasures of Central TendencyThe Arithmetic Mean or The MeanThe MedianThe ModeComparison of the Mean Median and ModeSummaryChallenge Yourself Motion GeometryReflectionTo Construct the Mirror Image underReflectionRotationConstruction Steps to Rotate A Figureabout a PointTranslationEnlargementConstruction Steps to Enlarge a Figuref Scanned with CamScanner
808
PETER MURRAY
ADVANCED CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
PAN BOOKS
1983
809
CLEGG C.A
ADVANCED BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
PAN BOOKS
1982
X — vTHE COMPLETE GUIDE TO EXAM SUCCESSlrl h i f I Vf n f tr t t £ PAN sSTUDYAIDS V l p r rl Jf f if I T f i ly i i t iVI ft I L iV e iiti C A Clegg ADVANCED Scanned with CamScanner
873
GEORGINA ANDREWS
USBORNE 100 SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
8D
ENGLISH
USBRONE
2005
M V flaventBScanned with CamScannerContentsDown to earth Internet linksWhat youll need Elastic energy The power of the Sun Stable structures Lighting effects Under pressure Shadow show Taking flight Light and colour Magnetic attraction Seeing things Static electricity Tricky pictures Electrical bugsSound vibrations Electromagnets Highs and lows Freezing and melting Surface tension Pushing and pullingFriction in action Mixing up HHcannerSorting out mixtures Acids and alkalisFoaming monster Butterfly searchInvisible creaturesOpen wideTest your reactionsHeart and lungsAll in the mindFamily tiesHomemade paper Paper flowersChain reactionCreating crystals Weather watch Doing your own experiments Wind and water power Glossary Sprouting seeds List of experiments Soil science Animal anticsScanned with CamScanner
891
S HUSSAIN JAFRI
SECONDARY MATH 1
7D
ENGLISH
FEP INTERNATIONAL

ifcond si JmatICStok ssfy iScar ned Mth camscannerCONTENTSGeorge CantorWhatifa set Defining a set Membership of a set Identical requal sets Empty set Subset Universal set Venn diagramIntersection of sets Summary Test yourself EquationsMathematical sentence To solve an open sentence What is an equation Solving an equation Application of equationsSummary Test yourself Properties of MultiplicationWhat is multiplication Commutative law for multiplicationAssociative law for multiplication To formulate an expressionDistributive law for multiplication Summary Test yourself InequationsInequality Inequation Equation and inequation Solving asimple inequation Summary Test yourself Replacement and FormulaeReplacement Construction of a formula Summary TestyourselfIndicesIndex Product of powers of a number Quotient of powers of ayourselfSClemfiC n°tatin orstandard formSummaryTestRevision Exercises for Chapters Leonhard Euler Cubes and CuboidsSolids around us Face vertex and edge Skeleton modelSummary Test yourself Lines Angles and ParallelsWhat is a line Horizontal and vertical lines What is an angleDrawing and measuring angles Types of angles Verticallyopposite angles Compass bearing Parallel lines SummaryTest yourself Squares Rectangles and Geometric PatternsQuadrilateral Rectangle Square Tessellation Line symmetryPoint symmetry Summary Test yourselfRene Descartes CoordinatesGames of position Plotting points Sequence of ordered pairsSet of points Summary Test yourself Parallelograms Rhombuses and KitesParallelogram Area of a parallelogram Trapezium Area of a trapezium Rhombus Area of a rhombus Kite Area of a kiteRelationship between various shapes Summary Test yourself TrianglesTypes of angles Acuteangled triangle Rightangled triangleObtuseangled triangle Isosceles triangle Rightangled isosceles triangle Obtuseangled isosceles triangle Equilateral triangle Relationship between triangles Angles in a triangleExterior angle and interior opposite angles Area of a triangleSummary Test yourselfRevision Exercises for Chapters Pierre de Fermat svstem of Whole Numbers icciiruil system Different sets of numbers SeqUenCf M ieic square Operation table for addition Com °fIdentity element for addition C°i hw for addition Subtraction as an inverse operation ot £ llic Zuldilion ition multiplication Commutative The distributive Division law law for asmultiplication an Multiple inverse Divisibility operation Identityof element Lowest muU ocommon multiple Factor Highest common factor Prime number and composite number Prime factors and the lowestmultiple Summary Test yourselfcommon Negative Numbers Looking at the whole numbers again Negative integers Order in the set of integers Negative numbers in coordinatesAddition of integers Laws of addition of integers SummaryTest yourself Fractions Ratios and PercentagesIdea of a fraction Equivalent fractions Addition and subtraction of like fractions Addition and subtraction of unlike fractions Multiplication with fractions Division with fractionsOrder of fractions Using fractions Ratio Percentage Summary Test yourself Length Area and VolumeLength Conversion within the metric system Area Areas ofsquare and rectangle Volume Summary Test yourself Decimal FractionsWhat is a decimal fraction Addition and subtraction of decimals Multiplication with decimals Division with decimalsApproximation Rounding off Decimal places Significant figures Rough estimate Summary Test yourselfsquares Square The set Squares roots Square of rational ofroots and rational from numbers Square numbers tables Squares Roots Summary Square of of Numbers rational Test rootsyourself ofnumbers perfect Revision Exercises for Chapters
923
LIAN SEKLIN
NEW MATHS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SYLLABUS D
7C
ENGLISH
PAN PACIFIC
1988
sTtTflAJ — niA ni ILLn v InTlSyllabus DScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSUSE OF THE CALCULATOR Arithmetic Computation Estimation Limits of Accuracy PercentagesCHAPTER CHAPTER INDICES Positive Integral Indices Zero and Negative Integral Indices Rational Indices Laws of IndicesSIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS Equations in Two Variables Word Problems using Two Variables One and Two Variable SolutionsCHAPTER tALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATICEQUATIONS Special Algebraic Rules for Calculation Polynomials Factorization Quadratic Factorization Quadratic Equations Solving Quadratic Equations by Factorization Word Problems leading to Quadratic EquationsCHAPTER CHAPTER SYMMETRIES Line SymmetryMaking Symmetrical Figures Rotational Symmetry Symmetry in Space Isosceles Triangle QuadrilateralsiCHAPTER CONGRUENCY AND SIMILARITY Congruent Figures Similar Figures Properties of Congruent Triangles Properties of Similar Triangles Ratio in Geometry Scanned with CamScannerCHAPTER MENSURATION SectorsVolume of Prism Cone and PyramidVolumeSurface Area Spheres Areas and Volumes of Similar Figures l CHAPTER INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ON THE NUMBERPLANE The Number PlaneCoordinates Graphs of Linear Equations in Two Variables Simple Applications of Straight Line Graphs Travel Graphs NonLinear GraphsCHAPTER VARIATION AND ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS VariationDirect and Inverse VariationPartial and Joint Variation Algebraic FractionsCHAPTER PYTHAGORAS THEOREM AND TRIGONOMETRY Pythagoras Theorem Trigonometrical Ratios Trigonometrical Tables Height and DistanceCHAPTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES ANSWERSScanned with CamScanner
1004
H J P KEIGHLEY
MASTERING PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
MACMILLAN
1988
MACMILLAN MASTER SERIESMASTERINGPHYSICSVCONTENTSPreface to the First Edition xiiiPreface to the Revised EditionPreface to the Third EditionAckirowledgefnentsxivxvXVII MECHANICS Length Metric prefixes Forcev Measurement of force Loadextension graphs Mass Weight Measuring time Volume Measuring volume DensityW Air density The concept of pressure Pressure in liquids The pressure due to a columnof liquid Upthrust Measuringpressure Atmospheric pressure A simple barometer The aneroid barometer Airliners and spacesuits Addition of physicalquantities An experiment on additionof forces Definition of terms Newtons first law of motion Newtons second law ofmotion Fundamental conceptsK Pressure Vectors Motion CONTENTS The Newton unit sof third force law the ofnot°SJ N Momentum and impulseV JS Conservation of momentum v Rocket and jet motors Acceleration in free fall Frictional forces in solids Uniformly The importance accelerated of friction motion £s Motion graphs Levers in everyday life An experiment to investigatethe turning effect of aforce Centre of gravity Determining the position ofthe centre of gravity Levers and centres ofgravity Stability Couples Some definitions Various forms of energy Electrical energy Kinetic energy KE Potential energy PE Conservation of energy Work energy and power Heat energy Energy conversion in apower station Power The energy crisis Introduction The Levers An experiment inclined plane with pulleys Machines II HEAT AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Heat energy Introduction Frictional heating Specific heat capacity Specific heat capacity by anelectrical methodft A basic equation Ivii Different specific heatcapacities Demonstration of expansion Large forces involved in theexpansion of a solid Expansion — friend or foe Linear expansivity Bimetallic strip Calibration of a mercurythermometer The clinical thermometer Molecular explanation ofexpansion The molecular theory ofmatter The Molecules Molecules size ofin ina solids liquidsU molecule — Molecules in gases Diffusion Brownian movement Boyles law for a gas atconstant temperature Gas pressure law atconstant volume iCharles law for a gasVrconstant pressure The kinetic theory for gases The transfer of heat energy Introduction Conduction An explanation ofconduction Convection Radiation Reflection and refraction ofradiation Emitters and absorbers ofradiation The vacuum flask Heat problems in supersonicaircraft and satellites The greenhouse effect Hot water and centralheating Expansion Properties of gases andmolecular structure Scanned with CamScannerrCONTENTS Latent heat u— Change of state Measuring specific la foN When it cools a liquid cvaporaTe SI J Distinction between evaporation and boiling The bodys cooling systemand refrigerators An increase in pressurelowers the melting point Ho The binding of snowballs lio A decrease in pressurelowers the boiling point Pressure cookersIII WAVE MOTION LIGHT AND SOUND Introduction Describing waves Transverse waves Longitudinal waves t Observing and measuringtravelling waves The wave equation Wave velocity Energy in waves Properties of travellingwaves Standing waves Rays of light The Lawsimage of regular in a plane reflection mirrorM l Uses of plane mirrors Diffuse reflection Shadows Introduction Refraction at an airglassinterface Refractive indices The reversibility of a ray oflight Internal reflections Waves Reflections and shadows Refraction IX Some applications of totalinternal reflection Real and apparent depths Action of a lens Optical centre and focalpoint The power of a lens Measuring the focal lengthof a converging lens Images produced by lenses The action of a curvedmirror The principal focus andfocal length Uses of lenses and mirrors The pinhole camera The camera with a lens The slide projector A radio telescope Visible light Detectors of light The extended spectrum Colour addition Colour subtraction Coloured objects seen incoloured lights Introduction Measurement of thefrequency of sound waves Measuring the velocity ofsound in air by an echomethod Diffraction and interferenceof sound waves The pitch loudness andquality of a musical note Absorption of sound waves Resonance Thin lenses and curved mirrors Optical instruments The electromagneticspectrum Sound rCONTENTSIV ELECTRICITY ATOMIC ANDNWLEXiTpHr Magnetism Properties ofmagnets Making The testafor magnet magnetism Induced magnetism IProperties of soft iron and steel Magnetic fields Charging by friction Positive and negative ch Protons and electr Charging by induction Ionisation Electrons and electronbeamsarge ons Lightning and lightningconductorsThe cathode ray oscilloscope Electric current Electric potential differencevoltage Series and parallel circuits Current in series and Electric circuitsparallel circuits Potential difference in seriesand parallel circuits Electrical resistance Combination of resistors The potential dividercircuit Capacitors Magnetic effects of electric currentan The magnetic field producedby an electric current The magnetic field producedby a solenoid Force on a currentcarryingconductor in a magnetic field The electric motor ° Electrical The moving power coil and loudspeaker energy sources Domestic The mainswiring supply xi Electrical connection to themains supply The earth lead The kilowatthour Electromagnetic induction Introduction The size of the induced emf The direction of the inducedcurrent The alternatingcurrentgenerator The directcurrent generator An induced emf due to achanging current The transformer Stepup and stepdowntransformers The efficiency of atransformer The distribution ofelectrical energy The spark counter The GeigerMiiller tube The diffusion cloudchamber The properties of the ionisingradiations emitted fromradioactive substances The nature of a and radiation The mechanism of radioactive emissionsN Radioactive sources Radioactive decayz Safety precautions anduses Introduction Nuclear Fission The diode Bridge rectifier circuit Smoothing the output froma bridge rectifier A low voltage power supply LEDs LDRs and thermistors Radioactivity and the atom Electronics Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTS The transistor Using transistors Logic gates Combining logic gates The bistable An operational amplifier Operational amplifier as aswitchQuestions Answers to QuestionsIndexScanned with CamScanner
1014
P CRITCHLOW
MASTERING CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
MACMILLAN
1989
HI MACMILLAN MASTER SERIESMASTERINGCHEMBTRYP CRITCHLOWCONTENTSPreface xiI FUNDAMENTALS Yen first principles Electric charge EnergyElements Atoms Inside the atom Arrangement of theelectrons Why atoms differ The Periodic Table Group Compounds StabilityIonic bonding Covalent bonding Shapes of molecules Metallic bonding Giant structures Molecular structures Electrical conductionChemical vocabulary Techniques Structure of the atom Chemical bonding The basic language andtechniques of chemistry II CHEMICAL REACTIONS Energy changes in chemistry Agreed standards Different A values Reasons for energy changes Bond strengths Ionic bonds Why reactions happen The speed and direction of Rate of reactionchemical reactions Reversible reactions Equilibrium Le Chateliers principleScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS OxidationReduction Redox reactions Oxidising agents andreducing agents Examples Ionic favourability Occurrence of the metalsin the Earth Competition for oxygen Atomion exchanges insolution The electrochemical series Electrical current The conduction of electricity through chemicals Explaining electrolysis The complication of water Influence of the electrodes Electroplating Electricity from chemicalreactions Sacrificial zinc What acids do What is common to acids The need for water Reactions of the hydrogen Redox reactions Ions and electricity Acids ion Acids and the PeriodicTable Bases alkalis and salts Titrations Polyprotic acids and acidsalts How acid The pH scale Weak and strong acids Dangerous acids Acids in everyday life Ill CHEMICAL BEHAVIOURScanned with CamScannerix The metals General properties of metals Group the alkali metals Group the alkaline earthmetalsAluminiumThe transition metalsIrona typical transitionmetalCoppera typical transitionmetalThe commercial manufacture of metals and compoundsGroup the halogensThe airOxygen and oxidesSulphurNitrogenPhosphorusCarbon and siliconHydrogenWaterThe commercial productionof nonmetals and theircompoundsThe properties of organicchemicalsThe alkanesThe alkenesThe alcoholsOrganic acidsThe source of organicchemicalsFats and oilsDetergentsPolymers The nonmetals Organic chemistry Large molecules IV CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS Explaining the mole Relative atomic mass Isotopes Relative molecular massScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS Avogadro and the mole The behaviour of gases Determining formulae Molarity of solutions Determining equations Determining relative mole cular massThe mole in electrolysisThe mole in thermochemistry Applying the mole i Questions Index
1046
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATHEMATICS.3 3RD ED
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1995
Scanned with CamScannerV ivContentsA Geometrical Properties or CirclesSymmetrical Properties of CirclesAngle Properties of CirclesIndices and Algebraic ManipulationsY Fractional Indices Further Examples on Changing the Subjectof a Formula Problems Cyclic Quadrilaterals on Angle Properties of Circles SummaryChallenge YourselfTFurther Examples on Algebraic Fractions I IEquations Involving Algebraic FractionsSummaryChallenge Yourself Tangents and Alternate Segment TheoremTangentsTangents from an External PointThe Alternate Segment TheoremSummaryChallenge YourSelf Variations Direct Variation Proportion Other Forms of Direct VariationInverseVariationSummaryChallenge Yourself III Functions and Graphs of FunctionsRelations FunctionsNotationsInverse FunctionsMore Graphs of FunctionsGraphs of Cubic FunctionsGraphs of Reciprocal and HyperbolicFunctionsGraphs of the Form y jGraphs of Exponential FunctionsSketches of Some Important GraphsSummaryChallenge Yourself Solutions of Quadratic EquationsSolving Quadratic Equations by FactorisationRevisionSolution by Completing the SquareComplex RootsGeneral Solution of a Quadratic EquationProblems Involving Quadratic EquationsSummaryChallenge Yourself Coordinate GeometryRevisionDistance Ret ween Two Given PointsGeneral CaseMidpoint of Two Given PointsFormula for MidpointThe Idea of a GradientGradient of a Straight LineGeneral CaseAngle of Slope of a Straight LineSign of the GradientOradienls of Parallel LinesCollinear PointsEquation of a Straight LineSummaryChallenge Yourself Revision Exercise II No I to MidYear Examination Specimen Papers I to Gnphical Solution of EquationsGraphical Solution of Simultaneous LinearEquations Revision Graphical Solution of Quadratic Equations Further GraphsSummaryChallenge Yourself J II Linear Inequalities isLinear Inequalities with One VariableLinear Inequalities with Two VariablesGreatest and Least ValuesSummaryChallenge Yourself r Graphs Applied to KinematicsDistanceTime GraphsGradients of a DistanceTime CurveSpeedTime GraphsSummaryChallenge Yourself P Revision Exercise I No to IScanned with CamScannerContent vOlTrigonometry TrigonometricalRatiosTrigonometrical Ratios of Some SpecialAngles °The Sine RuleThe Cosine RuleBearingThe Area of a TriangleSummaryChallenge Yourself Frequency Distribution Revision Grouped Frequency Distribution Hscegmm Representing Grouped FrequencyDistribution Histogram with Unequal Class IntervalsFrequency PolygonsSummaryChallenge YourselfMeasures of Central TendencyRevisionComputation of tbe Mean of Grouped DataModal Class of a Grouped FrequencyDistributionComputation of the Mean Using an AssumedMeanUsing the Assumed Mean to find the Meanof a Frequency DistributionSummaryChallenge Yourself ThreeDimensional Problems Intersection of Lines and Planes in SpaceTwo Lines in SpaceA Line and a Plane in SpaceNormal to a PlaneAngles between Lines and PlanesFurther ExamplesSummaryChallenge Yourself ProblemSolving Strategies Revision Exercise HI No to Revision Exercise IV No to Final Year Examination SpecimenPapers I to LUCumalative Frequency Distribution Cumulative Frequency TableMedian Qualities and PercentilesInterquartile RangeSummaryChallenge Yourself Answers Index eJetUOSlGMfMb TldoW—Scanned with CamScanner
1086
SINDH SMALL IND. CORPORATION.
PROJECT FEASIBILITY
7D
ENGLISH
SINDH SMALL INDUSTRIES GROUP
CPLUMPMULTIPLE ESHIPICHOICEMATHEMATICSFOR GCSE I Siri LVScanned with CamScannerContentsPreface ivLevel X List syllabus with options except Tests and which have optionsTests questions minutesTests questions minutesTests questions hourLevel Y List syllabus with optionsTests questions minutes Level Y List syllabus with additional material and optionsTests l questions minutes Level Z Extended syllabus with optionsTests — questions minutesTests questions hourAnswersEAIBILITIESSIND SMALLINDUSTRIES CORPORATIONTABLE OF CONTENTSSr No Page II Preface PreRequisits For New Industrial SetupsDistrictWise List of Feasible Industries In Sind Agricultural ImplementsAluminium Factory Biscuit Factory Brick KilnCattle FeedChip Board Cold StorageCanvas Weaving Desert CoolerFire BricksFruits Vegetables ProcessingFlour Milling Gypsum Board Hand Tools Hotel Industry Ice ProductionLeather Industry Light EngineeringLace FabricsLocks PadlocksNuts Bolts and ScrewsOil Expelling Poultry FarmingPoultry Feed IndustryPaper Converting PackagingReadymade GarmentsRe Rolling MillRice Husk BoardRice MillingSoap FactoryStraw Board Wooden FurnitureIIIII I r C fScanned with CamScanner
1117
MICHE II J.SIENKO
CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
MACGRAW HILL
1976
r r K yMichell Sienko Robert A Plane AjFifth EditionIJ Jv JScanned with CamScannerContentsPreface vii Study of MatterThe Nuclear AtomElectrons in AtomsElectrons in Molecules The Chemical BondChemical Formulas and EquationsGasesThe Solid SlateLiquids Amorphous Materials and ColloidsChanges of State and ThermodynamicsSolutionsChemical DynamicsChemical Equilibrium VScanned with CamScannerviContents Electrochemistry Hydrogen Oxygen and Water The Nontransition Metals The Transition Elements Carbon Silicon and Boron Nonmetals Organic Compounds Organic Reactions Fats and Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Bioenergetics and the Origin of LifeiAppendix Chemical Nomenclature Mathematical Operations Definitions from Physics Conversion Factors and SI Units Vapor Pressure of Water Reduction Potentials Equilibrium Constants Kc Atomic and Ionic Radii References Answers to Selected QuestionsIndexScanned with CamS
1143
AHMED UDDIN MARHAVI
DOLPHIN
8B
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1988
pehla baabfehrist mazameen baab unwan dalfn ki nazraindalfn ehad qadeem meindosra baabtaweel gashti bazyaftsaakht aqsampanchawan baabdalfn ki zindagi dalfn ki nafsiataawazian aur bolisatwaan baab dhuwan baabtajarbaat aur Tajar bay ka hain dolphin se aindah tawaquaat choutha baabchhata baabnawan baabmaakhuz kitaab
1144
AHMED UDDIN MARHAVI
DOLPHIN
8B
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1986
pehla baabfehrist mazameen baab unwan dalfn ki nazraindalfn ehad qadeem meindosra baabtaweel gashti bazyaftsaakht aqsampanchawan baabdalfn ki zindagi dalfn ki nafsiataawazian aur bolisatwaan baab dhuwan baabtajarbaat aur Tajar bay ka hain dolphin se aindah tawaquaat choutha baabchhata baabnawan baabmaakhuz kitaab
1147
CORLIS R WILLIAM
COMPUTER
16A
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1988
Aa Aa Aa o o o o H unwaan unwaan peysh lafz insaan aurMeem Pewterer ki ibteda anaDa Paares Babech eyk ajiibo key Gerohon ki huduud sey mausamiyaat ki Peshan Goi Khudkaar ki Machine waali eyk dunya Da Computer ki banaawat eyk aam qism ka hindi Computer barAa nizaam hesaabdaakhil Karnay kaAedadoshumaar maehfuuz Rakhne key li ey Doosri Waly aalaatmaqnaatiisi haafizah yaa Store man Aedadoshumaar ka kaam Hisaabi meyn kya fashaardar Computer key Electronic aalaat key chand ibteda usuul par yaa mantiq ki maaliyatUkroon band Computer sey maluumaat haasil Karnay kao Computer sey baat Cheet Computer aur Santaa Lag ki ka mowaaznah Chotay aur zeyaadah chust jauhari tawaana key Commision ki meyn pi key Jawaabaat
1148
CORLIS R WILLIAM
COMPUTER
16A
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1988
unwaanpeysh lafzComputerana anainsaan aur piir Da sat daadComputer ki ibteda man is Laam o Paars baa peych eyk Beeb baa Iran daro BayOon key garduun ki huduud sey mausamiyaat ki PeshanKhudkaar ki Machine waali eyk dunyaComputer ki banaawat o eyk aam qism ka hindi Computer anna nizaam hesaab daakhil Karnay Aedadoshumaar maehfuuz Rakhne key li ey Dohri Waly aalaatsur maqnaatiisi haafiz yaaka Meem Hisaabi meyn kya jaatadar Computer key Electronic aalaat key chand ibteda usuul par yaa mantiq ki aalmi Print dar Computer sey maluumaat haasil Karnay ka woh Computer sey baat Cheetis mehndi aur apna lang Petrick ka mowaaznah aur Chotay aur zeyaadah chust aur jauhari Tawanayi Commision ki meynkey Jawaabaat
1149
CORLIS R WILLIAM
COMPUTER
16A
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1988
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1150
CORLIS R WILLIAM
COMPUTER
16A
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1988
fehristunwaanunwaanpeysh lafzBayAa abinsaan aur Computer maa Raw dar Ankaar Iran Rawki ibteda oPaars baa peych eyk ajiib ne aur insaaniyato key ki huduud sey mausamiyaat ki Peshan gol tak Khudkaar ki Machine waali eyk dunyaComputer ki banaawat o eyk aam Qum ka mehndi nizaam hesaabdaakhil Karnay la Rakhne key li ey Dohri Waly aalaat sur maqnaatiisi haafizah yaa StoreAedadoshumaar ka kaam meyn kya jaatausuuldar Computer key Electronic aalaat key chand ibteda par eyk yaa mantiq kiUnitMariammaluumaat haasil Karnay ka Tareeqo sey baat Cheet o Computermehndi aur Peerit ki ka mowaaznah Chotay aur zeyaadah chust jauhari key Commision ki meyn key JawaabaatRawdar IranDaRay
1155
SHAFIQ AHMED AZIZ
BAGHBANI O ARAISH KHANA
8B
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1986
paish lafz musannif alaat baghbani kholon ki kaasht ghar ki Araish Gul dastay mausam garma ke chol mausam sarma ke phool beleinkhurscanned with camscanner mann me daal uud a imamAad badoon niaz tabeer deedniab pashi shaakh tarashi zebaishi darakht rawi aer dastdard and
1196
MRIDULA RAO
THE BRAIN AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
8E
ENGLISH
LEARNER
1999
THEi pMO THl RVOUS SYSTEMJi MUScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSj Man—The Smartest Animal The Nervous SystemMessages—Their Route in the Nervous System Workings of the BrainDifferent Functions of the BrainYour Spinal CordDisorders of the Nervous SystemDo It Yourself GlossaryScanned with CamScanner
1202
DR GHULAM RABBANI
SHAHAD KI DUNIYA
8C
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATION
198185
shehad ki duniyadr gh laam Rabbaniscanned with camscannerfehrist mazameen mazmoon j nain mazmoon taarufshehad ki makhi ke aaza shehad ki makhiyan paalne ke fawaid o a o shehar ki thi ka saal ka prgram ÚÚÚ paalne ke puranay shehad ki makhion ka sale chhorna aur jadeed tareeqay o sale niklny ka Pakistani shehar ki kheer ki hain bay siil Ú ka mausam aur waqt ummbh bairooni mumalik ki makhiyan o a j sale chorney ke nuqsanaat shehad ki makhion ki khandani ra daal sale roknay ke tareeq tanzeem aur tarz rahaish sale parhnay ka tareeqa aur andon se bach niklny ki meyaad Ú makhiyan paalne ke liye bah ke kakya o Ú mozoon nahi aur log j chhatain to ÚÚ se makhion ki bay faam mein kahin likhnay ki tarteeb daal chattay ke khaanoon ki jawan j makhiyan panay kelay lon log scanned with camscannermanon mazmoon banaydaal amli tarbiyat Ú ka husool mamma seen shehad ki kaant mar Ú makhion ke dank uud a si shehad ka wazan Kharooss un se bachao ke tareeqay h ashhd ke tibbi Úam dank se bachao ke tareeq ha jald par shehad ka assar dank ka ilaaj bay zakham pay shehad ka assarj zeher ki intehai ka ilaaj j munh gaye aur pehphrondaal link ke zeher ke tibbi fawaid ka ayr mugs baani ka samaan daal Bela aur antadiyon Ú assar o kis ke si noon par shehad ka assar he aur size se dil ka assar bunyadi patt aur makhion ka doodh June j shehad nikaalte ki Shin akhion Ú ba aur do ke aur is ke Fawad Ú sehaasil karna daal deegar aur un ka thaal bay mom ke makhiyan kis terhan banati hain Zargul aur aur shehad ke ajzaye tarkeebi aur bachon aur di faslun ki peda ke madniyaat o namkiyat jaanen shehad ki kyun ka Ú j shehar ke Mohi ajza gond aur pani ka astmal daal shehar ke vitamin akhion ki der jaal shehad ki tezabiyato bas mulahiza karne ka scanned with camscannerRomatda shud Ú karna shehad ÚÚ mein pack karna dars asli shehad ki shanakht aur shehad ke salim chit j garmiyon hi khirki tqaft ÚÚÚ ke d aur un se pani meri kiyebay Ú ka darmiyani faasla is makhion ki nighdasht aur rasaal bhar ke intizami umoor mausam bahhar ka intizam aik bas se do nahi batata ÚÚ se Ú banana haal ke Ú pathan ibtidayi khandan banana ÚÚ Ú uud Â bay mausam garma ka intizam un shehar ke liye tayari shehad ka husool is shehar ki zareen babaai khanaay mitanay ka Iram shehad ganay kelay zaroori shahar nika laney ke liye zaroori samaan dwa€¬ shahar nikaalte ka tareeq di shehar ki hifazat ” krj honay se rokna rawi shehad ÚÚ honay se bayan wim ws sawan chidiyan rim chainian mausam khizaa ka intizam ro masnoi khoraak chori aur is se bachaanke tareeqay ras makhion ka faraar seen mausam sarma ka intiqamdo basoon ko milana ïïª tabdeel karne ka tareeq isi kison ko pak karna mugs baani tri naqal makaniscanned with camscannerwaheinÚÚÚ ke qudrati karkardagi o aadaat ka ÚÚ ko mad ÚÚ bairooni mumalik ki ÚÚÚ ki mein muntaqil karnabemariyan aur un ka ilaaj shahar ki kasmain mugs baani ka calendaro rangat shehad ki bandi aur ags baani ke liye car aamad o taqabul betayki tayari par j mafaad ke liye sheh ka rakhna Â mutafarraq maloomat indagi ki bhi muqami baat bhi ki Úscanned with camscanner
1203
DR GHULAM RABBANI
SHAHAD KI DUNIYA
8C
URDU
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATION
198185
shehad ki duniyadr gh laam Rabbaniscanned with camscannerfehrist mazameen mazmoon j nain mazmoon taarufshehad ki makhi ke aaza shehad ki makhiyan paalne ke fawaid o a o shehar ki thi ka saal ka prgram ÚÚÚ paalne ke puranay shehad ki makhion ka sale chhorna aur jadeed tareeqay o sale niklny ka Pakistani shehar ki kheer ki hain bay siil Ú ka mausam aur waqt ummbh bairooni mumalik ki makhiyan o a j sale chorney ke nuqsanaat shehad ki makhion ki khandani ra daal sale roknay ke tareeq tanzeem aur tarz rahaish sale parhnay ka tareeqa aur andon se bach niklny ki meyaad Ú makhiyan paalne ke liye bah ke kakya o Ú mozoon nahi aur log j chhatain to ÚÚ se makhion ki bay faam mein kahin likhnay ki tarteeb daal chattay ke khaanoon ki jawan j makhiyan panay kelay lon log scanned with camscannermanon mazmoon banaydaal amli tarbiyat Ú ka husool mamma seen shehad ki kaant mar Ú makhion ke dank uud a si shehad ka wazan Kharooss un se bachao ke tareeqay h ashhd ke tibbi Úam dank se bachao ke tareeq ha jald par shehad ka assar dank ka ilaaj bay zakham pay shehad ka assarj zeher ki intehai ka ilaaj j munh gaye aur pehphrondaal link ke zeher ke tibbi fawaid ka ayr mugs baani ka samaan daal Bela aur antadiyon Ú assar o kis ke si noon par shehad ka assar he aur size se dil ka assar bunyadi patt aur makhion ka doodh June j shehad nikaalte ki Shin akhion Ú ba aur do ke aur is ke Fawad Ú sehaasil karna daal deegar aur un ka thaal bay mom ke makhiyan kis terhan banati hain Zargul aur aur shehad ke ajzaye tarkeebi aur bachon aur di faslun ki peda ke madniyaat o namkiyat jaanen shehad ki kyun ka Ú j shehar ke Mohi ajza gond aur pani ka astmal daal shehar ke vitamin akhion ki der jaal shehad ki tezabiyato bas mulahiza karne ka scanned with camscannerRomatda shud Ú karna shehad ÚÚ mein pack karna dars asli shehad ki shanakht aur shehad ke salim chit j garmiyon hi khirki tqaft ÚÚÚ ke d aur un se pani meri kiyebay Ú ka darmiyani faasla is makhion ki nighdasht aur rasaal bhar ke intizami umoor mausam bahhar ka intizam aik bas se do nahi batata ÚÚ se Ú banana haal ke Ú pathan ibtidayi khandan banana ÚÚ Ú uud Â bay mausam garma ka intizam un shehar ke liye tayari shehad ka husool is shehar ki zareen babaai khanaay mitanay ka Iram shehad ganay kelay zaroori shahar nika laney ke liye zaroori samaan dwa€¬ shahar nikaalte ka tareeq di shehar ki hifazat ” krj honay se rokna rawi shehad ÚÚ honay se bayan wim ws sawan chidiyan rim chainian mausam khizaa ka intizam ro masnoi khoraak chori aur is se bachaanke tareeqay ras makhion ka faraar seen mausam sarma ka intiqamdo basoon ko milana ïïª tabdeel karne ka tareeq isi kison ko pak karna mugs baani tri naqal makaniscanned with camscannerwaheinÚÚÚ ke qudrati karkardagi o aadaat ka ÚÚ ko mad ÚÚ bairooni mumalik ki ÚÚÚ ki mein muntaqil karnabemariyan aur un ka ilaaj shahar ki kasmain mugs baani ka calendaro rangat shehad ki bandi aur ags baani ke liye car aamad o taqabul betayki tayari par j mafaad ke liye sheh ka rakhna Â mutafarraq maloomat indagi ki bhi muqami baat bhi ki Úscanned with camscanner
1216
M A KAZI
THE COVALENT BOND
7A
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1983
Scanned with CamScannerC O N T E N T SChapter Page No The Formation Of a Covalent Bond The Nature Of Covalent Bond Factors Affecting The Covalent Bond Breaking Of The Covalent Bond The Methods Of Investigating ReactionMechanisms Substitution Reactions Aromatic Substitution Reactions Addition Reactions Elii ination Reactions Molecular Rearrangements Scanned with CamScanner
1233
FRED BASOLO
COORDINATION CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
W A BENJAMIN
1988
Fred BasoloRonald Johnsonf AwiScanned with CamScannerContentsEditors Foreword viiPreface ixI Introduction and Historical Development Introduction Historical Development NomenclatureProblems III The Coordinate Bond The ElectronPair Bond The Concept of Effective Atomic Number Electronic Structure of the Atom Valence Bond Theory Electrostatic Crystal Field Theory Molecular Orbital TheoryProblemsII Stereochemistry Geometry of Coordination Compounds Isomerism in Metal Complexes Geometrical Isomerism Optical Isomerism Other Types of IsomerismProblemsxiScanned with CamScannACoinnsxiind ReactionsIV Compounds Reactions in Aqueous Solution R Substitution Substitution Reactions Reactions in Nonaqueous in the Absence Solvents of SubstitutionSolvents Therm OxidationReduction Reactions CatalysisSubstitution Reactions Without MetalLigandBond Cleavageal Dissociation of Solid Complexes Trans Effect Synthesis of CisTrans IsomersPreparation of Optically Active Compounds Preparation of Metal Carbonyls and Organometallic CompoundsProblems V Complex Ion Stability Stability Constants Factors that Influence Complex Stability The Determination of Stability ConstantsProblemsVI Kinetics and Mecharsms of Itcctioneof Coordination Compoundsl Rate of a Reaction The Rate Law Effective Collisions Inert and Labile Complexes Mechanisms of Substitution ReactionsOctahedral Substitution ReactionsSquare Planar SubstitutionProblems Mechanisms for Redox ReactionsIndex of ComplexesIndex mScanned with CamScanner
1236
CAROLINE BINGHAM
WHALES & DOLPHINES
8D
ENGLISH
DORLING KINDERSLY
2005
M V flaventBScanned with CamScannerContentsDown to earth Internet linksWhat youll need Elastic energy The power of the Sun Stable structures Lighting effects Under pressure Shadow show Taking flight Light and colour Magnetic attraction Seeing things Static electricity Tricky pictures Electrical bugsSound vibrations Electromagnets Highs and lows Freezing and melting Surface tension Pushing and pullingFriction in action Mixing up HHcannerSorting out mixtures Acids and alkalisFoaming monster Butterfly searchInvisible creaturesOpen wideTest your reactionsHeart and lungsAll in the mindFamily tiesHomemade paper Paper flowersChain reactionCreating crystals Weather watch Doing your own experiments Wind and water power Glossary Sprouting seeds List of experiments Soil science Animal anticsScanned with CamScanner
1238
MRIDULA RAO
THE BONES AND THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
8E
ENGLISH
LEARNER
1997
THEJ yHDSKELETAL SYSTEMScanned with CamScanner
1239
HENRY SEMAT
INTRODUCTION TO ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7F
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1972
Scanned with CamScannerContentsPART ONE Foundations of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Atoms Ions and Electrons Introduction The Avogadrn Number The Avogedro Number andthElectronic Charge Atomic Masses Brownian Motion Vertical Distribution of Particles Displacement of Particles in Brownian Motion Determination of the Charge of an Electron Electric Discharge through Gases Determination of em for Cathode Bays Mass of an Electron The Special Theory of Relativity Introduction The MichelsomMorley Experiment Newtonian Relativity Inertial Systems Fundamental Populates of Einstein s Special Theoryo Relativity The EinsieimlorpnU Iransformauons Relativity of Length Relativity ot Time Relative Velocity Momentum and Energy n Special Relativity Conservation of Momentum and Energy Rost Energy Kinetic Energy and Total Energy Relativistic Mass Relativity and Gravitation The Nuclear Atom Discovery of Natural Radioactivity Radiation Emitted by Radioactive Substances Determination of O M for Alpha Particles Nature of the Alpha Particles Velocities of the Alpha Particles Rutherford s Nuclear Theory of the Atom Single Scattering of Alpha Particles by Thin Foils Experimental Verification of Rutherfords Nuclear Theoryof the Atom Nuclear Sizes Radii Scanned with CamScannerx Contents Nuclear Cross Section Isotopic Masses Isotopic Masses and the Constitution of Nuclei Mass of a Nucleus Energy and Mass Units Some Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation The Nature of Light Radiation from an Accelerated Charge Polarization of Light Circular and Elliptic Polarization Blackbody Radiation The Planck Radiation Law Einsteins Derivation of Plancks Radiation Law Photoelectric Effect Velocity of the Photoelectrons Einsteins Photoelectric Equation Photoelectrons and Conduction Electrons Phototubes Pressure and Momentum of Radiation Angular Momentum of Radiation XRays Discovery of XRays Production of XRays Measurement of the Intensity of XRays Diffraction of XRays Single Crystal XRay Spectrometer The Grating Space of Rocksalt Crystals Typical XRay Spectra Continuous XRay Spectra Wavelengths of Gamma Rays XRay Powder Crystal Diffraction Refraction of XRays Measurement of XRay Wavelengths by RuledGratings Absorption of XRays Atomic Absorption Coefficient Scattering of XRays Determination of the Number of Electronsper Atom Polarization of XRays Intensity of Scattered XRays The Compton Effect Compton Recoil Electrons Waves and Particles De Broglies Hypothesis Scanned with CamScannerContents xi Electron Diffraction Experiments of Davissonand Germer Electron Diffraction Experiments of G P Thomson Waves Associated with Atoms and Molecules Diffraction of Neutrons Velocity of De Broglie Waves Wave and Group Velocities Group Velocity and Particle Velocity Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle Probability Concept Schroedingers Equation for a Single Particle Electron Optics Elements of Quantum Mechanics Postulates of Ouantum Mechanics The Infinite Square Well Expectation Values for the Infinite Square Well The Free Particle The Step Potential The Harmonic Oscillator The Square Well in Three Dimensions Selection Rules Penetration of a Potential Barrier PART TWO The Extranuclear Structure of the Atom The Hydrogen Atom Historical Survey Bohrs Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Motion of the Hydrogen Nucleus The Schroedinger Solution of the Hydrogen Atom Interpretation of the Schroedinger Solution Selection Rules for Hydrogen Electronic Orbits of Hydrogen The Correspondence Principle Elliptic Orbits for Hydrogen Optical Spectra and Electronic Structure Introduction Optical Spectral Series Vector Model of the Atom Orbital AngularMomentum Electron Spin Total Angular Momentum Vector Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron Magnetic Moment due to Spin Magnetic Ouantum Numbers Scanned with CamScannerxii Contents Paulis Exclusion Principle Distribution of Electrons in an Atom Spectral Notation Spectrum of Sodium Absorption of Energy The Zeeman Effect Explanations of the Normal Zeeman Effect The Lande g Factor The Anomalous Zeeman Effect The SternGerlach Experiment and Electron Spin Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Energy Levels Spectra of TwoElectron Atoms The Laser XRay Spectra Characteristic XRay Spectra XRay EnergyLevel Diagram XRay Absorption Spectra XRay Critical Voltages Magnetic Spectrograph XRay Terms and Selection Rules Radiationless Transitions—Auger Effect Production of Characteristic XRay Spectra Selected Applications of Quantum Physics Introduction Molecular Physics Statistical Mechanics Blackbody Radiation Specific Heat of Solids Free Electrons in Metals The Band Theory of ConductionElectrons Josephson Effect ART THREE Nuclear Physics Particle Accelerators Introduction Electrostatic Accelerators The Cyclotron The Betatron Linear Accelerators FrequencyModulated Cyclotron Electron Synchrotron Proton Synchrotron Beam Transport and Detecting Devices Introduction Scanned with CamScannerContents xiii Bending Magnets Quadrupole Magnets Velocity Spectrometers Photographic Emulsions GasFilled Detectors Scintillation Counters and SolidState Detectors Cerenkov Counters Cloud Chambers Bubble Chambers Principles of Particle Indentification Radioactivity Resume of Some Known Properties of Nuclei Natural Radioactive Transformations The Curie Radioactive Series The Neptunium Series Branching Nuclear Isomers Radioactive Isotopes of the Lighter Elements AlphaParticle Disintegration Energy Range of Alpha Particles Alpha Decay BetaRay Spectra Beta Decay GammaDecay Selection Rules for Gamma Decay Isomeric States Resonapce Absorption of Gamma Rays The Moessbauer Effect Application of Moessbauer Effect to GeneralRelativity Nuclear Reactions Introduction Discovery of Artificial Disintegration The ap Reaction Discovery of the Neutron The an Reaction Discovery of the Positron Discovery of Artificial or Induced Radioactivity Induced Beta Decay Simple AlphaParticle Capture Radiative Capture Disintegrations by Proton Bombardment Disintegration by Deuteron Bombardment Disintegration of Nuclei by Photons Disintegration by Neutron Bombardment Radioactive Decay of the Neutron Electron Capture by Nuclei iScanned with CamScannerxiv Contents Fission and Fusion of Nuolej Discovery of Nuclear Fission Fission of Uranium Energies of thn Fission Fragments Ii Soma Products of Nuclear Fianlon b i b Neutrons from Thermal nation of mU bI t Energy of Neutrons from Thermal Elation of mU Delayed Neutron Emission by Ration I mgmontfl Transuranic Elements—Neptunium and Plutonium Photofission of Nuclol Ternary Fission Spontaneous Fission Fission of Hoavy Nuclol Fission of Lighter Nuclei Fission Chain Reaction Processes within a Ronctor Types of Nuclear Reactors Transuranic Elements Stellar Energy of Nuclonr Origin Stellar Evolution Fusion of Light Nuclol Nuclear Processes Stability of Nuclei Nuclear Spins Nuclear Magnetic Moments—MolocularBeam Method Nuclear Induction and Resonance Absorption Orbital Angular Momentum of tho Deutoron Nuclear Models Properties of the Compound Nucleus Formation of a Compound Nucleus Nuclear Shell Structure Beta Decay Comparative HalfLives for Beta Decay Evidence for the Neutrino Rest Mass of the Neutrino IntermediateEnergy Nuclear Reactions Charge Distribution in Nuclol Fundamental Particles The Four Forces The Discovery of the Meson Properties of Muons and Pions Cosmic Rays Primary CosmicRay Particles Antiparticles billScanned with CamScannerContents xv The Concepts of Parity and TimeReversal Nonconservation of Parity in Beta Decay Nonconservation of Parity in Meson Decays Longitudinal Polarization of Beta Particles Neutrinos and Their Interactions K Mesons Hyperons Antibaryons The Classification of Particles Selection Rules Resonances Unitary Symmetry Frontiers APPENDIXESPhysical Constants and Conversion FactorsThe Greek AlphabetAtomic Weights of the ElementsPeriodic Table of the ElementsTable of Nuclear PropertiesReview of Vector NotationDisplacement Equation for Brownian MotionPath of an Alpha Particle in a Coulomb Fieldof ForceDerivation of the Equations for the ComptonEffectEvaluation of Integrals of the FormJ v exp Av dvQuantum Mechanical Solution of the HarmonicOscillatorEvaluation of j Pr dr nrhDerivation of the FermiDirac and BoseEinsteinDistributionsProbability Density FunctionsAnswers to Selected ProblemsI II III IV V V VVVVV VV Index Scanned with CamScanner
1240
MRIDULA RAO
THE HEART AND THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
8E
ENGLISH
LEARNER
1997
HEAltMMfCIRCULATORY SYSTEMjcScanned with CamScanner
1241
MRIDULA RAO
THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
8E
ENGLISH
LEARNER
1995
THEJNGSThlgRESPIRATORY SYSTEM JLm m V S I AScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSAir—Important for BreathingOrgans of BreathingGas exchange in the LungsHow is Breathing ControlledImportance of BreathingSome Common AilmentsIDo It YourselfGlossaryIScanned with CamScanner
1256
M EVAN VALKENBURG
NETWORK ANALYSIS
16D
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATION
1988
HHHmRD EDITIONN E T W O R K r N A L Y S I So V €¢ V ME VAN VALKENBIJRGSHHMHHHHHIScanned with CamScannerContentsPREFACB TO THE THIRD EDITION xiPREFACB TO THE SBCOND EDITION xiiiDEVELOPMENT OF THE CIRCUIT CONCEPT Introduction Charge and Energy The Relationship of Field and Circuit Concepts The Capacitance Parameter The Inductance Parameter The Resistance Parameter Units and Scaling Approximation of a Physical System as a Circuit CONVENTIONS FOR DESCRIBING NETWORKS Reference Directions for Current and Voltage Active Element Conventions The Dot Convention for Coupled Circuits Topological Description of Networks NETWORK EQUATIONS Kirchhojfs Laws The Number of Network Equations Scanned with CamScanneri Source Transformations Examples of the Formulation of NetworkEquations Loop Variable Analysis Node Variable Analysis Determinants Minors and the Gauss Method Duality State Variable Analysis FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS General and Particular Solutions Time Constants The Integrating Factor More Complicated NetworksINITIAL CONDITIONS IN NETWORKS Why Study Initial Conditions Initial Conditions in Elements Geometrical Interpretation of Derivatives A Procedure for Evaluating Initial Conditions Initial State of a Network DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS CONTINUED Secondorder Equation Internal Excitation Higherorder Equations Internal Excitation Networks Excited by External Energy Sources l Response as Related to the sPlane Locationof Roots General Solutions in Terms of S Q and co€ž THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Introduction The Laplace Transformation Some Basic Theorems for the LaplaceTransformation Examples of the Solution of Problems with theLaplace Transformation Partial Fraction Expansion Heavisides Expansion Theorem Examples of Solution by theLaplace Transformation TRANSFORMS OF OTHER SIGNAL WAVEFORMS The Shifted Unit Step Function The Ramp and Impulse Functions Scanned with CamScannerContents Waveform Synthesis The Initial and Final Value of f If from Fs The Convolution Integral Convolution as a Summation IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS AND NETWORK THEOREMS The Concept of Complex Frequency Transform Impedance and Transform Circuits Series and Parallel Combinations of Elements Superposition and Reciprocity Thivenins Theorem and Nortons Theorem NETWORK FUNCTIONS POLES AND ZEROS Terminal Pairs or Ports Network Functions for the One Portand Two Port The Calculation of Network Functions Ladder Networks General Networks Poles and Zeros of Network Functions Restrictions on Pole and Zero Locationsfor DrivingPoint Functions Restrictions on Pole and Zero Locationsfor Transfer Functions Timedomain Behavior from the Poleand Zero Plot Stability of Active Networks TWOPORT PARAMETERS Relationship of TwoPort Variables ShortCircuit Admittance Parameters The OpenCircuit Impedance Parameters Transmission Parameters The Hybrid Parameters Relationships Between Parameter Sets Parallel Connection of TwoPort Networks HSINUSOIDAL STEADYSTATE ANALYSIS The Sinusoidal Steady State The Sinusoid and eÂ± Ja Solution Using eÂ±Ja Solution Using Re or m eJait Phasors and Phasor Diagramsrillpjjors RESPONSE FREQUENCY Parts of Network Functions Magnitude andPhase Plots Complex Loci Plotsfrom sPlane Phasors Bode Diagrams The Nyquist Criterion TRANSFER AND INSERTION LOSS INPUT POWER POWER Energy andPower Effective or RootMeanSquare Average Power and Complex Power Problems in Optimizing Power Transfer Insertion Loss Tellegens Theorem Values FOURIER SERIES AND SIGNAL SPECTRA Fourier Series Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients Waveform Symmetries as Related toFourier Coefficients Convergence in Truncated Series Exponential Form of the Fourier Series SteadyState Response to Periodic Signals FOURIER INTEGRAL AND CONTINUOUS SPECTRA Spectrum Envelope for a Recurring Pulse The Fourier Integral and Transform Application in Network Analysis Some Useful Fourier Transforms The Relationship of Fourier andLaplace Transforms Bandwidth and Pulse Duration Bandwidth and Rise Time APPENDICESALGEBRA OF COMPLEX NUMBERS PHASORSAl Definitions A Addition and Subtraction A Multiplication A Division A Logarithm of a Complex Number A Roots and Powers of Complex Numbers AScanned with CamScannerMATRIX ALGEBRA Bl Definitions B Addition and Subtraction of Matrices B Multiplication of Matrices B Other Definitions Matrix Solution of Simultaneous LinearEquations BSCALING Cl An Example of Scaling C Frequency and Magnitude Scaling CD TABLE OF INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS DIGITAL COMPUTER BXERCISESEl Numerical Methods for Findings Roots E Numerical Integration E Matrix Formulation and Matrix Operations E Solving Simultaneous Linear AlgebraicEquations E Algebraic Operations E Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations E Solution of Nonlinear Differential Equations E Network Analysis E Computer Determination of Magnitude andPhase Plotting E References E REFERENCES Fl Elementary or Intermediate TextbooksF Advanced Textbooks on Circuit TheoryF Computer Oriented Circuit Theory TextbooksF Device ModelingF SystemsF Background Material or Materialof Historical InterestFG ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS H HISTORICAL NOTES Scanned with CamScanner
1257
I S HALL
DISEASES OF THE NOSE THROAT AND EAR
8C
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATION
1972
Diseases ofHe NoseIhroataoiEorM fi r r gjlI Eianata I—f IS Hall and mu saf BH TtWmmKKKMi Coiman ContentsIntroductionExamination equipment Methods of use of instruments SECTION I THE NOSEAnatomy and Physiology of the Nose Examination of the NoseSymptoms of Disease and deformitiesDiseases of the external noseInjury Diseases of the vestibule Diseases of the SeptumAbscess Deviation Treatment of deviation Perforation Diseases of the Nasal CavityRhinitisacute chronic atrophic syphilitic Diseases of the Nasal Cavity contd Nasal allergy Vasomotor disorders Nasal polypi Diseases of the Nasal Cavity contd Foreign bodies Haemorrhage Atresia New growths SyphilisRhinosporidiosis Rhinoscleroma Tuberculosis DiphtheriaUlcerative granuloma SECTION II NASAL ACCESSORY SINUSES Anatomy Acute SinusitisSymptoms Signs Diagnosis Treatment of SinusitisComplications of sinusitis Sinusitis in children Operations for Sinusitis Miscellaneous Diseases affecting the SinusesMucocele Oroantral fistula Tumours of the sinuses Injuries ofthe sinuses Facial pain and headaches Orbital abscessHypophysectomy Scanned with CamScannerf vf nos in rm pit I Anatom Adenoids and Tonsils Acute Diseases of the PharynxNpb fytiptts Ludwigs tngim Ophthem VineenTangina Jcrpc Erysipelas Agranulocytosis Abscesses Chronic Infections of the PharynxChronic pharyngitis Atrophic pharyngitis KeratosisTuberculosis Syphilis Pemphigus Glandular fever Chronic Diseases of the PharynxTumours Foreign bodies Neurological disordersi noSECTION IV THE LARYNX Anatomy Examination of the Larynx Acute Diseases of the LarynxAcute laryngitis Acute epiglottitis Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngeal diphtheria Acute oedema of the larynx Injuries Tracheostomy Chronic Diseases of the LarynxChronic laryngitis Pachydermia Vocal nodulesLcucoplakia Laryngitis sicca Polypus Tuberculosis Syphilis Tumours of the LarynxInnocent tumours Malignant tumours Treatment Neurological Disorders of the LarynxSensory affections Spasmodic affections Paralysis of the larynx Miscellaneous Conditions of the NeckBranchial cyst and fistula Thyroglossal cyst and fistula Salivaryglands Lymph nodesSECTION V ENDOSCOPY Instruments and Examination Diseases of the LaryngopharynxDiverticula Globus hystericus Paterson Kelly syndromeTumours Diseases of the Lung and Oesophaguslung Cardiospasm InJUrjCS Foreign Tumours Bodies Congenital abnormalities or theScanned with CamScannerSECTION VI THE EARs AnatomyExternal ear Middleear Internal ear Examination of the ear andEustachian tubephysiology of the EarExamination ol hearing Tests for vestibular functionDiseases of the External EarMalformations Injuries Affections of the auricle and externalmeatus Wax Foreign bodies Malignant disease The Tympanic MembraneInjuries Perforations The Eustachian tube Acute Otitis MediaEtiology Diagnosis Treatment Otitis media in childrenMyringotomy Chronic Otitis MediaTypes of disease Mucous otitis Atticoantral diseaseCholesteatoma Tympanoplasty Complications of Otitis MediaAcute mastoiditis treatment Complications of Otitis Media contdPerisinus abscess Lateral sinus thrombosis Cavernous sinusthrombosis Labyrinthitis Operations for Mastoiditis and its ComplicationsSchwartze operation Radical operation Operation on the sinusand labyrinth Intracranial Complications of Otitis MediaExtradural abscess Brain abscess Meningitis Petrositis Nonsuppurative Diseases of the Middle EarAdhesive deafness Otitic barotrauma Otosclerosis InjuriesTumours Sensorineural Deafness and Hearing AidsToxic deafness Acoustic injury Psychogenic deafness Sensorineural deafness in children Artificial aids to hearing VertigoMenieres disease Benign positional vertigo Vestibular neuronitispsychogenic vertigo Nuchal vertigo Neural Affections of the EarEighth nerve tumour Facial paralysis Herpes zoster oticus ChemotherapyAntibiotics CancerAppendix Preparation of patients for operation FormulaeIndex
1266
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATHEMATICS.4 3RD ED
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1995
New Syllabus D MATHEMATICS General Editor LEE PENG YEE PAD TEH KENG SENG BSC Dip Ed ALCUNEONG BSC Dip Ed OXFORD Scanned with CamScanner
1267
HESSEL HOWARD FLITTER
AN INTRODUCTION OF PHYSICS IN NURSING
7E
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1979
An introduction toPhysics in NursingHessel Howard FlitterCONTENTSART ONEHYSIC ANI THE SCIECE OF AcwJwitJM Applications Newton Acceleration s and of ofmotion decekratioc rwfatting bodies XNewtons first law of motto Newtons second law of motion Units of force Newtons third law of motion JOConservation of momentum The ballistocardiograph Curvilinear motion Centripetal force and centrifugal reaction Applications JoFhysiolcgic effects of acceleration Gravity—center of gravity and specificgravity Introduction Gravity Clinical applications of gravity Center of gravity Stability Applications in the body Density Specific gravity or relative density Archimedes principle Applications The nature of science Introduction Science and nursing ART TWODEASUREMENT IN PHYSICS ANDURSLNGMeasurements and accuracy Introduction Units of length Units of mass SMass and weightUnits of time Standards and prototypes Fundamental and derived units Equivalents Accuracy Significant figures Forces—concurrent and nonconcurrent Introduction Definitions of force Types of forces Vector addition Right triangles Equilibrium Applications Action of muscles Traction Vector analysis Nonconcurrent forces Torque or moment of force Applications PART FOURENERGY IN PHYSICS AND NURSINGWork energy and power Introduction Work Units of work Energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Power Principles of machines friction andsimple machines Principles of machines Terminology Efficiency and mechanical advantage Friction Why friction occurs Methods of reducing friction ART THREEMOTION IN PHYSICS AND NURSING Types of motion—speed velocity andacceleration Introduction Kinds of motion Speed and velocity viiScanned with CamScannerSire of the orifice ftTvpcs of friction Properties of friction Coefficient of faction The simple machines Lever Firstclass ievtrs bSecondclass levers Thirdclass levers Bent levers Wheel and avle Inclined plane ftWedge Screw Pulley MWaterwheel Viscosity Laminar and turbulent flow Poiseuitle law Applications i i die circulatory wstem Work of the heart elvitv of the bloodstream Application of pressure gradient in fluidexchange t Fluid pressure in jasos IntroductionAtmospheric pressure Measurement of atmospheric pressure Applications of atmospheric pressure Barometers XPump Lift pump Force pumps Compressed air pumpsSiphon Gas laws and pressure volume andtemperature Boyle law WThe laws of Charles and Gay lussac Clinical applications of the ga laws Mechanism of breathing Artificial respiration The respirator The vusculator Oxygen regulator gauge Administration of oxygen Brottehospirometcr Heartlung machine Autoclave Daltons law Henry s law Exchange of gases in the lungs Effects of changes in atmospheric pressure onthe human body Subotmospheric pressure and clinicalapplications Subatmoxpheric prevsure Bernoullis principle Applications of Bernoullis principle Water aspirator Suction by propeller Gravitysuction apparatus Siphonsuction apparatus Waterseal or underwater drainage Thoracic thermotu pump PART FIVEMOLECULES IN PHYSICS ANINURSING The framework of matter Introduction Stales or phases of matter Facts about molecules Number and sire of molecules Solutions Suspensions Colloidal dispersions Molecular phenomena Diffusion Osmosis Dialy sis Cohcsron Adhesion “Meniscus Adsorption and absorption Surface him and surface tension Applications of surface tension Inerfacia tension Capillarity Viscosity Elasticity Kinds of stress and applications PART SIXPRESSURE IN PHYSICS ANDNURSING Fluids— pressure in liquids introduction Meaning of pressure HIPressure in liquids ut rest hydrostatic fluids Hydrostatic paradox Pascals law Hydraulic jack Air and water mattresses Application of Pascals law in the body Pressure in flowing fluids Pressure gradient Friction Head of the fluid PART SEVENHEAL IN PHYSICS AND NURSING Tha nature and measurement ofheat Nature of heat Quantity of heal and intensity of heat Measurement of intensity of heat ortemperature viiiScanned with CamScannerThermometers Thermometer scales Clinical thermometers Other thermometers Measurement of quantity of heat Thermal capacity and specific heat Heat of combustion J Mechanical equivalent of het Effects of heat Thermal effects Changes in phases of matter Heat of fusion Heat of solidification Heat of vaporization Heat of condensation Vaporization Boiling point Relative humidity Sublimation Evaporation Refrigeration Expansion of solids Expansion of liquids Expansion of gases General gas law Heat transfer Heat transfer Conduction Convection Radiation Applications of heat transfer in the body Intensity Pitch The Doppler effect Loudness Timbre Vocalization and hearing Applications Audiometry Speech audiometry Levels of hearing loss Applications Vehicular noises Ultrasonic sound Sonic boom The nature and measurement of light Introduction Nature of light Electromagnetic spectrum Visible spectrum Spectroscopy Colors of objects Invisible spectrum Infrared radiation Thermography Ultraviolet radiation Photosensitivity X rays Fluorescence Fluoroscopy Xray diffraction Photometry Units used in photometry Photometers Radar The physics of vision Introduction Types of lenses Terminology Lenses and images Aberrations of lenses Mirrors and images The eye as a lens Accommodation Defects of refraction Astigmatism Contact lenses Unit of refraction of a lens Refractive index Diopter Polarization Apparatus for examination of the eye Effect of wave energy on the retina Visual fields Color vision PART EIGHTWAVE ENERGY IN PHYSICS ANDNURSING Periodic motion Introduction Periodic motion Simple harmonic motion Natbrc of wave motion Types of waves Transverse waves Longitudinal waves Composite waves Properties of waves Rays Wave phenomena Reflection Refraction Absorption Transmission Diffraction Interference The phyJics of sound and hearing Introduction Frequency JRange of human audibility Velocity Reflection of sound waves PART NINEELECTRICITY IN PHYSICS ANDNURSING Magnetism— a force of nature Introduction ixScanned with CamScannerPolarity Law of magnetic force Magnetic fields Field strength Mngnetic moment Domain theory Characteristics of magnetic lines of force Mngnetic induction Tempeiature effects The earth as a magnet Applications of the magnet and magnetism Electricity—electrostatics andelectrodynamics Introduction Static electricity Theory of electrification Coulombs law Conduction and insulation Induction Discharging of churged bodies Applications of electrostatics Conductivity tester Electrodynamics Sources of electric current Radiant source of electricity Thermal source of electricity Chemical source of electricity Storage cells Dry cells Cells arranged in series and in parallel Magnetic and mechanical sources ofelectricity Unit of quantity Electric power and energy Cost of electric energy Transformers Short circuit Fuses Effects of an electric curenc Radiant effects Thermal effects Chemical effects Mechanical effects The electromagnet Effects of electricity on the human body Bioelectricity electrodiagnosis andelectrotherapy Introduction Measurement of bioelectricity Electroencephalography Electrocardiography Phonocardiography Electromyography Electrostimulation Electric shock therapy Electric cardiac pacemaker Diathermy PART TENNUCLEAR PHYSICS IN NURSING Atomic structure and nuclearradiation Structure of the atom Introduction Bohrs model of the atom Elementary particles Massenergy relationship Stability of the atomic nucleus Nuclear disintegration Nuclear fission Nuclear reactors Fusion or thermonuclear reactions Radioactivity Radioisotopes Transmutation of elements Classification of nuclear reactions Halflife period Biologic halflife Effective halflife Measurement of radioactivity Radiation dosage Detection of radioactivity and monitoring Clinical uses of radioisotopes and radioelements Scanning Radiation hazards Nuclear radiation injuries Rate of fall of particles Nature of alpha beta and gamma radiation Alpha radiation Beta radiation Gamma radiation Conclusions Quantum physics and the laser Introduction Laser light and ordinary light Energy transformations in the emission oflight Stimulated emission of light The ruby laser Applications Dangers of laser Appendix Glossary Answers to problems Electronics and nursing Introduction Electrons in gases Vacuum tubes Television Cathoderay oscilloscope Electron microscope Ultraviolet microsco ransisiors Setnicpy onductors misior pans Elect f i isnsdnCers joermKcihcSlrUtnenls Scanned with CamScanner
1273
THERALD MOELLER
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
7B
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1982
QJRGANIdIEMISTRY ETHERALD MOELLERScanned with CamScannerContentsPART ONE PRINCIPLESCHAPTER Introduction Atomic Nuclei and Properties Related Thereto The Extranuclear Structures of the Atoms The Periodic Classification of the Elements Characteristics Dependent upon the ExtranuclearStructures—I General Characteristics Dependent upon the ExtranuclearStructures—II Valency and the Chemical Bond Complex Ions and Coordination CompoundsS OxidationReduction—Oxidation Potentials Acids and Bases Nonaqueous SolventsPART TWO THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS The Inert Gas Elements Hydrogen Periodic Group Vllb—The Halogens Periodic Group VIb—The Oxygen Family Periodic Group Vb—The Nitrogen Family Periodic Group IVb—The Carbon Family Periodic Group IHb—The Boron Family Periodic Group I—The Alkali and Coinage Metals Periodic Group II—The Alkaline Earth and Zinc FamilyElements The Transition Elements The Inner Transition ElementsAppendix I Characteristics of the Naturally Occurring IsotopesAppendix II Members of the Disintegration SeriesAuthor IndexSubject Indexla
1275
R C MCLEAN
TEST BOOK OF PRACTICAL BOTANY
8B
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATION
1983
TABLE OF CONTENTSPACELIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xixOUTLINE CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS xxiiPART I—METHODSSECTION I OBJECTS AND METHODS OF LABORATORY STUDYA History B Scope of Laboratory StudiesC Principal MethodsD Necessary MaterialsSECTION THE MICROSCOPEA Purchasing a MicroscopeB Essentials of the MicroscopeC AccessoriesD Using the Microscope E Measurement F Drawing SECTION METHODS AND REAGENTSA Preparation of Material Fixing Hardening Preserving Maceration Mounts of Entire ObjectsB Section Cutting C Staining Methods Histological Stains Cytological Stains Stains for Thallophytes Stains for Special PurposesD Mounting Preparations Mounting Media Ringing Slides Labelling E Embedding and Microtome Technique Embedding Microtomy DIAGRAMMATIC SCHEME OF THE STAINING PROCESSES FOR SECTIONSISviiScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSviiiPART IICYTOLOGYCELL STRUCTUREA The Mature Cell Cell Wall Living Cells D Protoplasm and the Mcristcmatic Cell Cyclosis Protoplasmic Connections Plasmolysis Meristemn C Nuclear DivisionSECTION CELL INCLUSIONS AND RESERVESA Chloroplasts B ChromoplastsC Anthocyanins D Lcucoplasts E Starch Grains F Inulin G Cell Crystals Alcuronc Grains SECTION MICROCHEMICAL REACTIONSA Constructional Materials B Cell Contents SECTION TYPES OF MATURE CELLS AND ELEMENTARY TISSUESA ParenchymaB CollcnchymaC Sclcrcids D SclcrcnchymaE Stclar Elements fAOnSECTION I ELEMENTS OFi i iPART IIIEVOLUTIONARY MORPHOLOGYSECTION I ALGAEA Chlorophyceae Chlamydomonas paXrcus Sphaia Eudorina Volvox Ulothrix PleurococcussProgyra Vaucheria OedogoniumCnophyceje Noatoc heScanned with CamScannerCONTENTStxC Rbodophyceae BatrachospermurnChondrus Pohsiphonia CorallinaD Phacophyceae Ecrocarpus Cutleria Dictyota Laminaria Fucus SECTION FUNGI NOTES ON TEE PREPARATION OF AGAR A Archimycetes Plasmodiophora Fuligo Arcyria Redcularia B Phycomycetes Mucor Saprolegnia Monoblepharis Pythium Cystopus PeronosporaC Ascomycetcs Aspergillus Erysiphe Peziza Rhytisma Saccharomyces Claviceps Hypoxylon D Basidiomycetes Puccinia Polyporus Psalliota Cyathus PhallusS SSSSSECTION BACTERIA Bacillus StaphylococcusSECTION CHARALES CharaSECTION HEPATICAE Pellia Marchantia Anthoceros USScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSSECTION Musci Mnium Funaria Polytrichum Sphagnum SECTION FILICALES Dryopteris Pteridium Hymenophyllum Osmunda Botrychium AzollaSECTION EQUISETALES Equisetum SECTION LYCOPODIALES Lycopodium Selaginelia IsoetesSECTION GYMNOSPERMAE Pinus Taxus Cycas Ginkgo Ephedra PART IV—MORPHOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMSSECTION I STEMS AND THEIR MODIFICATIONSA External Morphology of Stems The Normal Stem Modified Stemsa Rhizomes b Tubersc Cormsd Bulbse Stolons Runners g Cladodes h Thorns Other Modifications Branching Bud StructureB Primary Histology of Stems Dicotyledons Monocotyledons Stem Apices iScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS xiPACEC Secondary Histology of Stemsi Dicotyledons Secondary Growth Structure of Mature Wood a Monocotyledons SECTION ROOTS AND THEIR MODIFICATIONSA External Morphology of Roots Dicotyledons Monocotyledons Modified Roots B Histology of Roots DicotyledonsJ Primary State Secondary State Monocotyledons SECTION PERIDERM DEVELOPMENT SECTION LEAVES AND THEIR MODIFICATIONSA External Morphology of Leaves Dicotyledonsi Simple Leaves b Compound Leaves Monocotyledons Other Types of Foliar Organs Phyllotaxis B Histology of Leaves Dicotyledons Monocotyledons Stomata C Petioles and Leaf Fall SECTION HAIRS AND THEIR MODIFICATIONS SECTION INTERNAL GLANDSA Oil GlandsB Latex PART Y—THE SEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF ANGIOSPERMSSECTION I THE MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF FLOWERSA Floral Parts and Symmetry B Floral Development C The Structure of the Androecium Anthers Types of Pollen GrainsD The Structure of the Gynoecium Ovary and Ovule Development of the OvuleE Types of Inflorescences Racemose Cymose Bracts and Bracteoles Scanned with CamScannerIvUCONTENTSSSCTUVN VoiUNvnON EntomophilyB Anemophily FERTILIZATIONSECTION EMBRYO AND SEEDA Embryos B Seed Structure Dicotyledons Monocotyledons SSECTION aSl S a iSECTION GERMINATIONA Dicotyledons Nonendospermic Hypogeal Nonendospermic Epigeal Endospermic Epigeal B Monocotyledons Nonendospermic Epigeal Endospermic Hypogeal Endospermic Epigeal SECTION FRUITSA Dry Fruits Indehiscenta Akene b Caryopsis c Cypselad Samara Dehiscent Follicle Legumec Capsuled Siliqua SchizocarpicSchizocarp a a drs B Fleshy Fruits Berry DrupeC Pseudocarps SECTION DISPERSAL MECHANISMSA Mechanical Dispersal B Wind Dispersal Seeds FruitsC Animal DispersalD Water Dispersal aScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS xiiiPART VI—THE CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMSA SELECTION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL RULES OF NOMENCLATUREriiSECTION I THE DESCRIPTION OF THE FLOWERA Floral Diagrams B Longitudinal Sections C Floral Formulae SECTION EXAMPLES OF THE PRINCIPAL FAMILIESA Ranunculaccac Ranunculus Caltha Aconitum B PapavcraccaePapavcr C CruciferaeChciranthusD ViolaceacViola E CaryophyllaccaeStellaria F GeraniaceaeGeraniumG Papilionaceac Pisum Ulex H Rosaceac Fragaria PyrusJ SaxifragaccaeSaxifraga K UmbelliferacAnthriscusL Compositae Doronicum Taraxacum M EricaceaeErica N PrimulaceaePrimula O SolanaceaeSolanumP Scrophulariaceae Digitalis Veronica Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSxivQ LabiataeLamium R BetulaceaeCorylus S SalicaceaeSalixT AraceaeArumU OrchidaceacOrchis V Liliaceae Tulipa Scilla W AmaryllidaceaeNarcissusX GramineaeArrhenatherum I V js i PART VII—PLANT PHYSIOLOGYHYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION TIIE MEASUREMENT OF pH SECTION I COLLOIDAL PHENOMENAA Lyophile Sols B Emulsions and Lyophobe SolsC Flocculation of Colloid Sols D Brownian Movement E Effect of Reaction pH Amphoteric ColloidsF Imbibition G Adsorption H Surface Tension J Dialysis SECTION ABSORPTION j j i A Osmosis through a Semipermeable MembraneB Artificial Osmotic CellsC Potato Osmoscope D Osmotic Potential of a SolutionE Osmotic Pressure in Living Cells F Suction ForceG Tissue StrainsH PlasmolysisJ Penetration by SolutesK Changes in PermeabilityL Water Cultures M Absorption of Water by the Seed ° ° ° iScanned ith CamScannerCONTENTSxvSECTION TRANSPIRATIONA The Potometer B Comparison of Absorption and TranspirationC The Cobalt Chloride Test for Transpiration D Measurement of the Evaporating Power of AirE Comparison of Stomatal and Cuticular TranspirationF The Porometer G Movement of Water in a Shoot Permeability of Wood to Water J Root Pressure K Askcnasys Experiment PACE i i i SECTION ASSIMILATIONA Formation of Starch in the Leaf B Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide from the Air C Evolution of Oxygen in Photosynthesis D Gas Exchange in Photosynthesis E Dry Weight Method of Measuring Photosynthesis F Extraction of Chlorophyll Absorption SpectrumG Separation of the Leaf Pigments Etiolation J Nitrogen Assimilation Presence of Nitrates and Nitritesin Tissues K Translocation ° SECTION ENZYMESA Action of Amylase on StarchB Action of Lipase on FatC Action of Protease on ProteinsD Oxidizing Enzymes SECTION RESPIRATIONA Aerobic RespirationB Respiration of Starchy and Fatty Seeds C Quantitative Measurement of RespirationD Excretion of Carbon Dioxide by Roots MicroscopicObservations E Production of Heat by Respiration F Loss of Weight due to Respiration G Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation of Sugar by Yeast i SECTION GROWTHA Germination of Seeds B Distribution of Growth in Root Stem and LeafC Measurement of Growth with the AuxanometerD Root Auxanometer E Effect of Temperature on GrowthF Circumnutation G Growth Pressure Effect of Growth SubstancesScanned with CamScannerxviCONTENTSFACSSECTION RESPONSEA Experiments on Geotropism B KlinostatC Geotropism In Relation to Respiration D Phototropic Response E Phototropism with Light of DifferentIntensities N F Nyctinastism of LeavesG Hydrotropism of RootsH Chemotropism and ChemotaxisJ Contact Sensitiveness Thigmotropism K ShockSensitiveness L Hygroscopic MovementsM Cyclosis iColours andr y PART VIII—MODIFICATIONS OF THE NORMAL PLANT FORMSECTION I ANATOMICAL MODIFICATIONSA Leaves Xerophytes Aquatics Sun and Shade Leaves ° °soilin B Stems Xerophytes Aquatics Halophytes Etiolation C RootsHSECTION CLIMBERS UZ A Twiners External Morphology Anatomy B Hook Climbers C Tendril ClimbersSECTION EPIPHYTES SECTION PARASITESA Stem TypesB Root TypesC Algal Types XSECTION SYMBIOSIS A Lichens AND SPECIAL MODES op LIFEMycorrhizanz i ii TjJ cularia UiPknt NepenthesUionaea Dfosera guicula Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSxviiFACESECTION VEGETATIVE PROPAGATIONA Natural Propagation Stolons Suckers Offsets Bulbils Layers Hiberriacula Adventitious BudsB Artificial Propagation Stem Cuttings Root Cuttings Callus Formation ° PART IX—PLANT ECOLOGYINTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON FIELD WORK iSECTION I SOIL STUDIESA Analysis of Soils Sampling Mechanical Analysis Microscopical Examination B Physical Properties Natural Moisture Content Saturation Capacity Pore Space Moisture Equivalent Capillary Power Sticky Point Flocculation of Clay Percolation through SoilC Chemical Properties Soil Reaction Carbonate Content Lime Deficiency Lime Status and Lime Requirement Exchangeable Calcium Total Exchangeable Bases Nitrates in Soil Total Organic Content Oxidizable Organic Content iSECTION PHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONSA TranspirationB AtmometryC Illumination Leaf Mosaic Etiolation SECTION HERBARIUM TECHNIQUE Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSxviiiAND HEREDITYPART XVARIATIONSECTION I VARIATIONA Fluctuating Naturalor Examples “ofCurveof Chance Variation Chance B Correlated Variation iSECTION MUTATIONSSECTION EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTIONA Ontogenetic Evidence B Geographical Evidence SECTION HYBRIDIZATION AND INHERITANCEA Experimental Hybrids B Natural HybridsC Variation and Hybridization within Natural SpeciesD Graft Hybrids iAPPENDIXRECEIPTS FOR COMMON STAINS AND REAGENTS USED IN THIS BOOKSECTION I MICROSCOPICAL REAGENTSA Fixatives fl Macerating FluidsC StainsD Mounting MediaSECTION CHEMICAL REAGENTSA Microchemical Test ReagentsB Indicators C Water Culture SolutionsD Agar MediaSECTION REFERENCE TABLES £ SECTION ADDRESSES OF SCIENTIFIC SUPPLIERS INichrcaUPParatUS G C Stains and IndicatorsD Microscopes etcE Botanical MaterialGREAT BRITAIN S FOURFIGURE LOGARITHMSANTILOGARITHMS INDEX OF PLANT MATERIAL REFERREDINDEX OF SELECTED SUBJECTSTO IN THIS BOOKScanned with CamScanner
1277
NEAL H MCCOY
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN ALGEBRA
7D
ENGLISH
NATIONAL BOOK FOUNDATIN
1982
yjtIri jt ffiffigfVi m NEAL H M c C yScanned with CamScanner SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Sets Mappings Equivalence relations Operations RINGS Formal properties of the integers Definition of a ring Examples of rings Some properties of addition Some other properties of a ring General sums and products Isomorphisms INTEGRAL DOMAINS Definition of integral domain Ordered integral domains A characterization of the ring of integers Mathematical induction The Peano Axioms optional SOME PROPERTIES OF THE INTEGERS Divisors and the Division Algorithm Different bases optionalContentsviii Greatest common divisor The Fundamental Theorem Suino applications of the Fundamental Theorem Pythagorean triples optional The ring of integers modulo n FIELDS AND THE RATIONAL NUMBERS Fields The characteristic Some familiar notation The field of rational numbers A few properties of the field of rational numbers The quotient field of an integral domain Construction of the integers from the natural numbersoptional THE FIELD OF REAL NUMBERS Introduction Definition and examples of Dedekind cuts Addition of cuts The field of real numbers Some properties of the real numbers Proof of Theorem optional THE FIELD OF COMPLEX NUMBERS The complex numbers The conjugate of a complex number Geometric representation and trigonometric form The nth roots of a complex number POLYNOMIALS Polynomial rings The substitution process Divisors and the Division Algorithm Greatest common divisor Unique factorization in Fx Rational roots of a polynomial over the rational field Prime polynomials over the rational field optionalContentsixScanned with CamScanner lVIymuuuds over tho ml or complex numbers Thu ring of polynomials modulo ax tl Partial fractions optional GROUPS Definition of a group Some simple properties of groups Mappings and permutation groups Cyclic groups Cosets and Lagranges Theorem The symmetric group Sn VECTOR SPACES Vectors in a plane Definition and simple properties of a vector space Linear dependence Linear combinations and subspaces Basis and dimension Isomorphism of vector spaces Inner products in VnF SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Notation and simple results Echelon systems Matrices Applications to systems of linear equations Systems of linear homogeneous equations DETERMINANTS Preliminary remarksGeneral definition of determinantSome fundamental propertiesExpansion in terms of a row Jhe determinant rank of a Systems of linear equationsor columna matrixContentsXScanned with CamScanner UNEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES S Linear transformations Algebra of linear transformations The finitedimensional case Algebra of matrices Linear transformations of VnF Equivalent matrices The determinant of a productINDEX
1354
ARTHUR ATKINSON
CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
LONGMAN
1983
Contentspage Solutions and Crystals States of Matter Physical and Chemical ChangesElements Compounds and Mixtures Burning and Rusting The Atmosphere and Oxygen Water and Hydrogen The Nature of Matter Formulae and Equations The Structure of Matter Oxides Oxidation and Reduction Hydrogen Peroxide Acids Salts and Bases Masses and Numbers of Reacting Particles Rates of Reactions Reactivity Series Action of Electricity on Matter The Periodic Table Heals of reaction Carbonates and Carbon Dioxide Carbon and Carbon Monoxide Fuels Silicon Nitrogen and Ammonia Nitric Acid Oxides of Nitrogen Sulphur and its Compounds Chlorine and its Compounds The Halogens Metals and Nonmetals Organic Chemistry More about organic compounds Volumetric Analysis Qualitative AnalysisExamination Type QuestionsRelative Atomic Masses and Physical PropertiesAnswers to Numerical QuestionsIndex
1426
A HOLDERNESS
A NEW CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY
7B
ENGLISH
HEINMANN
1987
Scanned with CamScannerContentspucPreface to the sixth edition Introduction Physical and chemical change elements compoundsand mixtures Atomic theory States of matter The mole Chemical formulae Chemical equations Atomic structure Chemical union and structurei Periodicity Molecular theory Calculations involving gas volumes Formulae of gases Volumetric analysis Acids bases and salts electricity and chemicals Calculations using the mole concept Oxidation and reduction Energy changes in chemical reactions Rate of reaction Chemical reactions and equilibrium Radioactivity Air and combustion Water and solution Oxygen and its compounds Hydrogen Carbon oxides of carbon and carbonatesv Organic chemistry Silicon and its compoundsiii Scanned with CamScannerContents The halogens Compounds of the halogens Sulphur Compounds of sulphur Nitrogen and its compounds Phosphorus and its compounds Metals extractions and Metals general properties Revision notesGeneral questionsAnswers to numerical questionsAnswers to general questionsRelative atomic massesPeriodic tableIndexUses Scanned with CamScanner
1427
MICHAEL NELKON
ADVANCED LEVEL PHYSICS
7F
ENGLISH
HEINEMANN
1987
Scanned with CamScannerContentsPart One Mechanics Solid Materiais DynamicsFree Linear Linear Laws fall motion momentum of gmotion Graphs Velocity Vector Inertia Impulse Acceleration addition mass Action weight and Vectors reaction subtraction Force scalars in Gravitational systems Components Equations Conservation force Projectiles of Fmotion ma of momentum Inelastic and elastic collisionsWork energy power Work calculations Power of engine Kinetic andgravitational potential energy Gravitational momentum and energy changesDimensions Circular Motion Gravitation SHM Circular motion Angular speed Acceleration in circle Centripetal forces Bankedtrack Conical pendulum Bicycle motionGravitation Keplers laws Newtons law of gravitation G and measurementEarthmoon system Weightless Earth satellites Parking orbit Earth densityMass of Sun Gravitation potential Velocity of escape Satellite potential andkinetic energy Simple harmonic motion Formula for acceleration velocity displacementGraphs of kinetic and potential energy Oscillations in springmass systemPotential and kinetic energy exchanges Sprmgs in series and parallel Simplependulum Oscillation ofliquid in Utube Forces In Equilibrium Forces in FluidsForces in equilibrium Adding forces—vector and parallelogram methodsResolved components Couple and moment Triangle and polygon of forcesEquilibrium of forcesCentre of mass centre of gravityForces in fluids Pressure formula Atmospheric pressure Density ArchimedesPrinciple and proof Flotation Stokeslaw Terminal velocity Further Topics inMechanicsand and angular luidsacceleration Rotational kineticAngular momentum Conservation of angularmotion down inclined planev aerofoil liftr carburettorRotational Dynamics Torqueenergy Work done in rotation momentum and applications RollingFluid Motion Bernoulli principle Filter pumpVenturi meter Pitotstatic tube principleScanned with CamScannerContents Elasticity Molecular Forces Solid MaterialsElasticity Proportional and elastic limits Hookes law Elastic limit YieldpoJBreaking stress Young modulus measurement Force in bar Energy storedEnergy per unit volume Molecular Forces Molecular separation Intermodular forces and potentialProperties of solidsHookes law thermal expansion Latent heat of vapofisation Bonds between atoms and moleculesSolid Materials Crystalline amorphous glassy polymeric solids Impcrfcctions in crystals Dislocations Elastic and plastic deformation Ductile andbrittle substances Slip plane Work hardening Annealing Cracks and effectToughness and hardness Composite materials Polymers Structure andmechanical properties Branching and crosslinking fhermosets and thermoplastics Hysteresis of rubber WoodPort Two Electricity Electrostatics Coulombs law Permittivity Field strength intensity and field patterns Pointcharge sphere parallel plates Gausss law and applications Potential andvalues for conductors Potential gradient Relation to field strength Equipotentials Capacitors Parallelplate formula C by vibrating reed and high impedance voltmeterDielectric and relative permittivity and polarisation Capacitors in series andparallel Connected capacitors Energy formulae Charging and discharging inCR circuit Timeconstant Current Electricity Current Electricity Charge carriers in materials I nAve Ohmic and nonohmic conductors Circuit laws—series and parallel KirchhofFs laws Emfinternal resistance Terminal pdMaximum power in loadEnergy Power Heating effect of current Thermoelectricityof Potentiometer ammeter Measuremer and Principle voltmeter ts ty of Potentiometer comparing Comparisonand ofand resistances measuring Wheatstone eThermoelectric mf and Bridge pd Calibration emf Wheatstone bridge Network and relation between resistances ResistivityTemperature coefficient of resistance Thermistor and application— Contents Magnetic Field and Force on ConductorFrce o Conductor F Bit TorquetUNI Appliction In movinscoilppliouiomm° “ Ch C “ Hill vollagc Mali pJ qCoili Mopneflc Holds of CuncmfCanyfng ConductorsValue of B fot infinite and finite solenoid Straight conductor Narrow circularcoil Helmholtz coils Fields and force between parallel currents Amperedefinition Ampere balance Biot Savart law for lvalues Amperes law Electromognetlc Induclion Flux linkage Faraday Icnr laws L Bit Dynamo transformer Lorenzmethod for R Charge and flux linkage urrent m L R circuit Self and mutualinductance Lnergy in coil AC Circuits Peak rm f values in sine and squarewave voltages Single componentsRCL phase Scries circuits impedance phase Resonance in LCR circuitPower in circuits Parallel circuit Bridge rectifierPort Three Geometrical Optics WavesWove Optics Sound Waves Geometrical Optics Reflection— spherical and paraboloid mirrors Refraction at plane surfaceusinf constant Total internal reflection critical angle Refraction throughPrism Maximum and minimum deviation Spectrometer Dispersion by prismOptical fibres Monomodc multimode optical paths Maximum incidenceAbsor ption and dispersion Conversion of Light signal to sound Lenses Optical Instruments Lenses Converging diverging lenses Images CalculationsOptical Instruments Refractor and reflector telescopes Magnifying powerEyering Simple microscopexll Contents J Further Topics In OpticsCompound microscope lens number depth of field Spherical andchromatic aberrationscamera Oscillations and WavesOscillations resonance phase Ultrasonics Longitudinal transverse waveswave spectrum and properties Speeds of matter and electromagnete waves Wave Theory of Light Speed of LightWave Theory Huygens principle Reflection and refraction at surfaces Refractive index and speed Critical angle on wave theorySpeed ofliflht — Foucault speed in liquid Michclson method Interference of Light Waves Principle of superposition Coherent sources Phase Youngs twoslit fringesAirwedge fringes Newtons rings Blooming of lens Colours in thin films Diffraction of Light Waves Diffraction at single slit Intensity variation First minimum Resolving power oftelescope objectiveMultiple slits Diffraction grating and orders Wavelength by diffractiongrating Hologram principle Polarisation of Light Waves Characteristics of Sound Wavespnncple Phch loudness n sound quality near Inand ensity circular of sound motion Beats Doppler and application light Doonler RrContentsn waves In Pipes and Stringsi iiMrwsSsr— Part Four Heat liitroduetldn Temperature HeatEnergy Thermometry Fixed points triple point Gas thermometer and standard temperature Constantvolume gas thermometer Thermoelectric thermometer Platinum resistancethermometer Calculations of temperatureOther thermocouples Heat Capacity Latent Heat Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity Measurement by electrical methodContinuous flow method Advantages Newtons law of cooling Heat loss andtemperature fall Cooling correctionSpecific latent heatElectrical method method of mixtures Gas Laws Thermodynamics Heat Capacities Boyles law Volume pressure and lemperalure Ideal gas law pV nRTConnected gas containers Daltons law Unsalurated and saturated vapoursThermodynamics Work done by gas Interna energy of gas First aw ofthermodynamics Work from graphs Reversible isothermal and adiabaticHem capacitiesat constant volume and pressure Enthalpy Kinetic Theory of GasesAssumptions for ideal gas Pressure formulatant° Grahams law ofdiffusionperature and kinetic theory Boltzmann constant ahamsMaxwell distribution of molecular speedsScanned with CamScannerContentsxtv Transfer of Heal Conduction and RadiationConduct and ompcraiurc gradient Thermal conductivity Electrical analogyTemperature gradient in good and bad conductors Measunng conductvtt ofEXdtarion Stefan Blackbody law and and radiation applications infmmdEnergy rajs Sun “ Iteof distribution s temperature thermopile among for absorption wavelengths and Wien adiation law Further Topics In HeatKinetic Theory Real Gases Thermodynamics Radiation Kinetic Theory anddegrees of freedom Values of molecular heat capacities and ratios Mean freepath Viscosity Real gases and critical phenomena Andrews experiments on p curves torcarbon dioxide Critical temperature Real gas laws Boyle temperature JoulcKclvuTeflect Van dcr Waals equationPort Five Electrons Electronics Atomic Physics Electron Motion in Reids CathodeRcry Oscilloscope The Electron Oildrop experiment Millikan experiment Thermionic emissionProperties of electron Electron motion in magnetic field Circular path applications Electron motion in electric field Parabolic path energy gain Chargemassratio measurements Electron mass Helical path of electronsCathoderay oscilloscope Voltage supplies Timebase Focusing ControlsUses for ac voltage frequency phase clock Junction Diode Transistor and Applications Energy bands in solids Electron hole carriers Intrinsic extrinsic semiconductors Effect of temperature Pn junction Barrier pd Rectification Bridgerectifier Zener diodeTransistor npn pnp Current flow Commonemitter characteristicsAmplifier Current gain Phase change Saturation cutofT Transistor switchUse as amplifier Logic gale Analogue and Digital ElectronicsAnalogue electronics Voltage gain Noninverting and inverting amplification ofOpamp Characteristics of Opampimpedance saturation virtual earth Powersupplies OlTset voltage Frequency characteristic Closed loop gain Summingamplifier Positive feedback Squarewave oscillator Astable multivibrator Sinewave oscillator Voltage comparator Switching circuits IntegratorKMWBNOR gates Heating tL°control iC gTrHalfJAdder ANDNAND FullAdder OR NOR Bistable Use of Clocked NAND gates SRflipflop Binary fourbit counterScanned with CamScannerContentsxv photoelectricity EnergyLevels XRays WforVlanck iPhotoelectricity f ct Einstein constant photoelectric Demonstration Photocells theory Intensity Photons Threshold Stopping potential value Wave Experiment theoryovePcrticle Duality theory jn Energy spectrum of hydrogen levels Emission of hydrogen atom absorption Excitation Fraunhofer Ionisation lines potential Laser Frequency principle Bohr values sXWavc ray X rays spectrum particle Nature Mfinality and inimum properties Electron wavelength difTracti Crystal value diffraction Absorption “ Bragg spectra law Moseley lawand energyDuality Compton effect on Dc Broglieformula Momentum RadioactivityNuclear Energy GcigcrMtiller tube Count rate voltage characteristic Quenching Soliddctecto gammarays Counter Nature Ratemcter of particles Experiments and rays Half on alpha life Decay particles constant beta particles Measuring andlong and short halflives Carbon dating Cloud chambersNucleus GeigcrMarsdcn experiment Scattering law Protons neutronsRadioactive disintegration Nuclear reactions Mass spectrometer IsotopesNuclear energy Einstein massenergy relation Mass unit Binding energynuclear forces Nuclear stability Energy from isotopes Nuclear fusion Chainreaction Fission Thermonuclear reactionstateAnswers to ExercisesIndexr Scanned with CamScanner
1428
MICHAEL NELKON
ADANCED PHYSICS
7F
ENGLISH
PAN BOOKS
1987
Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSAcknowledgements The Examination Boards To the reader Mechanics motion force momentum energyEquations of linear motion Force acceleration and momentum Work energy and power Worked examples on motion force momentum andenergy Circular motion gravitation simple harmonic motionand rotational dynamicsCircular motion Worked examples on circular motion Gravitation Worked examples on gravitation Simple harmonic motion shm Worked examples on shm Rotational dynamics Worked examples on rotational dynamics Static electricityCharge forces field and potential Capacitance Worked examples ContentsCurrent electricity Chargecurrent and potentialdifference Electrical power and energy Resistance Emf and internal resistance The potentiometer Workedexamples Electromagnetism Force on wires and moving changes in magnetic fields Electromagnetic induction Field produced by currents Inductance and ac circuits Worked examples Geometricaloptics iRefraction at plane surfaces Lenses Worked examples on lenses Optical instruments Worked examples on telescopes Waves light and sound Types and speeds of waves Properties of waves Interference with light waves ContentsDiffraction of light Polarization of light Uses of polaroids Soundwaves Doppler effect Electromagnetic waves Worked examples Electron physics and electronicsProduction and properties of electrons The cathoderay oscilloscope Electronics Digital and analogue circuits Worked examples Atomic and nuclear physicsQuanta of energy The nuclear atom and radioactivity Nuclear structure Worked examples Heat energy gases heat capacities of gasesthermodynamicsGas laws Worked examples on gas law Kinetic theory of ideal gas Worked examples on kinetic theory Contents Heat capacities of gases thermodynamics Worked example on molar heat capacity external workand internal energy change Thermometry heat energy and transferThermometry Worked examples on temperature usinggas thermometer and resistance thermometer Heat energy heat capacity and latent heat capacity Worked examples on heat capacityelectrical heatingand constant flow tube experiment Latent heat Heat transfer conduction Worked examples on conduction in series conductorsand in double glazing Elasticity Elasticityand Young Young modulus modulus solid materials moleculesWorked examples on elasticity and Young modulus Solid materials Molecular potential energy and force Viscosity or fluid friction Worked examples on viscosity Answers to exercises Index
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS CLASS XII VOL SINDH TEXTBOOK BOARD JAMSHORO Scanned with CamScanner
1432
ARSHAD JAMAL
PRACTICAL BOTANY XI
8B
ENGLISH
AZAD STATIONER

PRACTICALCBOTANYCLASS XARSHAD JAMAlOCTUKKRO J SIND VCHNME N TSCIENCE CO L LEG E KAHACl IIScanned with CamScannerMC O N T E N T SChapter IMICROSCOPESSimple and Compoundtemporary mountMicroscopes Preparation ofChapter IIMORPHOLOGY Part of an angiospermic plant Mustard Vinca rosea The Seeds Gram seed Mdze seed Castor seedChapter IIITHE ROOTModifications of Tap and Adventitious RootsChapter IVTHE STEMModifications of Underground Sub Aerial and Aerial Stems Chapter VTHE LEAFSimple leaf Compound leaf Venation StipulesModificatoins of leaves Phyllotaxy Chapter VITHE INFLORESCENCERacemose Cymose and Special types of Inflorescence Chopter VIITHE FLOWERParts of a flower Aestivation Insertion of floral leaves Placentation Important descriptive termsChapter VI THE FRUITSimple fruits Aggregate fruits Composite FruitsScanned with CamScannerChapter IXHISTOLOGY b The Plant Cell Mitosis The TissuesT S of Dicot Stem of Sunflower CucurbitaCytologyAnatomyT S of Sunflower stem showing secondary growthT S of Monocot stem of MaizeT S of Dicot root of SunflowerT S of Sunflower root showing secondary growth T S of Monocot root of MaizeT S of Dicot leaf of Nerium and Monocot leaf of MaizeChapter XANGIOSPERMSMalvaceae China rose Althea roseaCrucifereae MustardCompositae SunflowerSolonaceae Mako Petunia alba Nyctaginaqeae Bougainvillea Liliaceae AsparagusGramineae Zea maize Practical examination paper and distribution of marks
1433
ARSHAD JAMAL
PRACTICAL BOTANY XII
8B
ENGLISH
AZAD STATIONER

PRACTICAL Zmk m¥ w Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPTER — MICROSCOPES — PageSimple MicroscopesCompound Microscopes CHAPTER II— CRYPTOGAMS —THALLOPHYTAOscillatoriaSpirogyraDictyotaMucor Agaricus BRYOPHYTAMarchantia Moss PTERIDOPHYTA FernCHAPTER III GYMNOSPERMS —CONIFEROPHYTA Pinus ANGIOSPERMS CHAPTER IV Sunflower MaizeScanned with CamScanner ECOLOGYHAPTER VT S of Hydrilla StemT S of Typha LeafT S of Casuaraina StemT S of Cycas LeafletT S of Nerium Leaf tAPTER VI — PHYSIOLOGY —Osmosis Root Pressure Ascent of SapTranspiration Relation between absorption transpirationTranspiration Unequal transpiration from two surfaces of a leafTranspiration Measurement of transpiration by Ganongs Potometer Photosynthesis Oxygen evolved during photosynthesisPhotosynthesis Molls half leaf experimentRespiration Aerobic RespirationRespiration Anaerobic Respiration Growth Rate of growth by afi arc auxanometer Phases of MeiosisPractical Examination Paper Distribution of MarksPart II Scanned with CamScanner
1434
N K SHAMIM SIDDIQUI
PRACTICAL ZOOLOGY I
8B
ENGLISH
AZAD STATIONER

P R A C T I C A LC p N T E N TTOPICS PAGEEXTERNAL FEATURE FROGDISSECTION OF FROG SKELETON OF FROG SKELETON OF RABBIT HISTOLOGY OF TISSUES
1436
SAROJINI T .RAKALI
MODERN BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
FEP INTERNATIONAL
1979
CONTENTS LIVING THINGS organisms Differences between Plants and Animals TheCharacteristicsi s m s The Classification of Living OrganismsImportance oi rganisms Are Mnde Up Of — Cells Tissues Organs — Plttnts andUAnimals WhatSystems MICROORGANISMSViruses Bacteria Man and the Control of DiseaseCausing Germs Unicellular Plants Chlamydomoms rivalis Euglena viridis Unicellular Animals — Amoeba proteusParamecium caudaturn SIMPLE MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMSPuugj Rhizopus nigricans Penicillium notation Yeasts Economic Importance ofFungi Spirogyra HydraI FLOWERING PLANTSA Typical Flowering Plant The Balsam Annuals Biennials and Perennials The Root— Modifications of Roots Regions of the Root Apex Functions of Roots InternalStructure of a Root The Stem — Types of Stems Regions of the Stem Apex Functionsof Stems Internal Structure of a Stem Characteristics of Stems and Roots The Leaf —Parts of a Leaf Venation of a Leaf Types of Leaves Leaf Arrangement Modificationsof Leaves Functions of Leaves Internal Structure of a LeafMOLLUSCS AND ANNELIDSMolluscs — The Snail Annelids — The EarthwormARTHROPODSCrustaceans The Prawn InsectsButterfly Moths Mosquitoes The Housefly — The Grasshopper The Tsetsefly The TheCockroach Greenfly Termites The Lime orTmiXThTcemd RiCC WeeVH AraChnidS The Spider MyriaP°ds “ SOILi— J S SlasES of Soil Soil Panicles °mSoil Scanned with CamScannerVN KISIIKS AIl fANS UKITILICS AND BIRDS Lizard The fhCommon ClchidHouse AmPhibinns Lizard —Birds The—Toad The The Pigeon Frog Reptiles The Agama MAMMALSThe RabbitSkeleton of a—Mammal External —Features The Axial Internal Skeleton Organs The Life History Mode of Life TheJoints Appendicular Skeleton Movement NUTRITIONPhotosynthesis in PlantsStorage Proteins The Photosynlhesis Nitrogen Organs Fats Cycle and The in Oils Plants Importance The Mineral —Carbon Nutrition The of Products Salts Cycle Photosynthesis in Vitamins Animals Special of Photosynthesis Methods Water toFood LireSubstances Diet of Mineral The Nutrition Enzymes Factors Nutrition — in Carbohydrates Necessary Plants in Plants Food forTransport —istics Ingestion of Enzymes and Digestion Storage Typesand of ofDigested Enzymes EgestionFood Dentition Absorption The of Liver and Mammals Assimilation Nutrition of Digested —in aCharacter Mammal Food RESPIRATIONRespiration in Plants Respiration in Animals Respiration in a Mammal — ExternalRespiration Internal Tissue Respiration TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS Transport of Materials in Plants — Osmosis Diffusion Turgidity and FlacridityPlasmolysis The Absorption of Soil Water The Transport of Soil Water — RootPressure and Suction Pressure Transpiration — The Conditions Affecting the Rate ofTranspiration The Importance of Transpiration The Potometer The Transport ofFood Substances in Plants Transport of Materials in Animals Transport in a Mammal— Blood Lymph The Circulation of Blood EXCRETIONExcretion in Plants Excretion in Animals Excretion in a Mammal — The Kidneys TheLungs The Liver The SkinREPRODUCTIONReproduction in Plants Sexual Reproduction in Plants — Flowers — Flower Structure Pollination Characteristics of Entomophilous Flowers Characteristics ofAnemophilous Flowers Fertilization Fruits — Types of Fruits Dispersal of Fruitsand Seeds Seeds — Seed Structure Germination The Conditions Necessary forGermination Types of Germination Vegetative Propagation in Plants — NaturalVegetative Propagation Artificial Vegetative Propagation Reproduction in AnimalsReproduction in a Mammal — The Male Reproductive System The Female Reproductive System Fertilization and its Effects Birth Parental Care Genetics — The CellCell Division Pioneer Works of Mendel and Morgan Inheritance Sex DeterminationSex Linkage Mutation Breeding and Quality Heredity and Man The Genetic Materialor DNA Scanned with CamScannerSGromhn Plants Structure of Apical Meristems The Rate of Growth in PlantsS L R e g e n e r a t i o n in AnanaKThHeaoflsil IRRITABILITYIrritability in Plants Nastic Movements in Plants Tactic Movements in Plants T Movements in Plants— Geotropism Phototropism Hydrotropism Haptotro P CAuxins and Tropisms Irritability in Animals Tactic Movements in Animals Irritabilitin Mammals The Nervous System of a Mammal — The Neurone The Brain The SpinalCord Membranes of the Brain and Spinal Cord Cranial and Spinal Nerves The Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary and Voluntary Actions The Sense Organs ofMammal— The Sense of Smell The Sense of Taste The Sense of Touch The Sense ofSight The Senses of Hearing and Balance The Endocrine System of a Mammal ThePituitary Gland The Thyroid Gland The Adrenal Glands The PancreasThe EndocrineGlands of the Gonads Hormones and Coordination SOME COMMON TREESThe Coconut Palm The Oil Palm The Flamboyant The Mango Tree The CocoaTree EVOLUTIONThe Factors Which Give Evidence of Evolution— Geology and Evolution Anatomyand Evolution Embryology and Evolution Environment and Evolution Sex andEvolution Evolution in Modern Times THE INTERDEPENDE OF LIVING ORGANISMSThe Maintenance of LifeEcojrigy — Food Relationships within a Community Communities and Habitats Ecological Factors A Study of Some Habitats SuccessionMan and His Environment — Relationships Beneficial to Man Relationships Harmfulto Man Mans Interference with Nature PRACTICAL ECOLOGYApparatus Used in Practical Ecology Method of Conducting An Ecological Survey Population Studies Population Characteristics An Earthworm Survey by Sampling A Survey of the Distribution of Living Things in a Terrestrial Habitat A Survey ofTridax Population in a given HabitatII CROP CULTIVATION AND POULTRY FARMINGSome Crop Plants — Rice Groundnuts Maize Cassava Sugarcane Some Diseasesof Crop Plants — Fungal Diseases Virus Diseases Bacterial Diseases Weeds andtheir Control — Types of Weeds Economic Importance of Weeds Seed Dispersalof Weeds Control of Weeds Poultry Farming — Nutritional Requirements Diseases— Their Cause and Prevention INDEXScanned with CamScanner
1438
R L KOTPAL
MODERN BOOK OF ZOOLOGY IN INVERTIBRATES
8B
ENGLISH
RASTOGI
1988
SMODERN TEXTBOOK OP ZOOLOGYli Contents Zoology The Science of AnimalsLife and living organism Form of life Science of life The study of ZoologySubdivisions of Zoology Specialized branches of Zoology Contribution of Zoology General Principles of Taxonomy and Animal ClassificationTaxonomy The science of classification and nomenclature History of TaxonomyThe species Natural system of classification Taxonomy hierarchy NomenclatureMajor groups in animal classification Outline classification of animals Protoplasm The Basic Living SubstanceHistorical Physical nature of protoplasm Chemical nature of protoplasm Cell Structure and FunctionEarly history Cell theory Definition of cell Shape and size of cells Two basiccell types Ultrastructure of a generalized cell— Cell DivisionAmitosis Mitosis Meiosis Comparison of mitosis and meiosis The Invertebrates —What is an invertebrate Present Invertebrate phyla Major and minor phyla Loweand higher Invertebrates Contrast between lower and higher Invertebrates Generacharacteristics of Invertebrates Invertebrates versus vertebrates Comparison betwceiInvertebrates and Vertebrates Phvlogeny of Invertebrates Euglena —Euglena viridis Culture of Euglena Euglena as an animal Other euglcnoid flagellateE spirogyra E gracilis Astasia longa Earam ma trichophorumScanned with CamScannerkriii J TrypanosomanisTrypanosoma gambienseSPolymorphic eTherapy on Treatment Prevenuon ed animals Symptoms aniP c AmoebaCulture of Amoeba Amoeba proteus EntamoebaEntamoeba histolyticaOther entaraoebae of man — Elphidium PolystomellaEhhidium crispum Polystomella ertspa Biological significance of Amoeba Pathogenesis Diagnosis Therapy Prevention prpiE hertmanUt E coli E gingivalIsV Plasmodium The Malaria ParasiteHosts Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax Comparative account iDistributionspecies of human infecting Plasmodium Human malaria Symptoms and pathogtADuration of infection Relapses Control of malaria Antimalaria campaign int Monocystis Laboratory study of Monocystis Structure of trophozoite Reproduction andcycle Effect of parasitism EimeriaLife cycle of Eimeria tenella Pathogenesis Prevention Treatmenti i ParameciumParamecium caudatum Cytoplasmic particles in Paramecium Vorticellaooze Gregarina Opalno Boland General AcSl and formorgandies andUcountCytoplasm NucleusContractile vEconomic import and °smoeiriIOCO”ioOV Nufriud Skcl°n ParasitismScanned with CamScannerbntents xxsLeucosoleniaT Scypha SyconI Porifera Characters Classification and TypesGeneral characters Classihcation Other types of Porifera Euplectella HyalonemdCliona Chalina Spongilla Euspongia Porifera General AccountBody form and colouration Canal system Skeleton Reproduction RegenerationAnimal nature of sponges Individuality in sponges Origin of sponges Affinitiesand systematic position Economic importance Sponge industry Hydra———— Obelia A Sea Fur —Hydroid colony Medusa Life history Comparison of polyp and medusa Aurelia A Jelly Fish —Contrast between Obelia and Aurelia Metridium A Sea Anemone — Coelenterata Characters Classification and Types —General characters Classification Some other important coelenterate types—Bougainvillea Hydractinia Tubularia Pennaria Sertularia Plumularia CampanulariaMillepora Physalia Velella Porpita Tubipora Alcyonium Gorgonia Corallium PennatulaFungia Madrepora Acropora Astraea Meandrina Coelenterata General Account —Polymorphism Corals Coral reefs CtenophoraGeneral characters Comparison with Coelenterata Position in Animal KingdomClassification Few important types— Velamen Pleurobrachia Ctenoplana Coeloplana Dugesia Euplanaria A PlanarianDugesia tigrinaI Fasciola Fasciola hepaliea hepatica Features A Liver of Significance Fluke in life History Infection Pathogenesn Therapy Prophylaxis Taenia A TapewormTaenia soliumFasciola and Taenia—S—Pathogenesis Therapy Prophylaxis Comparative studys Classification and Typescharacters Platyhelminties Definition Important features Phylogenetic significance GeneraClassification Some other types Cenvofota Bipaium Thysanozo Opisfliorchis Clcnorcliis sinensis Schistosoma larcgonimus £ciinocccuEvolution of parasitism in PJaiyhcminthes Parasitic adaptation of flatworms i Roundworm s Ascaris Ascarls hmbricoides The Common Paihogtncsis Therapy Prophylaxis Ancyclostoma The Common HookwormAncyclostcma duodenale Diagnosis Pathogenesis Therapy control Other hook Necator americanus Wuchereria The FilariawormWuchereria bancrofii Diagnosis Pathogenesis therapy Aschelminthes Characters Classification and TypessGeneral characters of Aschelminthes Major groups of Aschelminthes RotGastrotricha Kinorhyncha Ncmatophora Ncmatoda Classification of NeraaSome common ncmatoda parasites— Trichuris trichura Trichinella spiralis Rhd Enterobius vermiculais Dracuncvlus medinensis Helminthes and Human DiseasesNematodiasis Trematodiasis Cestodiasis Nereis A Clamworm Pheretima An EarthwormPheretima posthuma Economic importa Hirudinaria granulosa Parasitic adaptation Comparativesystems of Nereis Pheretima and General Annelida characters Characters Classification Classification Other types andof Types AnnelidaPhyllodoce Pontobdella Hirudo Chaetopterus Polygordius Arenicola Sipunculus Amphitrite Terebella — Aphrodite Megascokx Polyn °Lun enceAn Indian Cattle Leechaccount of digestive excretory and reproduHirudinaria—— Palaemon Ealaemon nwlcolmThe ScorpionA Prawnsonii HihW Periplonetn pcriplancm amcriiana A Cockroach Other cockroachesPeriplaneta australasiae — Malta orientalis Mattella gcrtnanlcaContents r xi — iN The Grasshopper —jjeonomic importance of grasshopper Grasshopper control locust migration Musco The HouseflyMusca domesint I conomic importance of housefly Ply control Culex nnd Anopheles The MosquitoesComparison of life histories of Ct lrx and AnophelesMosquito control——Mosquitoborne diseases Apis The Honey bee —Economic importance of honey bee Arthropoda Characters Classification and TypesGeneral characters Classification lew other Afthopodan types— Llrrrulut SpidersMites Ticks Dophnio Cyclops Qpn I epax Polarvs Saeeulina Squillo HippoEurcgvrvs Cancer Millipedes Centipedes Lpittna l ocust Gryllus Praying mantisStick insect Termites Dragon flies Pedievlu Citvex Earwig Butterflies MothsSilkmoth Drosophila Fleas Wasps Ants— Arthropoda General AccountLarvae of Crustacea Moutbparti of infects Respiration in insects Economic importanceof insects Metamorphosis in insects fnsectxidcs nnd insect control— PeripatusAffinities Taxonomic position— Pila An Apple SnailPlla globose Torsion in Gastropoda— Unio A Freshwater MusselComparative study of respiratory systems of Pila and Unlo Comparative account ofnervous systems of Pila and Unlo Mollusca Characters Classification and TypesGeneral characters Classification Few other types—Necpllina Chiton DentallumPatella Cypraea Aplysia Helix Doris Umax MytUus Pecten Pearl oyster SolanTeredo Sepia Lollgo Octopus Nautilus——Scanned with CamScannerxil Asterias A Sea StarS Echinodermata Characters Classification and TypesGeneral charachcrs Classification Few other typss—Pentaceros °Pecten Gorgonocephalus Echinus Clypeaster Cucumaria Thyone n e Balanoglossus A Tongue Worm Phytogeny and affinities of Balanoglossus Hcmichordata Hemichordata Characters Classification and TypesCharacters Classification Few other types—Rhabdopleura CephalodiscusGlossary of Technical TermsSelected References Index Scanned with CamScanner
1439
FRANCIS MILLER
CHEMISTRY
7B
ENGLISH
MCGRAW HILL
1985
ym CIlliMISTRiSTRUCTURE AND DYNAMICSInternational Student EditionScanned with CamScanne the Student xvii the Instructor xixiRT ONERUCTURElapter Introduction The Roots of Chemical ScienceThe Greek Philosophers The Alchemists The Phlogiston Theory The Discovery of Oxygen Scientific Method Scientific MeasurementsLength Area and Volume Mass Density Temperature Significant Figures Unit Factors in Calculations CNTENTSlapter Matter Law of Constant Composition Mixtures and Pure SubstancesSeparation of Mixtures Compounds and Elements Law of Multiple Proportions The Atomic Theory Symbols for the Elements Atomic Masses WeightsLaw of Combining Volumes of Gases AvogadrosHypothesis Molecular Masses Molecular FormulasElemental Analysis Names of Compoundslapter Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Chemical Equations Stoichiometry The Mole Stoichiometric CalculationsMole Relationships Relationships Based onEquations Reactions in SolutionConcentration Solution Stoichiometry Titrationstapter Energy Mechanical EnergyKinetic and Potential Energy State Functions Heat Scanned with CamScannerfCONTENTSTransferWork and Energyof Thermodynamics Heat Temperature The First Law Calorimetry EnthalpyEnthalpy and States of Matter Standard Enthalpy Hesss IMW Standard Enthalpy ofChangeFormation Radiant EnergyThe Wave Nature of Radiant Energy Diffraction ofRadiation The Particle Nature of Radiant Energy Electrical Energy Energy Resources and Utilization Chapter Gases The Bulk Properties of Gases Atmospheric Pressure The PressureVolume Relationship of Gases The TemperatureVolume Relationship of Gases Kinetic Energy of Gas Molecules The Ideal Gas LawMolar Volume Gas Density Molar Masses Gas Stoichiometry Partial Pressures The KineticMolecular TheoryMolecular Velocities Mean Free Path Effusion ofCases Real GasesChapter Atomic Structure The Electron Protons and Neutrons Radioactivity The Nuclear Atom X Rays and Atomic Number The Mass Spectrometer Electron Structure of the AtomEmission Spectra The Hydrogen SpectrumThe Bohr Model for the Hydrogen Atom Matter WavesThe Uncertainty Principle Wave Mechanics The Quantum Quantum Numbers Mechanical Hydrogen Atom Orbital Energies The Spin Quantum Number Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTS Multielectron Atoms Electron Configurations of the Elements IS Scientific ModelsChapter Periodic Relationships of the Elements Mendeleevs Periodic TableThe Periodic Table Today The Periodic Variation of Properties Atomic Size Ionization Energy Electron Affinity ElectronegativityS Metals and Nonmetals The Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table Chapter The Chemical BondS The Ionic Bond The Covalent BondLewis Structures—The Octet Rule Inadequacies ofthe Octet Rule and Lewis Structures Resonance Molecular Geometry—ElectronPair Repulsion OxidationReductionOxidation State Oxidizing Agents and ReducingAgents Balancing OxidationReduction Equations NomenclatureBinary Compounds Polyatomic Anions Acidshapter Theories of the Covalent Bond The Valence Bond ModelBond Polarity Hybrid Orbitals MultipleBonds Resonance The Molecular Orbital ModelFirst Period Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Second Period Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules The Metallic Bond Average Bond EnergiesIo I Ihapter Molecular Structure and theStates of Matter Liquids Gases Liquids and Solids Polarities of MoleculesPolar Covalent Molecules Hydrogen Bonds London Forces LiquidsCONTENTSIntennolecular Attractions in Liquids VaporPressure Le Choteliers Principle Enthalpy ofVaporization Freezing of Liquids Phase ChangesPhase DiagramsChapter The Solid State Crystal StructureCrystal Systems ClosePacked Structures IonicCrystal Structures Solid Covalent Compounds Network Covalent Crystals Properties ofCrystalline Solids Liquid Crystals Crystal Lattice DefectsChapter Properties of Mixtures Solutions and Colloids Gaseous SolutionsSolutions of Gases in Liquids Solutions of Solids in LiquidsThe Solution Process Enthalpy ofSolution Solubility Structure and Solubility Expressions of ConcentrationMass Percent Parts per Million and Partsper Billion Mole Fraction Molality Molarity Solution Stoichiometry Properties of Solutions of Solids in LiquidsVapor Pressure Boiling Point Elevation FreezingPoint Depression Osmotic Pressure Molar MassDetermination Solutions of Ionic Solutes in Liquids Solutions of Liquids in LiquidsVapor Pressure Distillation Solid Solutions Colloidal SuspensionsPART TWODYNAMICSChapter Structure and Chemical Reactivity Direct Combination of ElementsThe Formation of Ionic Compounds The Formation of Covalent Compounds Decomposition Reactions IonCombining ReactionsOxidationReduction Reactions Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSxl Acids and BasesArrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases BrflnstedLowry Definition of Acids and Bases LewisDefinition of Acids and Bases Strengths of Acidsand Bases Aqueous Solutions of Salts Oxides Amphoterism Reactivity TrendsHydrides Chlorideslapter Chemical Kinetics Rates of Reactions Collision Theory Concentration EffectsRate Equations Integrated Rate Equations HalfLife Temperature Effects Transition State Theory Reaction Mechanism Catalysislapter Chemical Equilibrium Concentration Effects in EquilibriaEquilibrium Constant Expressions Kinetics andEquilibrium Equilibrium Constants Equilibrium Calculations Applications of Le Chateliers PrincipleEffect of Concentration Changes Effect of PressureChanges Effect of Temperature Changes Effect of Catalysts The Haber Process Heterogeneous Equilibriatapter Ionic Equilibria Aqueous Acids and Bases Dissociation Constant Expressions The Dissociation of Water The pH ScalepOH and pK pKa Polyprotic Acids Weak Bases Conjugate AcidBase Relationships Aqueous Solutions of Salts Common Ion Effect Buffers AcidBase Titrations Indicators Summary of AcidBase EquilibriaScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSChapter Ionic Equilibria Solubility and Complex Ions Solubility EquilibriaSolubility Product Constants KS andPrecipitation Common Ions and Solubility Complex Ion Equilibria Qualitative AnalysisChapter Chemical Thermodynamics The First Law Revisited Reversible and Irreversible Processes Exothermic and Endothermic Processes Spontaneous Processes EntropyEntropy and Reversibility Mathematical Definitionof Entropy Free Energy Free Energy and EquilibriumFree Energy Change under Nonstandard Conditions Experimental Determination of ThermodynamicFunctions The Third Law of Thermodynamics Standard Free Energies of Formation The Second Law and Human ActivityChapter The Interconversion ot Chemicaland Electrical Energy Voltaic Cells Balancing OxidationReduction Equations Cell Potentials Electrode Potentials Free Energy Changes in Voltaic Cells Cell Potentials and Equilibrium Constants Concentration Effects in Voltaic CellsMeasurement of Ionic Concentrations Commercial Voltaic CellsFuel Cells ElectrolysisQuantitative Electrolysis Commercial Usesof ElectrolysisChapter The Interactions betweenRadiant Energy and Matter The Absorption of Radiant Energy Absorption SpectraRotational Spectra Vibrational Spectra IElectronic SpectraJCONTENTS xlll Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Photochemical ReactionsFfcofognrpftjf j Photosynthesis j Photoclectrolysis Other Photochenucd Reactionstapter Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Composition Atmospheric Density£ Atmospheric Temperatures Atmospheric Ionization£ Atmospheric PollutionStratospheric Pollution Twposphcric Pollution Control of Atmospheric Pollutiontapter Chemistry of the Nonmetals I HydrogenPreparation Reactivity£ Group SA The Noble GasesOecunrnee Reactivity Group A The HalogensPreparation Reactivity Metal Halides MX Hydrogen Halides HX Nonmetal Halides AXn Interhalogen Compounds XX n Halogen OxidesXO Oxohalogen Acids HXOn Group A The ChalcogensOccurrence and Preparation Reactivity MetalChalcogenides MAn Hydrogen ChalcogenidesH A Chalcogen Oxides AO and A Oxochalcogen Acids HA and H Aapter Chemistry of the Nonmetals II Group A The Nitrogen FamilyOccurrence and Preparation Structure andReactivity Nitrides and Phosphides M Q Hydrides QH Halides QX and QX Oxides Oxoacids Group A Carbon and SiliconOccurrence Preparation and Reactivity Carbidesand Silicides Oxides and Oxoacids SulfurHalogen and Nitrogen Compounds Hydrides Group A BoronBorides Halides Boric Acid Hydridestapter Geochemistry and Metallurgy GeochemistryMinerals RocksrCONTENTS£ MrttilluiKvI lYlimitunyYS liefining MetalsCorrosionChemistry of the Metals rhvsicnl Properties Properties of Cations Representative MetalsGroup A Metals the Alkali Metals Group AMetals the Alkaline Earth Metals Group AMetals Group A Metals Transition Metals Inner Transition Metals Important Transition MetalsChromium Manganese Iron The CoinageMetals—Copper Silver and Gold Zinc Cadmiumand MercuryTraiment of Ores Reduction ofChapter Chapter Coordination Complexes The Nature of Coordination ComplexesLigands Nomenclature Coordination Numberand Geometry Isomerism in CoordinationComplexes Color of Coordination Complexes Bonding in Coordination ComplexesValence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Ligand Field Theory Reactions of Coordination ComplexesChapter Nuclear Chemistry The Nature of Radioactive Radiation Detection of Radioactive EmissionsRadioactive Tracers Natural Radioactive Decay Series Kinetics of Radioactive DisintegrationDating Nuclear Structure and StabilityNeutronProton Ratio Binding Energies Nuclear Structure Nuclear Emissions Nuclear TransformationsParticle Accelerators Synthetic Elements Nuclear FissionoFission Readier Nuclear Reactors Nuclear FusionBiological Effects of Radiation Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSfPENDIXESA Review of MathematicsAl Algebraic OperationsQuadratic EquationsA Exponential Numbers and Scientific NotationExponential ArithmeticA LogarithmsOperations with Logarithms Natural LogarithmsA Electronic CalculatorsA GraphsB SI UnitsC Physical ConstantsD Derivation of Some EquationsDl KineticMolecular Theory and the Ideal Gas LawD Electron ChargetoMass RatioD The MasstoCharge Ratio in the Mass SpectrometerD The Bohr Equation for the Electron Energies in theHydrogen AtomD Integrated Rate EquationsZeroOrder Equation FirstOrder Equation SecondOrder Equationossarylswers to Selected ExercisesdexScanned with CamScanner
1440
T BUECHE
PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
MCGRAW HILL
1988
Frederick J BuechePrinciplesof PhysicsTH EDITIONs mmmJ McGRAWHScanned with CamScannerContents in brief Vectors and their tje Stat equilibrium Uniformly aocefctated motion Newtons laws Work and energy Unear momentum Mol ion in a c itr ic H HoJational work cwrg and mrwnrntum Mechanical properties matter HI Gases and the kmrtK theory TTirrmal properties matter Thermodynamic Vibration and wave Sound f Electne hrur and Md Electric potential IK rimni Magnetism Electromagnetic induction Alternating currents and tfedltwta Electromagnetic waves The properties of light Optical devices Interference and diffraction Three revolutionary concepts Energy levels and spectra The atomic nucleus The physics of tie very large and very small Scanned with CamScannerContentsPreface xvIntroduction Solving problems in statics Torque The second condition for equilibrium The center of gravity The position of the pivot is arbitrary SPECIAL NOTE Mobiles Back injury from lifting Why objects tip over SPECIAL NOTE Architectural arches Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Vectors and their use Vector and scalar quantities Vector addition Graphical addition of vectors Rectangular components of vectors Trigonometric addition of vectors Forces as vector quantities Subtraction of vector quantities SPECIAL NOTE Sailing into the wind Metric prefixes and scientific notation Algebra involving scientific notation Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Uniformly accelerated motion i Speed Average velocity Instantaneous velocity Onedimensional motion JJ Acceleration Static equilibrium Objects in equilibrium The first condition for equilibrium Scanned with CamScannerQliwfjonand UniformlyanrWatcdlinrAr motkm ohrrt Two derived equations for untformlyncceleraled molkm Conversion of unit Freely falling bodies smut iwrts Thrpnrf of fm full M Projectile motion fobGltki ftMinimum lentrung goa Question and gwwUmatw Problem U l i n r a r nirfnlnm IH j TV urf Koear fnrTWtim J NVfno irfr Uw framed Cdowrvafirw hnexr rnrrlgrn Rfesfr ttti imtmtit tutlmnm Moment in p rf ul pkyntt smut wtt jrstiM wnrr Rndkef and Momentwo n mufiotHMs Jftou WTt k kmghtu hsffer TV pressure an steal cs Mirwnwn learning gr Oaesfiorw and gaenttiffiNtes Pmfttetm Nekton laws I The ifcrrvery of physical law Newtonfirttlawofmotion MWtu wnr ham Newton Incrltt and maws Action and reaction the hirrl law TV SI syWem of unit Newtons vseond law spwetM wm k mtthodt of mine Mas and rt rrUtki to wright Fnttiwfc inror AppfcJrtkn fif Nrwtwis srtiiOd law HI Wrghi v wngtrtlcswir Minimum learning goal Question and gwesrtwwles PmWems Motion in a circle Anpiitr Angular reJuntr at IC AAguktr atrdefatwm rt I Angpfkxt motion etyuulwen Tafl£rntul qourtitws tprtalrtriTMo f Kewtco A enqsmon s few rrmcvnee of gravitation Hcr TV ffantatKMejwt and CfcVat nvilatm MgMlewsi Mssnam tesimn gte Sfcirstion and guesstimates Ptobtems Work and energy The definition of work Power Kinetic energy The workenergy theorem Gravitational potential energy The gravitational force is conservative The intertonversion erf kinetic andpotential energy Other forms of energy The law of conservation of energy Machines SPEC MI NOTE Perpetual motion machines Minimum teaming goals Rotational work energy and momentum Rotational work and kinetic energy Rotational inertia S Combined rotation and translation Angular momentum SPEMAI NOT How cals land feet first Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimatesProblems viii ContentsBScanned with CamScannery Cttlorlinolty IIOllH Tlicmmlnjjiimloii UJI Tritnsfor of hciit coiiiluclloi W Transfer of lion convection AHH Transfer of heal radiation Home insulation SPECIAL NOTE Ourfragile climate Humidity Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Mechanical properties of matter Characterization of materials Density Hookes law modulus Pressure in fluids Archimedes principle buoyancy Viscosity Bernoullis equation Laminar versus turbulent flow Viscous drag Stokes law Terminal velocity SPECIAL NOTE The centrifuge Bloodpressure measurement Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Thermodynamics State variables The first law of thermodynamics The work done by a system Specific heats of ideal gases Typical processes in gases Nature and times arrow Order versus disorder Entropy Heat engines The absolute temperature scale SPECIAL NOTE Food fat and work Refrigerators air conditioners and heat pum The heat death of the universe Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Gases and the kinetic theory Barometric pressure L Thermometers and temperature scales SPECIAL NOTE Soft drinks and siphons The mole and Avogadros number The ideal gas law Using the gas law The molecular basis for the gas law SPECIAL NOTE Atoms a historic struggle Distribution of molecular speeds inimum learning goals uestions and guesstimates roblems Vibration and waves Periodic motion Energy in a Hookes law spring Simple harmonic motion Frequency of vibration in simple harmonic me Sinusoidal motion The simple pendulum Forced vibrations Wave terminology Reflection of a wave Wave resonance Transverse waves EB Thermal properties of matter The concept of heat Thermal energy Heat units Specific heat capacity PECIAL NOTE James Prescott Joule Vaporization and boiling Heat of fusion and melting ConteScanned with CamScanner Longitudinal waves Standing compressionai waves on a spring Compressional waves on a bar Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Electric potential Electrical potential energy Potential difference Equipotentials Batteries as sources of energy The electronvolt energy unit Absolute potentials Capacitors SPECIAL NOTE Millikans oildrop experiment Dielectrics The effects of dielectrics The energy stored in a capacitor The energy stored in an electric field Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Sound The origin of sound Sound waves in air The speed of sound Intensity and intensity level The frequency response of the ear Sound pitch and quality Interference of sound waves SPECIAL NOTE The acoustics of large rooms Beats Resonance of air columns The Doppler effect SPECIAL NOTE The speeds of blood and baseballs Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Directcurrent circuits Electric current A simple electric circuit Ohms law Resistivity and its temperature dependence SPECIAL NOTE Superconductors Power and electric heating Kirchhoffs point rule Kirchhoffs loop rule Resistors in series and in parallel Solving circuit problems Ammeters and voltmeters House circuits Electrical safety The emf and terminal potential of a batteryMinimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Electric forces and fields Atoms as the source of charge Forces between charges Insulators and conductors The electroscope Charging by conduction and by induction Faradays icepail experiment Conservation of charge Coulombs law SPECIAL NOTE Hunting quarks The electric field The electric field of a point charge The electric field in various systems Parallel metal plates Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Magnetism Magnetic field plotting The magnetic field of an electric current The force on a current in a magnetic field Ix ContentsbMScanned with CamScannerjauueosuueo IMAA pauueosdWJtf rn w J f f f t KW t i HMVM JIff MfM Iff smuamufi yytrue rtm WPVIJf t M ii t put T f ij ft i i z a t A u R ttoUh f f n n u I t i u Uvjffr Jf V ttAWU f Jt iv s fc f cit rvrt t V i JVti i t f ft i i i i J t rft r ijr £ iv i f V i II r J bf j p n t if JMf Mft to Hf Jl ijfr f t A ” t ft ll ti A n J j m i ArrwT fr x QMOMn tr s ai K mMy in i i f ti tij t i i i jid t i I HI j “ S i i i i S ti J n rj S U jr tfU J i v m I l v Jl I J S if£ c a s f m ij jti A fM v r a W j S v Hi f r Mi ii ii r ftrt U t r i pfMfl mmtmm HMH fMMyf J ii J i t J i t i The relativistic massenergy relation Plancks discovery SPECIAL NOTEOptical devices Einsteins use of Plancks concept The eye Max Planck The simple camera Lenses in close combination diopter units The magnifying glass The compound microscope The astronomical telescope The binocular SPECIAL NOTE Radio astronomy The prism spectrometer Polarized light Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems The Compton effect The momentum of the photon The de Broglie wavelength Wave mechanics versus classical mechanics Resonance of de Broglie wavesstationary states ft The uncertainty principle Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems KB Energy levels and spectra The modem history of atoms The semiclassical hydrogen atom Hydrogen energy levels SPECIAL NOTE Niels Bohr Light emission from hydrogen The absorption spectrum of hydrogen The wave theory of the atom Quantum numbers and the Pauliexclusion principle The periodic table Xrays and the spectra of multielectron atoms SPECIAL NOTE The discovery of xrays Laser light Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Interference and diffraction Huygens principle and diffraction Interference Youngs doubleslit experiment Coherent waves and sources SPECIAL NOTE Thomas Young Interference in thin films Equivalent optical path length The diffraction grating Diffraction by a single slit Diffraction and the limits of resolution SPECIAL NOTE Picturing the interior of the human body The diffraction of xrays by crystals Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems E The atomic nucleus Three revolutionary concepts Atomic number and mass number Nuclear masses isotopes Nuclear size and density Nuclear binding energy Radioactivity Exponential decay Emissions from naturally radioactive nuclei SPECIAL NOTE The discovery of radioactivity The postulates of relativity The speed of light as a limiting speed Simultaneity SPECIAL NOTE Albert Einstein Moving clocks run too slowly Relativistic length contraction xii ContentsScanned with CamScanner Nuclear reactions Natural radioactive series Interactions of radiation with matter The detection of radiation Radiation units Radiation damage Medical uses of radioactivity Radioactive dating The fission reaction Nuclear reactors Nuclear fusion Nuclear models Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems Leptons versus hadrons Fundamental forces The force between quarks gluons The primordial fireball Stellar evolution The expanding universe The future Minimum learning goals Questions and guesstimates Problems AppendixesThe periodic table of the elements An abbreviated table of isotopes A mathematics review Trigonometric functions Answers to oddnumbered problems The physics of the very large nnd very small The ancient history of particle physics Particle accelerators Particles within particles quarks Index Scanned with CamScanner
R O B E R T G L E NContentsPage Interpreting numbersPlace valueReading scalesRoundingEstimatingNumber patternsMental calculationCalculator problemsData handlingMental calculationEveryday solidsEdges vertices shapesPackingNetsVolumeSpatial orientationSimple gridsSimple gridsCartesian axesEnlargingFrequency table modeFrequency table modeMean median rangeInterpreting dataInterpreting dataLines of symmetryAcute obtuse rightMeasuring anglesDrawing anglesScale drawingSupplementary anglesAngle sum of triangleAngle sum of a quadrilateral Angles round a pointRegular polygonsSimple gridsInterpreting graphsConstructing and interpreting Constructing and interpreting Constructing and interpreting Simple deductionNumbers all around On the buttonScalesclocks and dialsMaking the headlinesRough and readyWhat comes nextIn your headUsing your calculatorA busy sales repScoring a centuryGetting into shapeMaking shapesTins and boxesMaking boxesCubecapersPoints of viewMystery prizeDecode the messageSquaresGrowing upNewspaper surveyMore surveysJust averageCensusParty timeReflectionsAngles everywhereZigzagSnookeredHigh and wideSki jumperAngles in a triangleFoursided shapesFullcircleMaking patternsWhole numbersD Shape CoordinatesShapeStatisticsShapeAngles Graphs InitialsSetting up shopTrianglesSpringtimeSporting speedsMathematical thinking Thinking things outArea Covering upShapes and sizesSquarecentimetresTile the roomArea of a rectangleSquaresMaking squaresArea of a triangleArea by countingOrdering areasSquare centimetresArea by multiplyingLength times breadthArea of squarePractical problemsArea of triangleScanned with CamScannerCompound shapes Page Other standard unitsCost of covering an areaPulit togetherSquare metres square yardsFeed the lawnLength breadth andperimeter InvestigationAn area investigationAreaSquare numbers prime numbers Volume of cuboidsCapacityLanguage of fractionsUso of VolumeFillingupSaturday ottornoonHall timoHalve againBits andpiecesShaded shapesFractionsTake your chanceMakingends meetShopping aroundRise andtailHallturnIce championsSharpen upBack to schoolMeasure themallBatterypowerTee timePower puzzleNumber drillVoltage valuesRoundingNumber drill TithingPlay your cardsrightA circle formulaHexacutProblems withapointRoundtheroomFencemeinUpstairsFallingrollsKeep taking the tabletsIn the swimAreaola trianglePerimetersChubby cheeksPaperbacksFuelconsumptionContinue thepatternTake your chanceMorebits andpiecesStarting workWhat size screwA goodmixVolumeFractionsM n lnCalculating n of quantitiesProbabilityPie chartReductionsIncrease and decreaseHalf turn rotationApplicationScalesMoney notationcm scaleSimple graphsMeasurementsUsing a codeMultiplying by Using a formulaRoundingMultiplying and dividing by Dividing by Mixed calculationCircumference of circleDissection problemsProblemsPerimetersPerimetersProblemLine graphBarchartScale drawingsArea ol a triangleInvestigationBar graphLine graphBar graphPatternProbabilityShapeDecimalsMathematical thinkingDecimalsShapeFractionsan Mixed numbersAdding and subtractingRatioiScanned with CamScannerCounting coinsCalculating changeCalculating changeCalculating changeCalculating changePuzzlesVocabularyPeriods of timehour notationTime zoneshour notationIntervalsAddition of hoursAddition of hours and minutesCalculating intervalsCooling curvePricingPricingPricing from a tablePricing from a tablePricing from a tableMental calculationsDivision by Foreign exchangeProblem solvingRent and ratesGeneralisation of patternsTimetablesInterpreting timetablesInterpreting timetablesInterpreting timetablesWage ratesCalendarCalendarCalendarCalendarSpeedSpeedTravel graphsTravel graphsPaying by instalmentsWeekly equivalentsGas and electricity billsTaxi faresCompass directionsfigure bearingsBearingsBearings Properties of equilateral triangLanguageRevisionCompositionNo changeCheque changeAny changeShort of changeKeep the changeQuick changeTime wordsHow longA busy womanFlight timesBeach blunderHot airCarparkPlaying timeAlarm callCooling downMoneyMathematical thinkingTimeGraphsMoney Peculiar pricesMug shotsPapering a roomDIYSend me a letterThe price is rightGift voucherBuying moneySports centreRentaroomNumber Number patternsFootball specialTimetableCar ferrySteam trainThe rate for the jobHappy daysThink about itChristmas dayDelivery datesSpeedlimitsA speed formulaTravelling salesmanTwo trainsWould you credit thatMonthly paymentsMore billsTaxiCircle cityFinding your bearingsOrienteeringSpeedboatEquilateral triangleOne hundredper centSaleAll dressed upTimeMoneyAnglesPercentagesScanned with CamScannerPercentages and fractions Equivalence Pago Choose the answerGrantedGetting a loanSurveysVATFit the shapesFit the cookerA tiling problemRising pricesChanging shapesA little extraWage negotiationsSmashing reductionsVery interestingBathroom tilesFlexitablesTriangle puzzleProblems from the papers Suite dreamsLeisure centreTemperature graphsChinese carpetsNurses paySports newsSmall adsFitted carpetsTyre adAnglingRead all about itPanda maniaFractionsWellknown percentages GrantsDepositsAny percentagesVATPercentagesShape Tilings Properties of square tilingA tiling problemPrice increasesIncrease and decreaseIncrease in volumeSocial applicationsPrice reductionsInterest ratesPercentages Shape Rotations InvestigationInvestigationPricesPricing areasLine graphs negative numbersUnit price rectanglesLine graphsAdding fractions deductionGraphs costingAreas pricesPercentage reductionAddition of timeNumber patternsHire purchaseScanned with CamScanner
1443
STEPHEN POPLE
EXPLAINING PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1985
jauueoswBQ LjljM pauueosContents Pumps and gauges Archimedes principle andflotation Further questions on section Introduction Acknowledgements Section Forces and motionUnits of measurement Speed velocity and acceleration Measuring with ticker tape Acceleration of free fall Force mass and acceleration Gravitational force Balanced and unbalanced forces Moving in circles Changing momentum Action and reaction Conserving momentum Rockets and jets Further questions on section Section Molecular motion and heatMoving molecules Surface tension Temperature Expansion of solids Uses of expanding solids Expansion of liquids The gas laws Conduction Convection Specific heat capacity Melting and freezing Latent heat of vaporization Vapours and vapour pressureFurther questions on section Section Force work and energy Combining forces Turning effect of forces Centre of gravity Stretching forces Work and energy Gravitational potential energy andkinetic energy Engines Machines Further questions on section Section Waves light and soundLight and shade Reflection of light Curved mirrors Refraction Lenses The camera and the eye Telescopes Colour Wave motion Lightwaves Electromagnetic waves Thermal radiation Soundwaves ZOOSection Density and pressure Density Pressure Pressure from the atmosphere Hearing sounds ZVibrating strings and air columnsFurther questions on section Scanned with CamScannerElectric motors Electrical motors Electromagnetic induction Generators Mutual induction andtransformers Generating and transmitting powerfor the mains Further questions on section Section G Electrical energyElectric charge Charged conductors Charge potential andcapacitance Cells and batteries Current and voltage in a simplecircuit Ohms Law and resistance Series and parallel circuits Emf and internal resistance Power in an electric circuit Electrical energycalculations andcosts Mains electricity Further questions on section Section Electrons and atomsElectron beams The cathode ray oscilloscope Diodes and rectification Transistors Photoeloctrons and Xrays Radioactivity The structure of the atom Radioactive decay Nuclear Energy Further questions on section Answers to numerical questionsIndex Section Magnets Magnets and currents Magnetic fields Magnetic effect of a current Electromagnets Fields currents and forces Scanned with CamScanner
1444
D G MACKEAN
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
JOHN MURAY
1973
W L iV M mWL Amifmm w Pl i rb wk mtM KLJ Mi JPlai yT ftfgp mIBRl ami A r M tIiINTRODUCTIONTO BIOLOGYJD G MackeanfJScanned with CamScannerContents The Varieties of Living OrganismsCharacteristics of Living OrganismsCellsStructure of the Flowering PlantStorage Organs and Vegetative ReproductionBuds and TwigsSexual Reproduction in Flowering PlantsSeeds Germination and TropismsRespirationPhotosynthesis and the Nutrition of GreenPlantsFood Chains and the “Balance of Nature”DifTusion and OsmosisTranslocation and TranspirationBacteriaFungiSoilFood and Diet in ManThe Digestion Absorption and Metabolismof FoodBlood its Composition Function andCirculationBreathingExcretionSkin and Temperature ControlSexual ReproductionThe Skeleton Muscles and MovementTeethThe Sensory OrgansCoordinationInsectsFishFrogs and TadpolesBirdsSimple Plants and AnimalsChromosomes and HeredityHeredity and GeneticsEvolution and the Theory of Natural SelectionBooks for Further ReadingVisual MaterialReagentsAcknowledgementsExamination QuestionsGlossaryIndex I The diagrams are by the authorScanned with CamScanner
1447
TOM DUNCAN
GCSE PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
JOHN MURRAY
1988
fcScanned with CamScannerunontentsAcknowledgements Preface Physics and technology The eye Colour Simple opticalinstruments Microscopes andtelescopes Additional questions Light rays Reflection of light Plane mirrors Curved mirrors Refraction of light Total internal reflection Lenses Light andsight Sound waves Musical notes Additional questions Water waves Light waves Electromagneticspectrum Waves andsoundMatter andmolecules Measurements Density Weight and springs Molecules Properties of matter Additional questions Forces andpressure Moments and levers Centres of gravity Adding forces Work energy power Machines Pressure in liquids Atmospheric pressure Pumps and pressure Floating sinking andflying Additional questions Motion andenergy Velocity andacceleration Equations of motion Falling bodies Newtons laws ofmotion Momentum KE and PE Circular motion Additional questions Heat andenergy Thermometers The “Quids Pansion gas laws of solids Specific heat Latent heat Melting and boiling Conduction andconvection Radiation Heat engines Additional questions andcapacity Scanned with CamScanner Permanent magnets Magnetic fields Static electricity More electrostatics Capacitors Electric current Potential difference Resistance Electromotive force Additional questions Electric power Electricity in the home Electric cells Electromagnets Electric motors Electric meters Generators Transformers Alternating current Additional questions Electronics Radio and television Additional questions Electrons Radioactivity Atomic structure Resistivity cells andrecharging Materials andstructures SO Insulation of buildingsUvalues Core level revision questions Further level revision questions Mathematics for physics Check lists of specific objectives Answers Index Scanned with CamScanner
1448
ANDREW LAMBERT
PHYSICS PRACTICAL WORK BOOK
7E
ENGLISH
BLAKIE
1988
CONTENTS Have we enough energy Introduction You should know What happens to fossil fuels s Energy from the Sun Energy from water Other sources of energy Where are you goingSummaryFurther Questions Falling Introduction You should know The acceleration due to gravity Measuring the acceleration due togravity using stroboscopicphotography Measuring the acceleration due togravity using an electronic timervX Gravitational field strength Terminal velocity Falling sideways Where does the stuntman hit thewaterSummaryFurther Questions Measuring movement Introduction You should know v Speed and velocity Velocitytime graphs Using a velocitytime graph to findacceleration Using a velocitytime graph to findthe distance travelled Distancetime graphs An equation of motion Another equation of motion A third equation of motionSummaryFurther Questions Collisions Introduction You should know Trying to stop things moving Trying not to get hurt Therelationshipbetwecnimpulseand momentum An example using the relationshipimpulse change in momentum Why wear a seat belt in a carNewtons third law of motion Momentum is conserved Testing the law of conservation ofmomentum yk numerical example using the lawof conservation of momentum VMomentum conservation in action SummaryFurther Questions The laws of motion llHndfiSanEr± You should know Force and acceleration Friction Using an air track An electronic clock The relationship between force andacceleration is Mass and inertia What is the relation between massand acceleration A unit of force Using the equationForce mass accelerationSummaryFurther Questions t Circularmotion Introduction You should know J Centripetal force Cars and corners Spin dryers Satellites f Scanned with CamScanner Heating water and aluminium Specific heating energy A numerical example involvingspecific heating energySummaryFurther Questions Weightlessness N How large is a centripetal force V Testing F mvr Satellites and the MoonSummaryFurther Questions Liquids and gasesIntroductionYou should know Investigating upthrustWhy is there an upthrustFloatingThe hydrometerBalloonsA numerical exampleHydraulic machinesMeasuring energy Introduction You should know V Measuring gravitational potentialenergy Elastic potential energy The area under a forceextensiongraph vKinetic energy Changing gravitational potentialenergy to kinetic energy Changing elastic potential energyto kinetic energy Two numerical examples involvingenergy changes Energy and friction Elastic and inelastic collisionsSummaryFurther Questions Some points concerning gases The general gas lawVA numerical example using the gas laws How fast does a molecule move“ Different velocities DiffusionSummaryFurther Questions i Oscillations and sound Introduction You should know Engines and machines Introduction Ybu should know Measuring power Measuring various powers Energy and the steam engine The petrol engine The diesel engineLevers PulleysSummaryFurther Questions C L Three simple oscillators V A displacementtime graph forsimple harmonic motion i Resonance Vibrations and music How does sound reach your ear Measuring the speed of sound Wind instruments — How do you hear soundsSummary Energy and molecules Further Questions Introduction You should know Il Melting xfrtiGleSand n Sfreezing ids liquids and gasesS Specific energy or fusionEvaporation and boiling Cooling by evaporation Changing melting and boilinupoints Expansion Waves and light Introduction You should know Interference of water waves v Are microwaves really waves v What is the wavelength ofmicrowavesj bight waves The Wavelpnotti rii uiScanned with CamScanner The diffraction gratingThe electromagnetic spectrumSummaryFurther QuestionsS w Shunts and multipliers The internal resistance of a cell Some special resistorsSummaryFurther Questions ISO Lenses mirrors and raysof lightIntroductionYou should knowMaking a real image with a convexlens Semiconductors IntroductionYou should knowThe diodeWhat use is a diodeLightemitting diodesInvestigating a transistor The transistor as a switch v The transistor as an amplifierSummaryFurther Questions A practical example v A convex lens as a magnifying glass v The focal length of a convex lens v Plane mirrors S Concave mirrorsk Telescopes The compound microscope Bending light Fibre optics v More total internal reflectionSummaryFurther Questions SS Generating electricity Introduction You should know Motors and dynamos v Electromagnetic induction The laws of electromagneticinduction Z The ac generator Generators in power stationsSummaryFurther Questions i Electrical energy Introduction You should know Electric charge Measuring electrical energy Using a voltmeter A numerical examplev Electric powerS v Measuring the power and efficiencyof an electric motor v Electricity in your home Fusing and earthing Paying for electricity Measuring the specific heatingenergy of aluminiumSummaryFurther QuestionsTransformers and powerlinesIntroductionYou should knowInduction coilsTransformersTransformers and energyA numerical exampleWhy is a transformer corelaminatedPower linesSummaryFurther Questions S IS Electrical resistance Introduction You should knowv Ohm s law The effect of temperature onresistance Switching on a lamp vResistors in series and parallel The potential dividerStatic electricity IntroductionXou should know v Capacitors v A use for a capacitorl Capacitance U Scanned with CamScanner Radioactive decaySummaryFurther Questions Charging by rubbing y Electrostatic forces Electric fields The goldleaf electroscope Two investigations Lightning conductors Uses of electrostaticsSummaryFurther Questions Inside the atom Introduction You should know The discovery of the electron The electron gun Deflecting electrons The cathode ray oscilloscope Geiger and Marsdens experiment w An atomic model v Two definitions Isotopes Explaining radioactivity Radioactive series Nuclear reactions Nuclear poweriNuclear fusionRadioactivity Introduction You should know Detecting radiation Safety From spark counter to GeigerMiiller tube Some properties of radiation What are the different radiationsfrom radioactive substances Vapour trails The diffusion cloud chamber Cloud chamber tracks Collisions Uses of radioactivity The end of classical physicsSummaryFurther QuestionsAppendix—Quantities and their units Index
1449
FREDERICK J BUECHE
THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF COLLEGE PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
MCGRAW HILL
1989
mI vITH EDITIONaj VScanned with CamScannerjauueosweo qM peuueos ON NTSChapter M ANGULAR MOTION IN A PLANK Angular velocity Angular acceleration Equationsfor Angular uniformly displacement accelerated angular motion Relations between angular andtangential quantities Centripetal acceleration Centripetal forceRIGID BODY ROTATION Torque for moment Kinetic energy of rotationAngulii momentumlinear and angular quantitiesChapter I I Itorque and angular accelerationPowerAnalogousMoment of inertiaCombined totalfori ami translationAngular impulse Parallel airs theoremSIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION AND SPRINGSf requency Graph of a vibratory motion Displacement RestoringHookes law Simple harmonic motion HWIWB tpni PotentialAcceleration in jHMChapter Periodoneenergy Energy interchange Speed in SUMReference aide Period in SHM Acceleration in terms of T Simp pendulum Sinusoidal motionChapter DENSITY ELASTICITYMav density Specific gravity Hmiiciiv Sires Strain Hooke lawElastic limit Youngs modulus Hulk modulus Shear modulusChapter FLUIDS AT RESTAverage pressure Standard atmospheric pressure Hydrostatic pressurePascals principle Archimedes principleC hapter HUIDS IN MOTIONHurd flow or discharge Equation of continuity Shear rate ViscosityPoiscuillcs law Work done bv a piston Work done by a pressureBernoullis equation Torricellis theorem Reynolds numberChapter THERMAL EXPANSIONTcmpcraiurc l inear expansion of solids Area expansion VolumcexpansionChapter IDEAL GASESIdeal or perfect gas One mole of a substance Ideal gas law Specialcases Absolute zero Standard concfifitfns Dalton s law of partialpressures Gaslaw problemsChapter KINETIC THEORYKinetic theory Avogadros numberMass of a molecule Averagetranslational kinetic energy Rod mean square speed Absolutetemperature Pressure Mean free pathLhapier IHHEAT QUANTITIESHeat Heat utkl Specific heat I leal capacityvaporization Heal ot sublimationiunudity Relative humidityHeal gamed or lost Heuof fusionCalorimetry problems AbsoluteUew point J I—CONTENTSChapter TRANSFER OF HEAT ENERGY Heat energy is transmitted Conduction Thermal resistance ConvectionRadiationf J ii Jrfl i in jilpi i IHeat energy Internal energy Work done by a system First law ofthermodynamics Isobaric process Isovolumic process Isothermalprocess Adiabatic process Specific heats of gases Specific heat ratioWork related to area Efficiency of a heat engineChapter FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS VtUiLri llIChapter ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW Second law of thermodynamics Entropy Entropy is a measure of disorderMost probable staten j i n f t i h f jChapter WAVE MOTIONWave Wave terminology Inphase vibrations Speed of a transverse wave Standing waves Conditions for resonance Longitudinalcompressional waves Shti S V V A Tl j fir kLViriifi M Chapter SOUND ric Soundwaves Equations for sound speed Speed of sound in air IntensityLoudness Intensity or loudness level Beats Doppler effectInterference effectssn il LilliChapter Coulomb OLIOMB s lawS LAW ChargeAND quantized ELECTRIC Conservation FIELDS of charge Testchargeconcept Electric field Electric intensity Electric intensity due to a pointcharge Superposition principle—Chaper relaTed to E Electron volt energy unit Capacitor Parallelplatecapacitor Capacitors in parallel and series Energy storedin a capacitor TiqbfOit it tCURRENT RESISTANCE AND OHMS LAWCurrent Battery Resistance Ohms law “Measurement ofTesistanctrbyammeter and voltmeter Terminal potential difference ResistivityResistance varies with temperature Potential changes APJJI br rroiOnlofl r i fMi jCChapter VL rotqsfOimi Tl if jjli cniclfM i if Chapter ELECTRICAL POWER w Electrical work Electrical power Power loss in a resistor Heat generatedin a resistor Convenient conversionsX iViAiAii n J TTTUiTiJvn bini JEQUIVALENT RESISTANCE SIMPLE CIRCUITS CM IChapter Resistors in series Resistors in parallelfV KIRCHHOFFS L A W S Kirchtioffs point or junction rule KirchhofTs loop or circuit ruleequations obtainedChapter Set ofScanned with CamScanner
1455
CLARK L HARWOOD CLARKE
MATHEMATICS TWO
7D
ENGLISH
HEINEMANN
1989
Scanned with CamScannerContentsl R A T I O A N D P E R C E N T A G EDefinition of ratio PercentageExercise S O M E A P P L I C A T I O N S O F R A T I OProportional parts Division of a straight line into parts whose ratio is given Division by constructionExternal division of a straight lineExternal constructionDivision by parallel linesSimilar trianglesSimilar figuresThe tangent of an angleDefinition of tangentThe sine and cosine of an angleDefinitions of sine and cosineTables Solving rightangled triangles Exercise M U L T I P L I C A T I O N A N D D I V I S I O N I N A L G E B R AMultiplication by a single termMore general multiplicationGeometrical illustration Collection of terms The square of a bLong division in algebraExercise Quick revision tests QQ T H E P A R A L L E L O G R A MDefinitionPropertiesviiScanned with CamScannerfC O N T E N T SNecessary conditions for a parallelogram The rhombus The rectangleThe squareThe trapeziumThe kite Exercise viii A V E R A G E S A N D M I X T U R E SAverageCricket averagesWeighted average BlendingExercise T H E C I R C L EDefinitions The circumference of a circle Area of a circleThe area between two circlesSolid of uniform cross section The right circular cylinderThe surface area of a cylinder The volume of material in a pipeExercise Quick revision tests Q QF A C T O R SThe shouting factorNumerical applicationFactorising by grouping TrinomialsExercise THE INTERCEPT THEOREMSDividing a line into a given number of parts LINEAR GRAPHSAxes and coordinatesLinear expressions C O N T E N T S ixSolving equations from a graphQuick revision test QQS I M U L T A N E O U S E Q U A T I O N SSolution by equating valuesMethod of eliminationProblems Hints for solving problemsSimultaneous equations in another formExercise T H E I D E A O F A L O C U SIntersecting loci The loci theorems Construction of the circumcirclc of a triangleConstruction of the incircle of a triangleThe cxcirclcs Exercise M O R E P E R C E N T A G E S P R O F I T A N D LossIncrease per cent Decrease per cent Profit and loss Worked examples Exercise Quick revision tests QQ R E A S O F T R I A N G L E A N D P A R A L L E L O G R A MDistance between parallel lines Altitudes of a triangleParallelograms on the same base and between theparallelsCongruent trianglesArea of a parallelogramArea of a triangleArea of a rightangled triangleArea of an obtuseangled triangleArea of a trapezium To construct a triangle equal in area to a given quadrilateral Construction of a quadrilateral equal in area to a givensamepentagon Exercise Scanned with CamScannerC O N T E N T S I D E N T I T I E S T H E D I F F E R E N C E O F T W O S Q U A R E SIdentitiesIllustration of the identity x y x xy y Illustration of the identity x— y — x — xy yIllustration of the identity x — y — f yx — yThe difference of two squares Four important factors Numerical applications Difference of two squares used in groupingExpressions containing five terms Exercise S Q U A R E R O O T S P Y T H A G O R A SFinding square roots The theorem of Pythagoras The converse of Pythagoras Exercise Quick revision tests Q S I M P L E I N T E R E S TSimple interest Finding the interest Finding the principal Finding the rate or time The amount Formula for simple interest Exercise S O L U T I O N O F Q U A D R A T I C E Q U A T I O N S B Y G R A P H SA N D F A C T O R SThe quadratic function Solving a quadratic equation from a graphQuadratic equations by factorsMore difficult equationsExercise Quick revision tests QQ S U P P L E M E N T A R Y E X E R C I S E SI N D E Xx T A B L E O F S I N E S C O S I N E SA N S W E R SA N S W E R S T OA N D T A N G E N T S S U P P L E M E N T A R Y E X E R C I S E S Scanned with CamScanner
1456
J B CHANNON
NEW GENERAL MATHEMATICS
7D
ENGLISH
LONGMAN
1982
i K Ia a V i VLScanned with CamScannerContentsPagePreface iiiTables ixChapter Number systems Binary numbersSubtraction by adding the complement p Sets Union and intersection p complements p Simple interest Vectors Displacements StatisticsAveragesmean median mode p quartiles histogramsp Factors PercentagesLogarithmsIndices p numbers greater than p numbersless than p standard form p Pythagoras Theorem Quadratic equationsSum and product of roots p imaginary roots p problems p solution by formula p ir Areas and volumes of similar figures Flowcharts Slide ruleSquares p square roots p OP Trigonometry in a planeSix ratios p Everyday arithmeticRates p gas and electricity p income tax p vContents Long multiplication and division FractionsEquations p problems p Literal equations Change of subjectFormulae change of subject p Circle theoremsChords of a circle circle theorems p Surds Angles of ° ° ° ° ° Theory of logarithmsBasic laws p MensurationCircles rg arcs segments cylindersp cones frusta p cuboids prisms pyramidsspheres p GraphsGraphical solution of quadratic equations p Tangents Contact of circles Alternate segmentTangents p contact of circles p alternatesegment p common tangents p circumcircleincircle ecircle p Miscellaneous arithmetical problemsSpeed time distance p mixtures p workpipes p MatricesSimultaneous equations p mapping p compound mapping p Compound interest Shares and stocksShares p stock p Simultaneous equationsSOUWM by substitution p solution by eliminationSviContents Trigonometrical ratios of an obtuse angle Connections between the trigonometrical ratios Monetary systems and exchange The sine formulaAmbiguous case p The cosine formula Ratio Similar triangles Functional notation Remainder theoremRelations p functional notation p remaindertheorem p factorisation p Vector applicationsBearings p course track drift p ProbabilityAddition law p multiplication law p dependent probability probability trees p Areas of triangles parallelograms trapeziums andpolygonsTriangles Heros formula p parallelogramstrapeziums quadrilaterals p regular polygonsp VariationDirect variation p inverse variation p jointvariation partial variation p Rightangled triangle divided into similar triangles Bisectors of vertical angle of a triangle Circular measure Small circles and great circlesLatitude and longitudeLongitude and time p nautical mile p Trigonometrical problems Gradients Area under a curve DifferentiationGradients p velocity and acceleration p Maxima and minimaProblems p viiContents IntegrationRevision ExamplesAnswers
irSecondaryMathematicsBooklVAISrtrm£ Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTS More about SetsDefining a set The number of elements in a set Thecomplement of a set The intersection and union of setsProblem solving using the idea of set and Venn diagramsSummary Test yourselfAlbert Einstein FormulasConstruction of a formula Subject of a formula Value ofthe subject of a formula Changing the subject of aformula Value of a term variable of a formula Summary Test yourself Algebraic ExpressionsSimplification of algebraic expressions Multiplication anddivision of expressions Solutions of equations and inequations Polynomials and coefficients Products of binomialsFurther products Squaring a binomial Product of the sumand the difference of two terms Harder problems onproducts and squares Factorization of an expressionFactorization of the difference of two square termsApplication of factorization Application of the differenceof two square terms Addition and subtraction of algebraicfractions Quadratic equations Summary Test yourself Reasoning and DeductionIntroduction Deductive reasoning Mathematicaltences Implication and deductiveTest yourselfRevision Exercises for Chapters Archmedes and nosenreasoning SummarySpecifications of TrianglesCongruent figures Congruent triangles Three sidesTriangle inequality Two sides and the included angleTwo angles and one side Rightangle hypotenuse and aside Three angles Two sides and an angle not includedSummary Test yourself Similar FiguresScale drawing or models Similar shapes Similar trianglesScale factor Gradient of a line Summary Test yourself Properties of a CircleNames of the parts of a circle Angles of rotation Rotational symmetry and properties of circles Arc and chordArcs angles and sectors Properties of circles bilateralsymmetry Angle in a semicircle Summary Test yourself Translation and VectorsTranslation Successive translations Vectors Addition ofvectors Subtraction of vectors Multiplication of a vectorby a scalar Geometrical applications of vectors Vectors asordered pairs of numbers Magnitude of a column vectorPosition vectors Distance formula Summary Testyourself Properties of Quadrilaterals and Triangles Rectangle and square Parallelogram and rhombus Kiteand trapezium Relationship between quadrilaterals Construction of a quadrilateral Measurements of quadrilaterals Bilateral symmetry Constructing a triangleCongruent triangles Similar triangles Measurements ofrightangled triangle Summary Test yourself Circles and CylindersDefinitions of the parts of a circle Circumference of acircle Areas of circular regions Surface area of a cylinderVolume of a cylinder Summary Test yourselfIRevision Exercises for Chapters Everyday Arithmetic IIApplication of percentages Profit and loss Percentageprofit and loss Discount and commission Simple interestCompound interest Summary Test yourself Measurement and AccuracySignificant figures and decimal places Standard formLimits of accuracy Summary Test yourself StatisticsPopulation and sample Frequency distribution Classintervals in frequency tables Histograms and frequencypolygons Average Mean from a frequency table Summary Test yourself LogarithmsCharacteristic and mantissa Logarithm of numbers Antilogarithm Laws of logarithm Summary Test yourselfRevision Exercises for Chapters TrigonometrySine cosine and tangent of an acute angle Graphs ofsimple trigonometric functions Use of trigonometrictables Trigonometric functions of special angles Summary Test yourselfRevision Exercises for Chapter Revision Exercises ADTest Papers HiJJScanned with CamScanner
1463
PATES R B I
NEW SYLLABUS D MATHEMATICS 1
7D
ENGLISH
SINGAPORE BOOKS
1985
NewSyllabus DMathematics iRBI PatM mk oio osScanned with CamScannerContentsFor SN Number SystemSet NotationNatural NumbersNegative NumbersIntegersRational NumbersIrrational NumbersReal NumbersSome Simple Rules forPerforming ArithmeticalOperationsSome Simple ArithmeticPropertiesCommutative PropertyAssociative PropertyDistributive PropertyClosure PropertyOperations of DirectedNumbersAddition of Positive andNegative NumbersSubtraction of Positive andNegative NumbersMultiplicationDivisionStfmmary Approximations Rounditig OffApproximate Measurementsin CalculationsSignificant FiguresRules for Writing SignificantFiguresStandard Form SuentilicNotationKstimationSummary FactorsPrime NumbersIndex NotationTests of DivisibilityVllfghest Common Factors HCFuLcast Common Multiples LCMFurther ExamplesHighest Common Factors HCFast Common MultiplesLCMSummary FractionsProper and Improper FractionsMixed NumbersTo Reduce a Fraction to itsLowest TermsArithmetic Operations onFractionsProblems on Addition andSubtraction of FractionsDecimalsConversion of Fractions intoDecimalsConversion of Decimals intoFractionsAddition and Subtraction ofDecimalsMultiplication and Divisionof a Decimal by the Power of General Multiplication andDivision of DecimalsRecurring DecimalsConverting Recurring Decimalsinto FractionsSummarySquare Root and Reciprocals Square Root by FactorsSquare Roots of a Fraction Decimal and Large Numbers arScanned with CamScanner Volume of Cuboids andCylindersVolume of CuboidsVolume of CylindersSummary Algebraic Symbols andExpressionsAlgebraic SymbolsAlgebraic ExpressionsThe Use of Brackets inSimplificationAddition of CompoundExpressionsSubtraction of CompoundExpressionsSummary Formulae and ProblemsFormulaeEvaluation of an Expressionor a FormulaChanging the Subject of aFormulaSummary Algebraic Equations andIdentitiesAlgebraic EquationsAlgebraic ProblemsEquations and IdentitiesSummary Properties of Angles at a Pointand Angles Formed with ParallelLinesAhglesvGcrmplementary andSupplementary AnglesLine djacent and Vertically Angles on Opposite a StraightSquare Root TablesReciprocalsSummarygf RatioIncrease or Decrease in RatioProportion£Ratio PercentageProfit and LossArithmetic ProblemsSummary Simple Interest Compound InterestMoney ExchangeSummaryCompass DirectionsScales y Area ScaleSummaryS The Metric System of Units Vtfnits of LengthUnits of AreaUnits of MassUnits of Capacityijftmmary Perimeter and Area ofRectangles and CirclesvP vArea rimeter of a Rectangle of a Rectangle Units for Small AreasUnits for Large AreasA CircleCircumference of a Circle Summary Area of TrianglesParallelograms and TrapeziumsArea of TrianglesArea Area of of Trapeziums ParallelogramsMiscellaneous Examples onVSummary reasI Barallel Straight Lines Drawing Parallel Lines Usingonly a Setsquare and RulerSummary viScanned with CamScannerAngle Properties of a PolygonTrianglesExterior and InteriorAnglesConstructing a TriangleGiven the Lengths of AllThree SidesConstructing a TriangleGiven Two Angles andOne SidePolygonsQuadrilateralsProperties of a TrapeziumProperties of aParallelogramProperties of a RectangleProperties of a RhombusProperties of a SquarejSnm of Angles of an nsidedPolygonSum of Exterior Angles of aPolygonSummary Simple Construction SummaryREVISION WORK ANSWERSScanned with CamScanner
1464
SHERLOCKS A J
CONTEMPORARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS 1
7D
ENGLISH
FEDERAL
1983
CONTEMPORARY SCHOOLRIIHIB NT LIM HRKOH AJ SHERLOCK HD ELLERBYScanned with CamScannerContentsArithmetic Processes and Operations The four operations Inverse operations Checking calculations Replacing symbols by numerals Replacing frames by operation symbols Order of operation Grouping symbols Rules for order of operations Some simple arithmetic laws Commutative Law Associative Law Distributive Law Summary Divisibility Divisibility test for Divisibility test for Divisibility test for Divisibility test for and Divisibility test for Summary Metric UnitsIntroduction Metric units of length Metric units of area Metric units of volume Metric units of mass Density Conversion from one unit to another Number PatternsMagic squares Triangle numbers Square numbers Even and odd numbers Projects FractionsWhat is a fraction Rational numbers Equivalent fractions Reducing fractions to lowest terms Order Number line in fractions Addition of rational numbers Addition of rational numbers with commondenominators Addition of rational numbers with differentdenominators More about addition of rational numbers Numbers and Number LineA useful term the set Members of the set and braces Number sets The empty set Set symbols Number sets and their symbols Natural numbers Integers Rational numbers Relationship between Q Z andN The symbol e Subtraction of rational numbers Problems on addition and subtraction ofrational numbers Multiplication of rational numbers The inverse of a rational number Factors Prime Numbers LCM Division of rational numbers and HCF DecimalsDecimal notation Conversion Addition and subtraction of decimals Multiplication and division of a decimal bypowers of Factors and multiples Index notation Prime numbers Prime factors Highest common factor HCF Lowest common multiple LCM ixScanned with CamScannerfIntroducing AlgolsIOIIN ropradoiiilngnumbiii Sonic Nlinplts rul WIlitrder oxumpliM on MinpnC Algebraic fraction h UjxproNnlngNtiitcmcntiInioUctt More about Mtutement In lonCf Algebraic Equations and ProblemAlgebraic ctiuatlomi ISOSolving ulgcbralo equation Harder examples on solving of equatnuFormulae Changing the subject of the formula jjfProblems on algebraic equations IIrrTiwwiwIWtnulappwxlmatlons annual toi tWtlon AAA XvhmdiratKm of measures ItsRevision Exercise IFxetvise A Afllxeiviso II xSExercise V NAExercise D AExercise E S Aren Perimeter mul VolumeIntroduction Area of a rectangle Area of a triangle Area of a parallelogram Area of a trapeziumArea of a regular polygon Area of shaded figuresPerimeter Volume Surface area of cuboid Revision Exercise IIExorcise AExercise B Exorcise C Exercise DK Angles and ParallelsStraight line segment Plane surface and lines Angles and degrees Measuring angles Angle of rotation Names of angles Compass directions Adjacent angles on a straight line Vertically opposite angles Parallel lines Angle properties associated with parallellines Angle properties of triangles A simple proof for angle properties oftriangles Exterior angles of a triangle Geometrical Plane FiguresTriangles Special triangles Quadrilaterals Properties of parallelogram rhombusrectangle and square itThe CircleCircumference A special ratio Formula tor calculating the circumferenceArea of the circle USThe annulus The cylinder Directed NumbersDirected numbers Properties of directed numbers Subtraction of directed numbers Multiplication Division of directed of directed numbers numbers xScanned with CamScannerThe circle Polygons Sum of exterior angles of a polygon Sum of interior angles of a polygon Percentage in daily life situations Bank rate Profit and loss More problems on profit and loss Discount and sale reductions Solving percentage problems by equations ConstructionConstruction of angles To construct the perpendicular bisector ofa given straight line To construct the perpendicular to a straightline AB from a point outside AB Construction of triangles from given dataConstruction of quadrilaterials from dataConstruction of a square and a rectangle Scale DrawingScales in drawing Building plans Scale drawing of a classroom Scales in maps Representative fraction and area scaleEnlargements and similar shapes Drawing enlargements Approximations Standard Form andTablesApproximations Significant figures Scientific notation or Standard FormSquare roots Rational irrational and real numbers Mathematical tables Table of squares Tables of square roots Table of reciprocals Revision Exercise IIIExercise A Exercise B Exercise C Ratio and Proportion Ratio Simple problems on ratios Proportion Unitary method Harder problems on ratio and proportionMoney exchange Revision Exercise IV Exercise A Exercise BExercise C Percentage Expressing fractions as percentages Expressing percentages as fractions ordecimals Comparing quantities by percentages Percentage change Revision Papers — SAnswers Those Chapters marked with asterisks ie Chapters are meant for students inExpressSpecial CoThese topics are to be taught in Secondary Two for students following the Normal CursexiScanned with CamScanner
1487
P ABBOTT
TEACH YOURSELF TRIGNOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
ELBS
1978
tTTlrw i T rLiUiillRfvP AbbottHvSecond EditionCONTENTSPARA PAGEIntroduction vCHAPTER IGEOMETRICAL FOUNDATIONS The Nature of Geometry Plane Surfaces Angles and their Measurement Geometrical Theorems Lines and Triangles Quadrilaterals The Circle Solid Geometry Angles of Elevation and DepressionCHAPTER IIINDICES AND LOGARITHMS Laws of Indices Extension of Meaning of Indices A System of Logarithms To Read a Table of Logarithms Rules for the Use of Logarithms Logarithms of Numbers between and Operations with Negative Logarithms CHAPTER IIITHE TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS The Tangent Changes of Tangents in the First Quadrant Tables of Tangents Uses of Tangents The Sine and Cosine Changes of Sines and Cosines in the First QuadrantixX CONTENTSPARA Jscs of Sines and CosinesThe Cosecant Secant and Cotangent Graphs of Trigonometrical Ratios Logarithms of Trigonometrical Ratios Solution of Rightangled Triangles Slope and Gradient Projections CHAPTER IV RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TRIGONOMETRICALRATIOS tan sm cos sin cos tan sec cot BS cosec CHAPTER V RATIOS OF ANGLES IN THE SECONDQUADRANT Positive and Negative Lines Direction of Rotation of Angle The sign convention for the Hypotenuse To Find the Ratio of Angles in the Second Quadrantfrom the Tables To Find an Angle when a Ratio is Given The Inverse Notation Graphs of the Sine Cosine and Tangent between °and ° CHAPTER VITRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF COMPOUNDANGLES sin A B sin A cos B cos A sin B etc sin A — B sin A cos B — cos A sin B etc tan A B and tan A — B Multiple and Submultiple Formulae Product Formulae Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTS xlCHAPTER VIIRELATIONS BETWEEN THE SIDES AND ANGLESOF A TRIANGLEPAGBFARA The Sine Rule The Cosine Rule The HalfAngle FormulaeA Formula for sin in terms of the sides A cos II flAtangsin AB C b c A c cot S a b cos C c cos B I II II If S tan CHAPTER VIII xTHE SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES Case I Three Sides known Case II Two Sides and Contained Angle known Case III Two Angles and a Side known Case IV The Ambiguous Case The Area of a Triangle CHAPTER IXPRACTICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING THESOLUTION OF TRIANGLES Determination of the Height of a Distant Object Distance of an Inaccessible Object Distance between Two Visible but InaccessibleObjects Triangulation Worked Examples Scanned with CamScannerxii CONTENTSCHAPTER XCIRCULAR MEASUREPARA Ratio of Circumference of a Circle to its Diameter The Radian To Find the Circular Measure of an Anglo The Length of an Arc PACK CHAPTER XITRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF ANGLES OFANY MAGNITUDE Angles in the rd and th Quadrants Variations in the Sine between ° and ° Variations in the Cosine between ° and ° Variations in the Tangent between ° and ° Ratios of Angles greater than ° Ratios of — ff Ratios of and ° Ratios of and ° — Angles with given Trigonometrical RatiosCHAPTER XIITRIGONOMETRICAL EQUATIONS Types of Equations The Form a cos d b sin Q c Summary of Trigonometrical Formulae TablesAnswers Scanned with CamScanner
1492
SHEIKH BASHEER AHMED
MUSALMAN FALSAFI AUR SCIENCE DAN
8F
URDU
MAKTABA ALIA
1975
sofderarend aistrese pilot acadyfalsafi aur ans daanchiniot islamia public school libraryam ae am airmaktab Alia aikdarna kiLahoreolaineu wilt camstarteebBuali seenaMohammad ban Ú Razy Farabi nadi bohri ban Shakir Umer Khayam naseer Aldeen Babar ban Hussain ban Ishaq Ú ocaleu wilt cams
1497
SIRNIGAR SARWAR
AFRIQA KAY JANVER
8F
URDU
CHILDREN

1508
K S JOSHI
YOGA IN DAILY LIFE
8C
ENGLISH
ORIENT
1987
YogaindailylifeDr K S JoshiA wonderful book indispensableVoice af ManContentsYoga—An IntroductionBhakti Yoga Karma Yoga Jnana YogaHatha YogaPreparing for YogaThe Digestive System The CirculatorySystem The Respiratory System The Excretory System The Endocrine System TheNervous System The Nature of Yogic Exercises Physical Condition of the IndividualRight AdviceAge and SexPlace and SurroundingsTimeDietIntervalClothingTheSeatThe Order of Different TechniquesGeneral Hintsk Yoga for Better Health Preliminary Exercises to Limberup Muscles and Joints Bhadrasana Uttanamandukasana Gomukhasana Ardkamatsycndrasana Yoganrudra Matsyasana Viparitakarani Sarvangasana Iialasana Bhujangasana Shalabhasana DhanurasanaShavasana Kapalabhati TadagimudraAgnisara Nauli More Yoga Techniques Trikonasana Garudasana UshtrasanaCliakrasana Paschimottanasana BakasanaKukkutasana U ttanakurmasana Parvatasana Dolasana Utkatasana Padangusthasana Mayurasana Shirshasana MatsycndrasanaSuptavajrasana Trataka Dkauti BastiVrischikasana Garbhasana Pranayama Controlling the BreathPranayama Neti Puraka and RechakaKumbhaka The Bandhas The Varieties ofPranayama Dhayaua Controlling the MindDhyana Yama and Niyama Abhyasa The Practice of MeditationPratipakshabhavana Maitri and otherBhavanas Pracchardana and VidharanaCalling to Mind Examples of DispassionateYogis Taking Help from Dream ExperienceConcentrating the Mind on Any Object ofChojice Some Pertinent Questions and AnswersAppendixYogic Asanas Meaning and BenefitslList of IllustrationsGomukh AsanaArdha MatsyendraAsanaYogamudraMatsya AsanaVipritakarniUttanamanduka Asana Paschimottana Asana XCukkuta Asana Baka Asana Parvata Asana Padangustha Asana Maynra Asana Shirsha Asana Matsyendra Asana Vrischika Asana Vajra Asana Suptavajra Asana Ushtra AsanaNauli Clialcra Asana Garuda Asanai Trikona Asana Ushtra AsanaJIjSarvanga AsanaHala AsanaBhujanga AsanaBhanur AsanaShava AsanaSiddha AsanaPadma AsanaBhadra AsanaUtkata AsanaGarbha AsanaTadagi MudraiScanned with CamScanner
1520
MIRIAM LISKEN
dBASE III PLUS
21E
ENGLISH
McGRAW HILL
1988
£ OsbornMcGrow HiIIIAMfdBASE IIIP L U SMSESEMl Rl M PT H E P O C K E T£ R E F E R E N C EHAH the Essential Features andHmi jRlSENElH NAUscanned witn uamscannerCONTENTSINTRODUCTION DATA TYPES LIMITS AND SPECIFICATIONS STANDARD FILE EXTENSIONS OPERATORS PRECEDENCE OF EVALUATION FULLSCREEN EDITING COMMANDSCOLOR AND MONOCHROME ATTRIBUTE CODESREADKEY AND INKEY VALUES FOR COMMAND KEYS SAY GET FUNCTION SYMBOLS SAY GET TEMPLATE SYMBOLSSYNTAX NOTATION AND ABBREVIATIONSCOMMAND SYNTAX SUMMARY FUNCTIONS THE CONFIGDB FILE Scanned witn Uamscanner
1523
W TEMPLETON
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
ELB SOCIETY
1978
J f m n ftW jjgn LsJIr fSrTrV kUI JVMVW Templeton w MiScanned with CamScannerContendPAGEVXpSfTablesOPERTIES OF ORGANICSTRUCTURE AND PRMOLECULESPART ONE ds Composition ClassificationJ Carbon CompounNomenclatureScope of organic chemistry Composition of organiccompounds Molecular structure Classification ofstructures Naming carbon compoundsII Bonding and Molecular Structure Structure of atomsChemical bondingCovalent bondorbitals Unsaturated molecules Properties of bondsIII Stereochemistry the Shapes of MoleculesMolecular shape Conformation Cistrans isomerism Optical isomerism The asymmetric carbonatom Absolute configuration Racemic mixtures andresolutionIV Physical Properties Separation Methods andSpectroscopyBulkproperties Methods of purificationSpectroscopic properties Electronic and molecularspectra Nuclear magnetic resonance nmr spectroscopy Other useful propertiesV Chemical Reactions Reactivity Rate MechanismTerminology and classification of reactions Structureand reactivity Organic acids and bases Energy anequilibrium Mechanism and rater CONTENTSTwo ORGANIC COMPOUNDSREACTIONSviiiPARTVI HydrocarbonsAlkanes and cycloalkanes Alkenes and cycloalkeneAlkynes Arenes Sources and uses of hydrocarbonsVII Compounds Containing Saturated FunctionalGroupsHalogen compounds Alcohols and phenols EthersThiols and thioethers AminesVIII Compounds Containing Unsaturated FunctionalGroupsAldehydes and ketones Carboxylic acids Esters andlactones Acid chlorides and anhydrides Amidesimides and nitriles Oxidised sulphur and nitrogencompoundsIX Polyfunctional Heterocyclic and OrganometallicCompoundsPolyfunctional compoundsdienes Halo compoundsand alcohols Enones and dicarbonyl compoundsSubstituted carboxylic acids Heterocyclicpounds Organometallic compoundsX Lipids Carbohydrates and Proteinscharidesfprotemf Disaccharides and PolysaccornPART THREE REACTION MECHANISMSSYNTHESIS AND ORGANICXI Nucleophilic SubstitutionSaturated CarbonXII Electrophilic ination and Mechanisms reactivity Stereochemistry of Addition innucleophilic substitution and and direction substitution Mechanisms of elimination Structure of elimUnsaturated derivatives electrophilic hydrogen Mechanismbromide Carbon of substitution electrophilic Other additions Substitution addition Substitution Mechani Additi in be atand Elimination aton ofsm ofenzeneCONTENTSNucleophilic Addition and Substitution atUnsaturated CarbonAddition to aldehydes and ketones Carbanion and addition Substitution in carboxylic acidderivativesXIV Organic SynthesisDesign factors Carboncarbon bond formationIntroduction of functional groups Specificity andselectivity Examples of synthesisixxinAPPENDIXESI BibliographyII Examination techniqueIII Examination questionsIV Answers to progress testsINDEX Scanned with CamScanner
1540
SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD
MODREN ALGEBRA AND TRIGNOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
KIFAYAT ACADEMY
1967
N CONTENTSChapterPageI Sets Quadratic Equations Systems of EquationsSequences and Series Binary Relations Functions and Their Graphs Elements of Symbolic Logic Counting Problems and Probability Mathematical Induction The Binomial Theorem Polynomial Functions Partial Fractions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Solution of Triangles and Area of a Triangle Inverse Functions and Trigonometric EquationsAnswersI
1596
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MAATH 1 4TH ED.
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2001
leh Keng Seng BSC Dy fd tool Chin Keong Wf Oln l ti y nScanned with CamScanneri j A v CONTENTSumbersNatural NumbersWhole NumbersThe Number LineOrder On The Number LineEven And Odd NumbersCommutative Law of AdditionAssociative Law of AdditionUse Of Commutative Law AndAssociative Law In MentalCalculationsPlace ValueHarder AdditionSubtraction Of Whole NumbersMultiplication Of Whole NumbersCommutative Law Of MultiplicationAssociative Law Of MultiplicationDistributive ProperlyMental Calculations Involving digitNumbersClass Activities InvestigationDivision Using Place ValueOrder Of OperationsSome Simple Rules For PerformingArithmetical OperationsRounding OffClass Activities DiscussionCalculator Corner to Numeral KeysT P x £ Operation Keys Equal Key ONC All Clear KeyT T Bracket KeysCautionUse Of Memory KeyChecking Accuracy By EstimationSummaryChallenge Yourself Highest Common Factor IlCf f f ixast Common Multiple LCM Squares And Square Roots J Class Activities InvestigationCubes And Cube RootsMental EstimationCalculator CornerSquare Root Key Square KeyPowerraising KeyI Xlh Root KeySummaryChallenge Yourself Number Sequence And ProblemSolvingNumber SequencesClass Activities Problem SolvingIroblemsolving Strategiessimplify the problem act it oatlook for a pattern use tabulationuse a modelMore Problem Solving Problemsolving Strategiesdraw a diagram change yourpoint of viewSummaryChallenge Yourselffractions And DecimalsFractions Equivalent Fractions I f j St iSimplifying FractionsProper And Improper Fractions AndMixed NumbersOrder Of FractionsComparing FractionsAddition And Subtraction Of FractionsWith Same DenominatorsAddition And Subtraction Of FractionsWith Different DenominatorsAddition And Subtraction Of MixedNumbersMultiplication Of A Fraction By A WholeNumberFractions Of QuantitiesMultiplication Of Fractid f O V O M AFadors And MultiplesSet NotationFactors And Multiples Prime NumbersClass ActivitiesTests Of DivisibilityPrime FactorisationIndex Notation onsScanned with CamScannerContents vDivision Of A Fraction By A WholeNumberDivision Of A Fraction By AnotherArithmetical Operations On FractionsProblem Solving Involving Fractions Problemsolving Strategiesuse a awilei make a systematic listDecimalsConversion Of Fractions Into DecimalsConversion Of Decimals Into FractionsRecurring DecimalsClass ActivitiesOrder Of DecimalsClass Activities DiscussionAddition And Subtraction Of DecimalsGeneral Multiplication Of DecimalsMultiplication Of A Decimal By PowersOf Division Of A Decimal By Powers Of Division Of A Decimal By A DecimalMoneyRounding Off DecimalsCalculator Comer Decimal Point Keyabc Fraction KeySummaryChallenge YourselfRules For Writing Significant FiguresAbsolute Error Of A MeasurementSummaryChallenge Yourself Revision Exercise I No lo llasic AlgebraFundamental AlgebraNotations In AlgebraAlgebraic ExpressionsVariables Coefficients And ConstantTermsSome Rules In AlgebraThe Use Of Brackets In Simplification Addition And Subtraction Of Polynomials SummaryChallenge Yourself “Mi r Algebraic Equations U cEquations With One Variable Solving Simple Equations Formulae Construction Of FormulaeMore On Algebraic ExpressionsProblem Solving With AlgebraProblemsalving Strategyuse an equationSummaryChallenge Yourself Veal Negative Numbers Numbers IntegersNumerical Value Of An IntegerAddition Of IntegersSubtraction Of IntegersMultiplication Of IntegersDivision Of IntegersRules For Operating On IntegersRational NumbersIrrational NumbersReal NumbersCalculator Comer Sign Change Key Pi KeySummaryChallenge Yourself Perimeter And Area Of Simple Geometrical FiguresPerimeterClass Activities InvestigationUnits Of Length Or DistanceMetre mCentimetre cmMillimetre mmKilometre kmClass ActivitiesSimple AreaUnits Of AreaSquare centimetre cmSquare millimetre mmSquare metre nrHectare haSquare kilometre kmArea Of RectanglesProblem Solving Draw A DiagramArea Of ParallelogramsArea Of Triangles °h kAEstimation And ApproximationClass Activities V Rounding Off Class ActivitiesSignificant Figures IM vScanned with CamScannerCIASIAUCX en v bec e iCXOjiO ISilo Problemsolving Strategiesmake a systematic list make asupposition simplify the problem USe fljequation use a diagram or a modelContentsArea Of Trapeziums Miscellaneous Examples On AreasPerimeter Circumference Of A CircleArea Of A CircleProblemsolving Strategiesuse an equation draw a diagramSummaryChallenge YourselfSummary Challenge Yourself Arithmetical Percentages Problems Fractions And Decimals Percentages Volume Volume And Surface Area Changing A Fraction Or A Decimal ToUnits Of Volumer Volume Of CuboidsSurface Area Of A CuboidVolume Of FluidsDensityRight PrismVolume Of A PrismTotal Surface Area Of A PrismCylindersVolume Of A CylinderSurface Area Of A CylinderHollow Cylinders“ SummaryChallenge Yourself A Percentage Expressing One Quantity As APercentage Of AnotherFinding The Percentage Of A NumberPercentage ChangeProblemsolving Strategiesuse proportion use an equationProfit And LossPercentage Profit And Percentage LossProblemsolving Strategiesuse proportion use an equationDiscountCommissionSimple InterestHire PurchaseMoney ExchangeTaxationProperty TaxValueadded Tax And GSTIncome Tax k I Revision Exercise II No to Midyear Examination SpecimenPapers to Cf £frRatio Rgte and Proportion A Ratio LClass Activities DiscussionClass ActivitiesMRT Travel Times And FaresPostal ChargesABC Photocopying ServicesProblem SolvingProblemsolving Strategiesbackwards before use use an a diagram and equation after and comparison use work tabulation backwards and work SummaryChallenge YourselfBasic Geometrical Ideas AndProperties rPlanes Lines Points f VSolidsCurved SurfacesIntersecting Linesr Equivalent RatiosIncrease And Decrease In RatioRateTime Average Speed Direct ProportionProblemsolving Strategiesuse increase in ratioReciprocalsInverse ProportionProblemsolving Strategiesuse logical deduction use inverseproportion use increase in ratiouse decrease in ratioProportional PartsProblemuse solving Strategiesproportionuse proportion use an equation Scanned with CamScannervii r r jSimilar FiguresSimilar PolygonsClass Activities InvestigationSummaryChallenge Yourself tf jAnglesThe Protractor And Angle MeasureDifferent Kinds Of AnglesComplementary AnglesSupplementary AnglesAdjacent Angles On A Straight LineTo Construct An Angle Using AProtractorVertically Opposite AnglesParallel LinesDrawing Parallel Lines Using ASetsquare And RulerPerpendicular LinesDrawing Perpendicular Lines Using ASetsquare And RulerUse Of CompassesClass ActivitiesPerpendicular Bisector And AngleBisectorSummaryChallenge YourselfMYtoo Scales And MapsScale DrawingsScales On MapsArea ScaleSummaryChallenge Yourself I Symmetry Line Symmetry In Two DimensionsClass ActivitiesSymmetry Around UsClass ActivitiesThe Mirror Image Of A PointThe Mirror Image Of A LineRotational SymmetryClass ActivitiesThe Symmetries Of Regular PolygonsClass ActivitiesTriangles With SymmetryIsosceles TrianglesEquilateral TrianglesQuadrilaterals With SymmetryKiteIsosceles TrapeziumParallelogramRhombusRectangleSquarePlane SymmetryRotational SymmetrySummaryChallenge Yourself Angle Properties Of PolygonsPolygonsTrianglesTypes Of TrianglesConstruction Of TrianglesAngle Properties Of TrianglesExterior Angles And Interior OppositeAnglesQuadrilateralsTrapeziumParallelogramRectangleRhombusSquareKiteSum Of The Interior Angles Of APolygonClass Activities InvestigationSum Of The Exterior Angles Of APolygonTessellation Of Regular PolygonsClass Activities InvestigationSummaryChallenge Yourself c Revision Exercise IV No I to Finalyear Examination Specimen Papers I to A nswers Revision Exercise III No I to Similarity And CongruenceCongruent FiguresNotation For Congruency I Scanned with CamScanner
1728
ANGWOON CHUAN
MINI SCIENCE ENCYCLOPEDIA
8D
ENGLISH
MANHATTAN PRESS
1988
iMINI SCIENCEENCYCLOPEDIAScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSMATTER WEATHER FORECASTWhere can you get information about tomorrows weather How do we predict tomorrows weather What is done at the meteorological service stations Do you understand the weather forecast What is a wind sock What is a typhoon Message from the clouds WATER CHANCES AND AIRHow can you get salt from sea water Can we drink sea water Why dont seas and lakes get more and more salty Why then is the Dead Sea so salty Why is a car wet in the early morning even if it has not been raining What are mists and fogs Why does your spectacles become blur when you step out from your airconditionedcar What are some uses of hot air Can you see steam Is there air in soil and water How do you find the volume of these irregular objects FOOD AND HEALTH What are vitamins How were vitamins discovered How was bacteria in milk discovered Where do our vitamins come from What is penicillium How safe are these foodsCan you recognise these POLLUTIONDo you know that noise can kill What noise is considered too loud Can you believe it Scanned with CamScannerWhat are the visible and invisible particles that pollute the air ap water is it safe for drinking What is sewage What are sewers Where does our tap water come from What happens at our sewage treatment works ENERCY SPACE What make up the Solar System How much do you know about comets and meteors What are satellites used for Do you know which was the first space shuttle flight Do you know which was the first orbiting space station What are space probes What do you know about the sun What do you know about the moon Why does the moon change shape LIGHT AND SHADOWS How did early men tell time without clocks What is a lighthouse Are lights on top of tall buildings for warning too Why are warning lights usually red in colour What is an eclipse How to view an eclipse ELECTRICITY Do all electrical appliances use up the same amount of electricity Do you know what will happen when you leave an electric bulb on until the next day What about torchlights Can electrical energy be changed into other forms of energy Do you know what changes of energy take place when we use these appliances Can other forms of energy be changed into electricity What is lightning What is thunder Why dont you see lightning and hear thunder at the same time What is heat lightning What to do when lightning strikes FORMS OF ENERGY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION Do you know Scanned with CamScannerSolar energy How does a solar heater help to save fuel Other ways of trapping solar energy directlvThe ideal house V FUELSOil refinery — what does it do What liquid fuels do we get from petroleum What ariw f New sources of energy What is town gas What is LPC Town gas how it is produced and piped to you MAGNETSWhat is a compass Is this magic How can these iron nails be removed What devices make use of magnets HEAT How did early men start fires Why is it dangerous to smoke in these places Why doesnt the paper burn What shrinks when heated Why are there gaps in these structures Why does this metal strip change shape when heated How do you remove these Why does the steel chair feel hotter than the wooden chair Why does the metal spoon feel colder than the plastic spoon Why does the spiral spin around How do you make hot drinks cool down quickly What is a clinical thermometer WORK FORCE AND MACHINESWhen is friction a nuisance in what ways is friction helpful How do levers help us in our work Can you recognise these wheel and axle machines In what ways are these pulleys useful What is a telpher line How does it work Why are mountain roads built in this way Scanned with CamScannerPLANT LIFE PLANT PARTS AND WHAT THEY DOWhat are the main parts of a plant How do flowers develop into fruits How are plants with weak stems supported Do stems store food tooWhy are these roots specialHow do seeds develop into a fully grown plant HOW SEEDS AND FRUITS ARE SCATTEREDWhat are the main ways through which seeds and fruits are scatteredCan you tell how each of these are scattered HOW PLANTS MAKE NEW PLANTSWhat is vegetative propagation What are some ways of reproducing new plants How are orchids reproduced Can plants grow without soil ALL ABOUT TREESHow are trees useful to man Do you know all these come from trees Can you recognise them Do you know these trees HARMFUL AND USEFUL PLANTS Are plants harmful Do you know these beautiful plants are poisonous Do plants have medicinal value Do you know these come from plants i ANIMAL LIFE HARMFUL ANIMALSHow can animals harm people Do you know these dangerous animals Local deadly sea creatures VIIIScanned with CamScanner EATING AND BEING EATENWhat do animals feed on Do you know these herbivores plant eaters Do you know these carnivores meat eaters Do you know these insect feedersDo you know these omnivores mixed feedersHow do insects feed Can YOU believe it VANISHING ANIMALSWhy are some animals not here anymore How can animals be protected What are dinosaurs Why did some dinosaurs grow to such a great size Why did the dinosaurs die out If dinosaurs are extinct how do we know so much about them Why are dinosaurs always painted brown Could they have been multicoloured or evenstripedDo you know these animals are extinct Can you believe it ECOLOGY What is ecology What do these food chains tell us Pond communityWhat can we expect to find in a pond habitat Whats special about pond plants Why are plants important to a pondHow do plants in the pond grow in numberHow is animal life distributed in a pondHow do pond animals breathe in waterHow do animals move in water Can you believe it Can you believe it Leaf litter communityWhy do animals live in a leaf litter How is the population in a leaf litter controlled What are decomposers Attap hut communityCan all these animals live in a hut What do you know about termites AquariumWhat fishes can be kept in a freshwater aquarium xScanned with CamScannerInteresting facts about some freshwater fishes More freshwater fishes Do you know these seafishes Interesting facts about some seafishes Fish talk PETS Snails as pets How can terrapins be kept Snakes as pets Scanned with CamScanner
CAMBRIDGE M m v r s c i e n c eR E S O U R C E B O O KFOR CHILDRENScanned with CamScannerC o n t e n t sLABORATORY MATTERSMeasurementHow hot is itKeeping clean BODYWORKSEating wellEating to your hearts contentWhat are you like insideMovement muscles and jointsLIFE GOES ONHeart and circulationExcretion waste from cellsCells and specialisation Cells and specialisation AMOVE ITFriction ockets and satellitesewton and the MoonFloating and sinking Floating and sinking Bridges L I V I N G A N D C H A N G I N GPlant adaptationsPhotosynthesis and food chainsPhotosynthesis and food websE N E R G YEnergy that never runs out Energy that never runs out Nuclear energyIs it worth it Is it worth it Scanned with CamScannerr C o n t e n t sT S OUR WATERWater issuesWhat are wewater doing to ourHEARING SOUNDUsing echoesWhats happening out thereLIFE GOES ONDarwins voyageDarwins theory of evolutionWhat Mendel didFamilies that are differentTesttube babies Testtube babies PARTICLE WORLDWhat makes them moveThe story of the atom The story of the atom Chemical reactions and energyAbout acidsDOWN TO EARTHGalileo Kepler and CopernicusGalileo and his telescopeEarthquakesVolcanoesThe rock cycleCHEMICAL MODELSThe Periodic TableMetals and nonmetals nonmetals Metals andScanned with CamScannerLIGHT FANTASTICThe eye andBeyond the rainbowCommunicating with lightLaser lightCompact disccameraELECTRICITY WORKSElectrostatics all aroundApplications of electrostaticsThunder and lightningWhat is electricityMagnets and magnetism Magnets and magnetism Michael FaradayThe electric motorGenerating electricityTransformersWHATS IN IT FOR USRaw materialsPure materials and mixturesMaterials in the homePesticides and insecticidesA natural insecticideDrugs and medicinesBacteria and viruses Bacteria and viruses New diseases New diseases AntibioticsDisease detectives at workQuestionsIndexScanned with CamScanner
2020
LEE PENG YEE
NEW SYLLABUS D MATH2 4TH ED.
7C
ENGLISH
OXFORD
2002
pllfISSTTeh Keng Seng BSC Dip Ea Looi Chin Keong ipju gj iuar i m£iwtffl WWOTScanned with CamScanner ONTKNTSW yrAlgI xasl AlgAdditiFraBquatiProhlcPraiProworChanSuninCholicIl ih VHMiV mb nsv NY VVvvouU nd SpeedA VW Vvi ItalNohcM Pmam os AmiSC VMO V vud WansaetionsNANCSANA£ASV Strategies A Villi a suppositionS Huse necr cowwmoM usem me ratio make ayMttadic UsiChallenge Yourself Indices And Standard Form Zero And Negative IndicesEquations Involving Indices OptionalProblem Solving Involving IndicesPrvhcmsoh ing Straicgicslock for a pattern use logical deductionStandard Form Or Scientific NotationClass Activities DiscussionCalculator ComerStannaryChallenge Yourself Revision SimiEl intiSubslProhl Eq Pn dreMoreContents vClass Activities Investigation Class Activities Investigation Congruency TestsClass Activities Investigation Class Activities Investigation Some Simple Applications Of CongruentTrianglesSimilar TrianglesClass Activities DiscussionTests For Similarity Between TwoTrianglesSummaryChallenge YourselfGraphs Of Equations Of The Form x a Graphs Of Equations Of The Formy LVGraphs Of Equations Of The Formy nix cSolving Simultaneous Linear EquationsUsing Graphical MethodsGraphs Of Quadratic FunctionsClass Activities Problem SolvingQuadratic Functions Of The Formy axGraphs Of General Quadratic FunctionsSummaryChallenge Yourself Area And Volume Of SimilarFigures And SolidsAreas Of Similar FiguresVolumes Of Similar FiguresSummaryChallenge Yourself Graphs In Practical SituationsInterpretation And Use Of GraphsClass Activities InvestigationConversion GraphsTravel GraphsDrawing Of GraphsProblem SolvingProblemsolving Strategiesuse an equation use a graphSummaryChallenge Yourself Revision Exercise III No to StatisticsIntroduction To Numerical DataCollection And Organisation Of Data Collection Of Data Using AQuestionnairePictogramsBar ChartsCollection Of Data Through Observation Class Activities InvestigationPie ChartsCollection Of Data Through Interviews Class Activities InvestigationLine GraphsFrequency TablesHistogramsClass Activities DiscussionCollection Of Data By Making ActualMeasurementsClass Activities InvestigationMeasures Of Central TendencyThe Arithmetic Mean Or The MeanThe MedianThe ModeComparison Of The Mean Median AndModeSummaryChallenge Yourself Revision Exercise II No to Midyear Examination Specimen Papers to MensurationArea And Circumference Of A CircleRevisionLength Of Arc And Area Of SectorPyramidsVolume Of A PyramidClass Activities InvestigationCircular ConesVolume Of A ConeCurved Surface Area Of A ConeSpheresVolume Of A SphereSurface Area Of A SphereSummaryChallenge Yourself C Congruent And SimilarTrianglcsCongruent Triangles vi Contents Motion GeometryReflectionClass ActivitiesConstruction ReflectionRotationConstruction Steps To Rotate A FigureAbout A PointTranslationEnlargementConstruction Steps To Enlarge A FigureCombining TransformationsSummaryChallenge YourselfOf The Mirror Image Under Pythagoras Theorem AndTrigonometrical RatiosPythagoras TheoremClass ActivitiesTrigonometrical RatiosTo Obtain Values Of TrigonometricalFunctionsCalculator ComerPractical Applications Of TrigonometryMiscellaneous ExamplesSummaryChallenge YourselfRevision Exercise IV No to Finalyear Examination SpecimenPapers to Answers
2052
JEAN MACQUEEN
SUCCESS IN BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
JOHN MURAY
1982
SUCCESS INBiologyedited byJeanMacqueenScanned with CamScannerContentsThe Nature of Living Organisms The Characteristics of Living Organisms Differences between Plants and Animals The Varieties of Living Organisms QuestionsUnit Cells The Characteristics of Cells Parts of the Cell Differences between Plant and Animal Cells Relation of Cells to the Organism as a Whole Specialization Questionsfnit Introduction Structure of the Flowering Plant Stems Leaves Buds Winter Twigs Roots QuestionsUnit Storage Organs and Vegetative Reproduction Introduction Bulbs Conns Rhizomes Stem Tubers Advantages of Food Storage Advantages of Vegetative Reproduction Artificial Propagation Questionsitiit Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Introduction Flower Structure Pollination FertilizationScanned with CamScanner Fruit Formation Dispersal of Fruits and SeedsQuestionsk IJnh Seeds Germination and Tropisms Structure of Seeds Germination Experiments on Germination Experiments on the Sensitivity of Plants The Auxin Theory of Tropistic Response Additional Experiments QuestionsUnit Diffusion and Osmosis Introduction Diffusion Osmosis Osmosis in Plants Osmosis in Animals QuestionsUnit Translocation and Transpiration Introduction Translocation Transpiration Experiments on Transpiration QuestionsUnit Respiration Introduction Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation Metabolism QuestionsUnit The Nutrition of Green Plants Types of Nutrition Photosynthesis Experiments on Photosynthesis Direct Evidence for Photosynthesis Limiting Factors The Elements Essential for Plant Growth The Source of Salts in the Soil QuestionsScanned with CamScannerContents ix Bacteria Structure of Bacteria Bacteria in NatureI Harmful BacteriaII Prevention of Infection Culturing Bacteria Viruses QuestionswUriit Fungi The Characteristics of Fungifn Mu£r Antibiotics Ji Parasitic FungiI Yeast Questions Unit Simple Plants and AnimalsII IntroductionIf Spirogyra Other Simple Plants Amoeba Other Protozoa Euglena Biological Significance of Singlecelled Organisms Unit Soil Components of Soil Types of Soil Experiments on Soils Soil Erosion QuestionsUnit The Interdependence of Living ThingsB Food Chains and Food Webs The Carbon Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle Crop Rotation Manure and Artificial Fertilizers in Agriculturej The Balance of Nature Questionsli Unit Food and Diet in Mani Introductionli Energy Value of FoodV Scanned with CamScannerx Success in Biology Nutrients Water Roughage Milk Practical Work Food Tests Questions Digestion Absorption mid Metabolism of Food Introduction Movement of Food through the Alimentary Canal Digestion in the Mouth Digestion in the Stomach Digestion in the Duodenum Digestion in the Ileum Absorption in the Ileum The Caecum and Appendix The Large Intestine How Digested Food is Used Storage of Digested Food The Liver Homeostasis Practical Work Questionsy Blood and the Circulatory System The Composition of Blood The Functions of Blood The Circulatory System QuestionsiUnlf Breathing Introduction The Lungs Gaseous Exchange in the Lungs Ventilation of the Lungs The Nose Voice Gaseous Exchange in Other Organisms Practical Work QuestionsUnit Excretion IntroductionStructure of the KidneysMechanism of Kidney ExcretionIContents x The Bladder Water Balance and Osmoregulation Questionstft Skin and Temperature Control Skin Function and Structure L Temperature Control Questionsmk Sexual Reproduction Introduction The Reproductive Organs Production of Gametes Fertilization Pregnancy and Development Birth Parental Care Secondary Sexual Characters Menstruation Birth Controliljtll World Population i QuestionsUnit The Skeleton Muscles and Movement Introduction Functions of the Skeleton Joints Muscles Girdles Locomotion QuestionsUnit Teeth IntroductionR Tooth Structure Specialization of Teeth Jaw Action Teeth in Man QuestionsUnit The Sensory Organs Hie Sensory System Taste Smellp Structure of the EyeScanned with CamScanner xii Success in biology Sight Structure of the Ear Hearing The Semicircular Canals and the Sense of Bal Questions anceUnit Coordination Introduction The Nervous System Reflex Action The Endocrine System Interaction and Feedback QuestionsUnit Insects Introduction Life History Cuticle and Ecdysis Breathing Blood System Sensory System Locomotion Feeding Methods Insects as Disease Carriers The Large White Butterfly QuestionsUnit Fish Introduction External Features Swimming Breathing The Threespined SticklebackVtJnit Frogs Amphibia External Features Locomotion Breathing Feeding Skin and Colour Habitat Life HistoryScanned with CamScannerContents xiiiUnit Birds Introduction Locomotion Reproduction QuestionsUnit Heredity Chromosomes Introduction Cell Division Mitosis Chromosomes Genes and Their Function How Genes Work Variation Meiosis New Combinations of Genes in the Gametes Fertilization Mutations Questions— — Unit Heredity Genetics Genes and Inheritance Human Genetics Discontinuous and Continuous Variation Heredity and Environment Applications of Genetics to Human Problems Intelligence QuestionsUnit Evolution and Natural Selection The Theory of Evolution The Theory of Natural Selection Heritable Variation Balanced Polymorphism Isolation and the Formation of New Species The Survival of the Fittest Natural Selection in ManFurther ReadingIndexScanned with CamScanner
2054
DR. MICHEAL
EXPLORING SCIENCE 2
8D
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
iMINI SCIENCEENCYCLOPEDIAScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSMATTER WEATHER FORECASTWhere can you get information about tomorrows weather How do we predict tomorrows weather What is done at the meteorological service stations Do you understand the weather forecast What is a wind sock What is a typhoon Message from the clouds WATER CHANCES AND AIRHow can you get salt from sea water Can we drink sea water Why dont seas and lakes get more and more salty Why then is the Dead Sea so salty Why is a car wet in the early morning even if it has not been raining What are mists and fogs Why does your spectacles become blur when you step out from your airconditionedcar What are some uses of hot air Can you see steam Is there air in soil and water How do you find the volume of these irregular objects FOOD AND HEALTH What are vitamins How were vitamins discovered How was bacteria in milk discovered Where do our vitamins come from What is penicillium How safe are these foodsCan you recognise these POLLUTIONDo you know that noise can kill What noise is considered too loud Can you believe it Scanned with CamScannerWhat are the visible and invisible particles that pollute the air ap water is it safe for drinking What is sewage What are sewers Where does our tap water come from What happens at our sewage treatment works ENERCY SPACE What make up the Solar System How much do you know about comets and meteors What are satellites used for Do you know which was the first space shuttle flight Do you know which was the first orbiting space station What are space probes What do you know about the sun What do you know about the moon Why does the moon change shape LIGHT AND SHADOWS How did early men tell time without clocks What is a lighthouse Are lights on top of tall buildings for warning too Why are warning lights usually red in colour What is an eclipse How to view an eclipse ELECTRICITY Do all electrical appliances use up the same amount of electricity Do you know what will happen when you leave an electric bulb on until the next day What about torchlights Can electrical energy be changed into other forms of energy Do you know what changes of energy take place when we use these appliances Can other forms of energy be changed into electricity What is lightning What is thunder Why dont you see lightning and hear thunder at the same time What is heat lightning What to do when lightning strikes FORMS OF ENERGY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION Do you know Scanned with CamScannerSolar energy How does a solar heater help to save fuel Other ways of trapping solar energy directlvThe ideal house V FUELSOil refinery — what does it do What liquid fuels do we get from petroleum What ariw f New sources of energy What is town gas What is LPC Town gas how it is produced and piped to you MAGNETSWhat is a compass Is this magic How can these iron nails be removed What devices make use of magnets HEAT How did early men start fires Why is it dangerous to smoke in these places Why doesnt the paper burn What shrinks when heated Why are there gaps in these structures Why does this metal strip change shape when heated How do you remove these Why does the steel chair feel hotter than the wooden chair Why does the metal spoon feel colder than the plastic spoon Why does the spiral spin around How do you make hot drinks cool down quickly What is a clinical thermometer WORK FORCE AND MACHINESWhen is friction a nuisance in what ways is friction helpful How do levers help us in our work Can you recognise these wheel and axle machines In what ways are these pulleys useful What is a telpher line How does it work Why are mountain roads built in this way Scanned with CamScannerPLANT LIFE PLANT PARTS AND WHAT THEY DOWhat are the main parts of a plant How do flowers develop into fruits How are plants with weak stems supported Do stems store food tooWhy are these roots specialHow do seeds develop into a fully grown plant HOW SEEDS AND FRUITS ARE SCATTEREDWhat are the main ways through which seeds and fruits are scatteredCan you tell how each of these are scattered HOW PLANTS MAKE NEW PLANTSWhat is vegetative propagation What are some ways of reproducing new plants How are orchids reproduced Can plants grow without soil ALL ABOUT TREESHow are trees useful to man Do you know all these come from trees Can you recognise them Do you know these trees HARMFUL AND USEFUL PLANTS Are plants harmful Do you know these beautiful plants are poisonous Do plants have medicinal value Do you know these come from plants i ANIMAL LIFE HARMFUL ANIMALSHow can animals harm people Do you know these dangerous animals Local deadly sea creatures VIIIScanned with CamScanner EATING AND BEING EATENWhat do animals feed on Do you know these herbivores plant eaters Do you know these carnivores meat eaters Do you know these insect feedersDo you know these omnivores mixed feedersHow do insects feed Can YOU believe it VANISHING ANIMALSWhy are some animals not here anymore How can animals be protected What are dinosaurs Why did some dinosaurs grow to such a great size Why did the dinosaurs die out If dinosaurs are extinct how do we know so much about them Why are dinosaurs always painted brown Could they have been multicoloured or evenstripedDo you know these animals are extinct Can you believe it ECOLOGY What is ecology What do these food chains tell us Pond communityWhat can we expect to find in a pond habitat Whats special about pond plants Why are plants important to a pondHow do plants in the pond grow in numberHow is animal life distributed in a pondHow do pond animals breathe in waterHow do animals move in water Can you believe it Can you believe it Leaf litter communityWhy do animals live in a leaf litter How is the population in a leaf litter controlled What are decomposers Attap hut communityCan all these animals live in a hut What do you know about termites AquariumWhat fishes can be kept in a freshwater aquarium xScanned with CamScannerInteresting facts about some freshwater fishes More freshwater fishes Do you know these seafishes Interesting facts about some seafishes Fish talk PETS Snails as pets How can terrapins be kept Snakes as pets Scanned with CamScanner
2055
RAJOO SUPPIAH
HUMAN AND SOCIAL BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1978
OXFORD PROGRESSIVE SCIENCEHumgifi andSocial biologyRAJOO SUPPIAHPreface The General Characteristics of Living Things A Introduction B The Cell as a Unit Food and NutritionA Simple ChemistryB FoodC Digestion of Foodits v Diet A Energy RequirementsB Food Deficiency Diseases and Some Common FoodstuffsC Food Production Energy Transport and MovementA Energy and RespirationB The Heart and Circulation of BloodC Blood and LymphD The Skeletal SystemE The Muscular System The Internal EnvironmentA RespirationB The Renal System Perception Response and CoordinationA The Nervous SystemB The Endocrine System Heredity and ReproductionA The Reproductive System World PopulationA Population Statistics Infection and DiseaseA Causative Agents of DiseasesB Diseases Symptoms Entry and TransmissionC Insectborne DiseasesD Tropical Diseases Prevention and Control of Disease A General Prophylaxis and Personal HygieneB Prophylaxis for Vectors of Disease Individual and Communal Responsibility A Domestic Hygiene B Communal HygieneRevision QuestionsAppendixDissection of a RabbitVisits Discussions FilmsTables IndexScanned with CamScanner
OxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesSmallGarden Animals ft i SISN— Terry JenningsScanned with CamScannerContentsAnimalsFlies and other insectsLadybirdsButterflies and mothsThe cabbage white butterflyGnats and mosquitoesHoney beesWaspsAntsDo you rememberThingsto doGarden spidersHouse spiders and wolf spidersWoodliceCentipedes and millipedesSnailsSlugsEarthwormsDo yourememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2108
TERRY JENNINGS
STRUCTURES
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
TheYoung Scientist InvestigatesStructuresTerry JenningsIScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSStructuresInvertebrate animalsBones and skeletonsTreesFoundationsWallsWaterproofingRoofsDo you rememberThings to doBridgesArch bridgesCantilever and suspensionbridgesRoadsMaking a roadTall buildingsCranesDamsDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryX DP JSS Scanned with CamScanner
2109
TERRY JENNINGS
POND LIFE
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
CONTENTSPondsChanging PondsPond PlantsSmallwater animalsFishSome common water birdsDucks and swansPonds in summer and winter Do you rememberThings to doFrogsToadsNewtsP Dragonflies and damselflies Water beetles and water bugs Caddisflies and water spiders WatersnailsNo escapeDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2110
TERRY JENNINGS
FOOD
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
r xforlThe Young Scientist InvestigatesiXIt NI rIcrry JenningsLScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSFoodFood chainsEnergyEnergygiving foodsBodybuilding foodsProteinsMineral saltsVitaminsDo you rememberThings to doWaterDigestionFibreKeeping food freshSome more ways of keeping food Enjoying foodFun foodsFood and famineDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryAMIAJOOLY ford X DPScanned with CamScanner
2111
TERRY JENNINGS
SEA AND SEA SHORE
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
OxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesSeaandSeashoreTerry JenningsScanned with CamScannerContentsTheseaThe seashore and sea bottomTides and wavesPlankton and whalesMolluscsSome more seashore animalsSandy beachesRock poolsStarfish and sea urchinsDo you rememberThings to doSeaweedsThe tidelineSea birdsSand dunes and shingle beachesDivers and fuelsFishing for foodThe deep seaPollutionDo yourememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2112
TERRY JENNINGS
BIRDS
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
rOxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesBirdsTerry Jennings Scanned with CamScannerContentsBirdsFlyingWingsFeathersKeeping CleanBeaksFeetBirds of preyWater birdsDoyourememberThings to doCourtshipNestbuildingSome more nestsEggsHatching the eggsCaring for the youngEnemiesMigrationDo yourememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2113
TERRY JENNINGS
ELECTICITY AND MAGNITISM
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
OxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesElectricityandMagnetismTerry JenningsScanned with CamScannerContentsEarly magnetsUses of magnetsCompasses Attracting and repellingMaking magnetsElectromagnetoDo you rememberThingsto doElectricityPower stationsWires and cablesElectricity in the homeElectric lightsP Safety firstBatteriesElectrical circuitsStaticelectricityElectric fishesDo you rememberThingsto doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2114
TERRY JENNINGS
ROCK AND SOIL
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
OxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesRocks andSoilTerry JenningsnScanned with CamScannerContentsThe EarthRocksMineralsVolcanoesGlaciers and earthquakesHow rocks are broken downHow new rocks are formedFossilsFuels from the EarthDo you rememberThingsto doSoil DP How soil is formedDifferent kinds of soilSandy soils and clayey soilsLoamEarthwormsPlant foodsTaking care of the soilDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryScanned with CamScanner
2115
TERRY JENNINGS
ENERGY
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
OxfordThe Young Scientist InvestigatesTetry JenningsScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSMoving things have energyEnergy and our bodiesDoing workEnergy from theMore energy from theCoalOil and qasHeatDo you rememberThings to doElectricityOther ways of making electricity New ways of getting energyEnginesFrictionDifferent kinds of energyEnergy can be storedSaving energyDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossarysunsun Scanned with CamScanner
2116
TERRY JENNINGS
THE HUMAN BODY
8E
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
s Oxford IThe Young Scientist Investigatesv i The HumanTerry JenningsScanned with CamScannerLCONTENTSWhat we are made ofThe skin Teeth Muscles Bortes and andskeletojis Pmovenifiat T ANV Digestion KO Air to breatheThings Do Blood Thehe blood you“to remem circiudoaH gGetting rid of wasteSpeakingand hearingEyes and seeingSenses and sense organsNerves and the brainHaving babiesA new babyGrowing upDo you rememberThings to doExperiments to tryGlossaryford X DPyo Scanned with CamScanner
2185
JOHN HICKS
COMPREHENSIVE CHEMISTRY
7B
ENGLISH
MACMILLAN
1987
UV I AAAfeAA y y Wrih wV rMlScanned with CamScannerContents THE ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR THEORIES Law Introduction of Constant Composition The Lawof or Conservation Definite Proportions of Mass Law of Reciprocal Proportions or Equivalent Proportions Daltons Atomic Theory The Law of Multiple Proportions GayLussacs Law of Combining Volumes The DaltonBerzelius Hypothesis Avogadros Hypothesis Applications of Avogadros Hypothesis L Cannizzaros Contribution The Avogadro Constant and the Mole The GrammeMolecular Volume Modern Theories of Atomic Structure Modern Molecular Theories EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS AND ATOMIC WEIGHTS Introduction Die Equivalent Weight of an Element Determination of Equivalent Weights The EquivalentWeight of Acids Bases and Salts The Equivalent Weight ofan Oxidizing Agent The Equivalent Weight of a ReducingAgent Compounds with Several Equivalent Weights Atomic Weight Valency Determination of AtomicWeights Cannizzaros Method Dulong and PetitsRule Mitschcrlichs Law of Isomorphism MendclecffsMethod From Molecular Weight and Atomicity XrayMethod The Mass Spectrograph Isotopes and AtomicWeight Prouts Hypothesis Conclusion THE KINETIC THEORY Introduction Boyles Law Charles Law TheIdeal Gas Equation Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Grahams Law of Gaseous Diffusion Effusion TheKinetic Theory of Gases Deductions from the Kinetic Theory Molecular Velocities Specific Heat Capacity and Atomicity Deviations from Ideal Gas Behaviour The van derWaals Equation Liquefaction The Kinetic Theory ofLiquids Vapour Pressure Boiling Point Distillation S O L I D S A N D S O L U T I O N S Introduction Crystalline Solids Freezing The Vapour Pressure ofSCids Xray Ais of CrytuUScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS Ionic Lattices Metallic Lattices Homopolar orAtomic Lattices Molecular Lattices Polymorphism Atomic and Ionic Size Solutions of Solids in Liquids Concentration of Solutions The Determination ofthe Solubility of Solids Solubility and Temperature Recrystallization Fractional Crystallization NonaqueousSolvents Solid Solutionsxi MOLECULAR WEIGHTS Introduction The Density of a Gas RegnaultsMethod Dumas Method Victor Meyers Method Molecular Weights and Association Thermal Dissociation The Degree of Dissociation Vapour Pressure of Solutions Raoults Law Elevation of the Boiling Point Measurement of Boiling Point Elevation Depression of theFreezing Point Measurement of Freezing Point Depression Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure The Laws of Osmosis The Measurement of Osmotic Pressure Examples ofOsmosis Osmotic Pressure and Vapour Pressure Colligative Properties and Abnormal Molecular Weights OtherMethods of Determining Molecular Weights Review ofMolecular Weight Methods PHASE EQUILIBRIA Introduction Phase Equilibrium Diagrams ThePhase Diagram of Water Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide Types of Allotropy Solutions of Gases in Liquids Henrys Law Measurement of the Solubility of Gases Mixtures of Miscible Liquids Fractional Distillation Constant Boiling Point Mixtures Partially Miscible Liquids Immiscible Liquids and Steam Distillation The Distribution or Partition Law Eutectic Mixtures The VapourPressure over Salt Hydrates The Phase Rule KINETICS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Introduction Temperature and Rate of Reaction Catalysis Intimacy of Reactants Intensity of UltraVioletLight Concentration of Reactants Reversible Reactionsand Chemical Equilibrium Application of the Law of MassAction to Chemical Equilibria Le Chateliers Principle Applications of Le Chateliers Principle Order of Reaction First Order Reactions Second Order Reactions Molecularity Chain Reactions Energy of Activa ion PhotochemistryScanned with CamScannerixiiCONTENTS ELECTROCHEMISTRY I THE IONIC THEORY Introduction Faradays Laws Ohms Law Conductivity Molar Conductance The Simple Ionic Theory The Degree of Dissociation Kohlrauschs Law of Independent Migration of Ions Modern Ionic TheoreJL J TheHydroxonium Ion Modem Ideas on Acids and Bases ELECTROCHEMISTRY II—IONIC EQUILIBRIA Introduction Ostwalds Dilution Law Strengthof Acids and Bases The Dissociation of Water HydrogenIon Concentration and pH The Hydrolysis of lts TheCommon Ion Effect Solubility Product Application ofSolubility Product to Qualitative Analysis App ica ion ofSolubility Product to Volumetric Analysis Solubility of Saltsof Weak Acids in Strong Acids Indicators Titration Buffer Solutions Electrometric Titrations Complex Ions Ion Exchange Processes ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES Introduction Electrode Potential Measurementof Electrode Potential The Electrochemical Series Overpotential Cells Electropositivity and Electronegativity Electropositivity and the Extraction of Metals The Cell Convention THERMOCHEMISTRY AND ENERGETICS Introduction Hesss Law Heat of Reaction Heat of Combustion Heat of Formation Heat ofNeutralization Heat of Solution Measurement of HeatChanges Energetics Entropy and Free Energy Bond Dissociation Energy Lattice Energy and the BornHaber Cycle Free Energy and the Extraction of MetalsICurvesIC THE COLLOIDAL STATE Introduction Colloidal Sols Properties of Lyophobic Sols Properties of Lyophilic Sols ColloidalElectrolyte lie Preparation of Colloidal Sols Emulsions p£uy ln ATdsOI Ch ionmat °Jgraphy Flotation Paper Chromato Chromatography lil Paper GasC“° PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE Meye“fi tiift“ioSifiCati Law Scanned with n CamScanner Moseley Lothar sCONTENTSLaw Other Classifications The BohrRutherfordTheory of Atomic Structure The Transition Metals Atomic and Ionic Radii Diagonal Relationships Ionization Energy Atomic Spectra Atomic Orbitals THE ELECTRONIC THEORY OF VALENCY Introduction Valency and Electronic Configuration The Electrovalent Bond The Covalent Bond TheCoordinate Bond The Metallic Bond Factors affectingBond Type Periodicity of Physical Properties Molecular Shape NonStoichiometric Compounds Resonance Hybrid Orbitals Variable Valency OXIDATION AND REDUCTION Introduction Oxidation Reduction RedoxReactions The Redox Series Electrolytic Oxidation andReduction Equivalent Weights of Oxidizing and ReducingAgents Oxidation Number HYDROGEN WATER AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Introduction Hydrogen Isotopes of Hydrogen Water Hardness of Water Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrides THE ALKALI METALS Introduction Lithium Compounds of Lithium Sodium Sodium Monoxide Sodium Peroxide Sodium Hydroxide Caustic Soda Sodium Carbonate Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Nitrate Sodium SulphateSodium Cyanide Detection of Sodium Potassium Compounds of Potassium Potassium HydroxideCaustic Potash Potassium Carbonate PotassiumChloride Potassium Nitrate Saltpetre or Nitre Potassium Sulphate Potassium Bromide Potassium Iodide Potassium Permanganate Potassium Dichromate Detection of Potassium Summary THE ALKALINE EARTH METALS Introduction Beryllium Compounds of Beryllium Magnesium Magnesium Oxide Magnesia Magnesium Hydroxide Magnesium Carbonate MagnesiumChloride Magnesium Sulphate Magnesium Nitride Detection of Magnesium Calcium CalciumHydride Calcium Oxide Quicklime CalciumHydroxide Slaked Lime Calcium Carbonate CalxiiiIScanned with CamScannerxivCONTENTSChloride I ii n c ldl Bicarbonate OUdumPowder lcnihosnlmii Mnrl ToCalcium ri° IOCarbide Calcium Sulphalo teaching R Strontium iX Ccncnt Detection of Calciumof Strontium m Strntlum Compounds DetectionSulphate iw nDetection Banumof Barium Barium J Oxide Summary Barium BORON UntrodND ALUMINUM SodinmT l B°ron J Boric Acid Orthoboric Acid Detection nr T clralonUc Borax Boron Tri fluoride Borohydridot j Sodiuni Telrabydridoboratc Sodium AI Aluminium Aluminium Oxide AluminaAluminiiIcl Hydroxic Aluminium Chloride mjnj JJ Sulplmlc The Alums Lithium Aluion °n of nfAluminium Ai drC Ll llium Summary Tclrahydridoaluminatc Dctcc CARBON AND SILICON Introduction Carbon Allotropy of Carbon The Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide Carbonic Acidand Carbonates Carbon Monoxide Carbon Disulphide Carbon Tetrachloride Cyanogen HydrocyanicAcid Prussic Acid Cyanates and Thiocyanates CoalGas Producer Gas Water Gas Town Gas Silicon Silicon Dioxide Silica Silicon Hydrides Silicon Carbide Carborundum Sodium Silicate Silicon Tetrafluoride Silicon Tetrachloride Silicates Silicones Glass Clays Detection of Silicon Summary TIN AND LEAD Introduction Tin Compounds of Tin TinII Oxide Stannous Oxide TinII Sulphide StannousSulphide TinII Chloride Stannous Chlorides TinIV Oxide Stannic Oxide TinlV Chloride StannicMtaium tate lator Lead Summary Chromate R LeadQI Plumbic l Lead Compounds Nitrate Lead Lead Sulphide Chforjjg Leadnn d nDetection T neof bead °eadWAce na Lead d i T n Accumu e l Lead NITROGEN Introduction NitroAmmonia Ammoniu gen Hydroxa AT Ammonium Salts Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTS Hydrazine Hydrazoic Acid and the Azides Hydroxylamine Nitrous Oxide Nitrogen MonoxideNitric Oxidd Nitrogen Tetroxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Nitric Acid Nitrates Nitrous Acid Nitrites Summary PHOSPHORUS ARSENIC ANTIMONY AND BISMUTH Introduction Phosphorus Phosphine Phosphorus Trioxidc Phosphorus Pentoxidc PhosphorusTrichloride Phosphorus Pentachloridc PhosphorusOxychloride Phosphoryl Chloride The Oxyacids of Phosphorus Orthophosphoric Acid Detection of Phosphates The Phosphorus Cycle Arsenic Compounds of Arsenic Detection of Arsenic Antimony Compounds of Antimony Detection of Antimony Bismuth Compounds of Bismuth Detection ofBismuth Summary OXYGEN AND SULPHUR Introduction Oxygen Ozone Oxides Sulphur Hydrogen Sulphide Sulphides SulphurDioxide Sulphurous Acid and Sulphites Sulphur Trioxide Sulphuric Acid Sulphates PcrsulphuricAcid and Pcrsulphatcs Thiosulphates Halogen Compounds of Sulphur Oxyhalogen Compounds of Sulphur Sulphamic Acid Summary THE HALOGENS Introduction Fluorine Hydrogen Fluoride Detection of Fluorides Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride Detection of Chlorides Oxygen Compounds of Chlorine Bromine Hydrogen Bromide Detection ofBromides Oxygen Compounds of Bromine Iodine Hydrogen Iodide Detection of Iodides Oxygen Compounds of Iodine Summary THE NOBLE GASES Introduction Occurrence Discovery Isolation Properties and Uses Theoretical Significance Clathratcs Xenon Tetrafluoride THE TRANSITION METALS Introduction Characteristics of Transition Metals Titanium Compounds of Titanium VanadiumCompounds of Vanadium Chromium Compoundsof Chromium Detection of Chromium Manganese Compounds of Manganese Manganese DioxidexvScanned with CamScannerxviCobalt Manganese lVCompounds Oxide CONTENTS of Cobalt Detection of Manganese Nickel COPPER Nickel SILVER Uranium Compounds AND GOLD Summary of Nickel detection D ofction Cobal o rntrdUmn Copper Cuprous Cupric Copper Copper Oxide Chloride llCyanide Oxide Copper Cuprous Cuprous CopperQ llOxide Cyanide H y d r °Jodl x l °mC gv Copperai Pprous crHydroxide Ch odide Oxide °°SSulphate Copper Cupric Il Chloride SulphateCupric Chl Coppc °rl Hitrate Copper Cupric llNitrate Detection of Copper gjjver SilverPlating Compounds of Silver xide Silver Gold Chloride Compounds Silver Nitrate of Goia etection Summary of Silver ZINC CADMIUM S AND MERCURY Introduction Zinc Zinc Oxide Zinc Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Zinc Sulphate ZincChloride Zinc Sulphide Detection of Zinc Cadmium Compounds of Cadmium Detection of Cadmium Mercury Compounds of Mercury Mercurous Chloride Calomel Mercuric Oxide Mercuric Chloride Mercuric Iodide Mercuric Sulphide Mercuric Sulphate Nitrates of Mercury Detection of Mercury Summary IRON AND STEEL Introduction Iron Compounds of Iron IronI Oxide Ferrous Oxide IronII Hydroxide FerrousHydroxide IronII Sulphate Ferrous Sulphate IronII Chloride Ferrous Chloride IronII CarbonateFerrous Carbonate IronII Sulphide Ferrous Sulphide Ferrous Disulphide IronIII Oxide Ferric Oxide IronIII Hydroxide Ferric Hydroxide Triiron TetroxideFerrosoferricOxide IronIII Sulphate Ferric Sulphate IronlII Sulphate Ferric Chloride Potassium HexacyanoferrateII Potassium Ferrocyanide Potassium Hexacyanoferratelll Potassium Ferricyanide Detection of Iron Summary NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY Introduction Natural Radioactivity Characteristics of Radioactivity Types of Radiation The Scattering of ccParticles Explanation of Radioactivity AtomicTransmutations The Group Displacement Law TheScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSNeutronProton Ratio Nuclear Fission The AtomicPile Uses of Radioisotopes Nuclear Fusion INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic Chemistry Characteristics of Organic Compounds Organic Formulae Investigation of an OrganicCompound Purification Purity Check QualitativeAnalysis Quantitative Analysis Determination of Empirical Formula Determination of Molecular Formulae Determination of Structural Formulae Synthesis SATURATED HYDROCARBONS AND PETROLEUM Introduction Methane Ethane The Paraffin Series Isomerism in the Paraffins Alkyl Radicals Petroleum Refining of Petroleum Natural Gas Knocking Cracking Processes Synthetic Petrol Alicyclic Compounds UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS Introduction Ethylene Ethene PropylenePropene Acetylene Ethyne Butadiene Tests forUnsaturation Bond Lengths ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLSIntroduction Ethyl AlcoholEthanol MethylalcoholMethanol Propyl Alcohols Butyl Alcohols TheHigher Alcohols Detection of Alcohols Ethylene GlycolEthanediol Glycerol Propanetriol ALIPHATIC ALDEHYDES AND KETONES Introduction Acetaldehyde Ethanal Formaldehyde Methanal Chloral Trichloroacetaldehyde Detection of Aldehydes Acetone Dimethyl Ketone Detection of Acetone Comparison of Aldehydes and Ketones ALIPHATIC ACIDS AND ACID DERIVATIVES Introduction Acetic Acid Ethanoic Acid FormicAcid Methanoic Acid Detection of Formic and Acetic Acids The Higher Fatty Acids Acetyl Chloride AceticAnhydride Substituted Acids Chloroacetic Acid Dicarboxylic Acids Oxalic Acid ESTERS FATS AND OILSIntroduction Ethyl Acetate Identification of Esters Fats and Oils Soaps Diethyl Malonate MalonicxviiScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSxviii ETHERS Introduction Diethyl Ether IsomerismTHE PARAFFINS HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF Introduction Preparation of Alkyl Halides pperties of Alkyl Halides Reactions of Alkyl Halides fn Ethylene Dibromide DifrmUses ethaneof Alkyl Other HalidesDihalogen Derivatives ChloroforTrichloromethane IodoformTriodomethane Trichloroethylene Fluorine Derivatives ALIPHATIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS Introduction Preparation of Primary Amines Properties of Primary Amines Reactions of Primary AminesSecondary and Tertiary Amines Quaternary AmmoniumCompounds Detection and Uses of Amines Acetamide Urea Acetonitrile Methyl Cyanide Cyanomethane Methyl Isocyanide Ascent and Descent of a Homologous Series Aminoacids Glycine Aminoaceticacid Alanine aAminopropionic Acid The PeptideLinkage and Polypeptides Proteins Nucleic Acids CARBOHYDRATES Introduction Glucose Dextrose Fructose Laevulose Sucrose Cane Sugar Detection of Sugars Starch Cellulose BENZENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES Introduction to Aromatic Chemistry Coal Tar Benzene Derivatives of Benzene Orientating Influences The Aryl Halides Benzene Sulphonic Acid Acetophenone Methyl Phenyl Ketone Characteristics ofAromatic Compounds AROMATIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS Introduction Nitrobenzene mDinitrobenzene The Nitrotoluenes Aniline Aminobenzene Benzene Benzamide Diazonium Chloride Acetanilide Benzanilidei PHENOLS parison Introduction of Phenol with Ethyl Phenol Alcohol Hydroxybenzene Com TOLUENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES Introduction TolueneChainDerivativesMethylbenzene Sidet O N I T N I N HI XU N I M I I V P I I H K N O M A I I U O l Ut B E N Z Y L Iiilrinliuliin IIOII NI Vlcolml I I v Benzoic Aoul MOII VNI I lllomlo I tlivl II fphenyl Benzoatem STEREOISOMERISM Introduction S Optical Isomerism H I actic A idS Tartaric Acid S Geometrical Komninm H CyclicIsomerism POLYMERS Introduction Addition Polymerization Condensation Polymerization Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber Other Polymers Man Made Fibres Carbon Fibres ORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS Introduction Polarization Effects in the Covalent Bond Types of Organic Reaction I lomolytic ReactionsHeierolytic Reactions Electrophilic Reactions NucleoConclusion philic Reactions Acidity in Organic Compounds l E N V I R O N M E N T A L C H E M I S T R Y Pollution Pesticides Introduction in of the Rivers Environment Lakes Pollution and Seas Lead of inthe the Oil Atmosphere Environment Pollution Mercury Other ment Aspects in the Asbestos Environment Conclusion Solid Radioactivity Waste and Recycling and the Environ APPENDIX I CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE APPENDIX II UNITSEXAMINATION QUESTIONSThe Atomic and Molecular TheoriesAtomic Weights —Equivalent Weights andbilityPhase Equilibria —The Kinetic Theory — Molecular WeightsSoluElectrochemistry — Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium—Thermochemistry—The c°°da PeriodicClassification Theory—AtomicStructure and the Elecof Valency—Oxidation and Reduction—Physica chemistry Laws—— Miscellaneous Questions on Physical and norgOrganicTerms en organic— Functional Groups Distinc Compounds— Miscellaneous Questions on chemistry—Organic Problems—Isomerismit i iScanned with CamScannerX X C O N T n N T INDEXAPPROXIMATE ATOMIC Wi ioinfjISOTOPES or COMMON ELEMENTPRECISE ATOMIC WEIOURN
2186
R K TULI
OBJECTIVE CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
NEW LIGHT PUBLISHER

jauueosLUBQ qiiM pauueosiimwin V A A ATTT v l r o °JiiiA M JO ri £a r I I r y afomentsfiapterI structure of the Atombehaviour of Gases oxidation and Reduction Radioactivity Electronic Theory Chemical Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium The Colloidal State Ionic Equilibria CatalysisMiscellaneous Exercise INORGANIC SECTION Periodic Classification of Elements Hydrogen and Its Compounds Metal and NonMetalMiscellaneous ExercisePagesORGANIC SECTION Theoretical Conceptsbought Type Questions
2187
JAY PRINT PACK
OBJECTIVE CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
SUDHA PUBLIC
1991
r t VScanned with CamScannercompetitionreview OBJECTIVECHEMISIWr iFor Engineering Medical CollegeAdmission Tests National Talent SearchExamination Combined Defence ServicesExamination National Defence AcademyExamination Special Class RailwayApprentices Examination EngineeringServices Examination and Undergraduatecourses of All the Indian Universities and allother competitions held from time to timeCHVNIOT SIAMAl PUBLIC SCHOOLUBRAKY LTDSUDHA PUBLICATIONS RAJENDRA PLACE NEW PVT DELHI B PRABAT KIRAN K A aScanned with CamScannerrContentsPART ISection A Inorganic Chemistry Section B Organic ChemistrySection C Physical ChemistrySection D Important Reactions—What Happens WhenOrganic Conversions—AliphaticOrganic Conversions—AromaticAnswers PART IIADDITIONAL QUESTIONSPhysical Chemistry Inorganic ChemistryOrganic ChemistrySection ASection BSection CAnswers PART IIIFill in the BlanksTrue False StatementsMatch the ColumnsWhat Happens WhenSection ASection BSection CSection DScanned with CamScanner
2188
B S BAHL
MODERN APPROACH ELEMENTRY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
7A
ENGLISH
CHAND & CO
1989
IBMODERNAPPROACHELEMENTARYB SBAHLGDSHARMAContenIsPAGECHAPTER Science —Its Aims Scientific Mclhodolofy Measurements and Uncertainty I nrms of Matter Physical and Chemical Changes Daltons Atomic Theory Law of ChemicalCombination The Language of Chemistry Empirical andMolecular Formulae Chemical Equations Gaseous Phase and Gas Laws Avogadros Hypothesis Molecular Weights Equivalent WeightsII Classical Ideas of Atomic Structure Bohrs Dynamic Model of Atom Modern Quantum Atom Atomic Weights Classical Theory of Valency Chemical Bonding— Orbital Concept Radioactivity ElectrolysisIonisation Theory and its applications Chemical Equilibrium Solutions Ionic Equilibria Colloids Classification of Compounds AcidsSalts Thermochemistry Catalysis Problems Based on Equations Bases and Scanned with CamScannerICHAPTER PAoe Periodic Classification of Elements Hydrogen MetalsPrinciples of Metallurgy Noble Gases Group I A — Alkali Metals Group IB—Copper Silver Gold Group HA—Alkaline Earth Metals Group I IB—Zinc Cadmium Mercury Group IIIB Group IVA—Carbon Combustion and Flame Tin and Lead Group VB—Nitrogen Compounds of Nitrogen Phosphorus Compounds of PhosphorusGroup VI B—OxygenOxidation and ReductionWater Hydrogen PeroxideSulphur Compounds of Sulphur Sulphuric acidGroup VIIB—Halogens Group Compounds of HalogensIndex — VIII Scanned with CamScanner
2203
MALHOTRA S
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS IN PHYSICS
7E
ENGLISH
NEW LIGHT
CONTENTSPagesSYNOPSIS —MechanicsHeatSoundOpticsElectrostaticsCurrent ElectricityModern Physics and ElectronicsMULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONSwith Answers and Solutions of Important Questions—Mechanics HeatSoundOpticsElectrostaticsElectricityMagnetismModem PhysicsElectronics
competitionSUCCeSS reviewOBJECTIVEBOTANYZOOLOGY Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPART ISection A Botany I AnatomyII CytologyIII EcologyIV Economic BotanyV EmbryologyVI GeneralVII Genetics and Plant BreedingVIII AlgaeIX PathologyX PhysiologyXI TaxonomySection B Zoology I ProtozoaII PorifraIII CoelenterataIV PlatyhelminthesV AschelminthesVI AnnelidaVII ArthropodaVIII ChordataXI GeneralSection C MiscellaneousAnswersPART IIADDITIONAL QUESTIONSSection A Botany I Origin of LifeII Morphology Basic Anatomy TaxonomyIII Plant Diversity—AlgaeIV Plant FunctionsV Plant Growth and DevelopmentScanned with CamScannerVI ReproductionVII Cell BiologyVIII GeneticsIX EvolutionX Plant PathologyXI Plants and Human WelfareXII Plants and EnvironmentAnswersSection BZoology Cell Structure and FunctionsII General Survey Classification and FunctionalMorphology of NonChordates and ChordatesIII Comparative Anatomy of VertebratesIV PhysiologyV EmbryologyVI EvolutionVII EcologyIAnswers PART IIIBotanyI Match the ColumnsII True and False StatementsIII Test PaperSection A Section B Zoology I Match the ColumnsII True and False StatementsIII Test PaperScanned with CamScanner
2210
BISHOP O N
PHYSICS FOR FIRST EXAMINATION
7E
ENGLISH
MACMILLAN
1988
PhysicsA Practical ApproachONBishop V rIt r ft fv XvVIft JV NiK tX l S irVV A II i CJ Jr i Wr w ft i MVIV v aI X v li i ftScanned with CamScannerContents f hwi i Diveavering absat heat What happens to substances when tfaryare heated The thermal expansion of liquids The thermal expansion of solids Using expansion in everyday life The transfer of heatitrtntzihm fvnPart A Measuring nt MtnurtmtM of length mass timi Until for measuringi ID Vr derived J unitI Discovering about sound Making a noise Making musical sounds“ The transmission of sound The speed of sound Resonance Linj measurement Ivr Pendulum Pulley JO Air pressure Discovering about magnets Magnetic poles Making magnets Magnetic fieldsJO Magnetic materials The Earths magnetic field Measuring temperature Simple thermometer The Celuut seek Some different kind of thermometer Melting pointJ Roiling paintTl Discovering about electricity Electric cells Conductors and insulators The magnetic effect of an electnccurrent Using electromagnetism rn f rom fflCMorcfflcnU to law i f f j Working tciemifically Frictioni V i UpthruMs Part C Investigating forces Investigating motion and momentum ntO OO The mathematics of motion Mass and momentum ForceJO Collisions Using the principle of conservation ofmomentumPuri ft Discovering physics toi Dfcweriaf about light KtyirM hf Htiketkm RtfwtecmK CaterJ tuScanned with CamScanner Other relations between pd andcurrent Measuring temperature electrically Investigating forces in action Two or more forces acting together Gravitational forces Orbits Satellites Part F Physics of the Universe Investigating turning forces Moments Centre of gravity Equilibrium Atoms Elements nuclides and isotopes Radioactivity Detecting radioactivity Halflife Natural and artificial nuclidesIS IS ISIS Investigating force and pressure Fluid pressure Pascals principle Units for measuring atmosphericpressure Archimedes principleC C Waves Features of wavesJO The behaviour of waves J The nature of sound The nature of light The electromagnetic spectrum The photoelectric effect Spectra r Investigating electromagnetic force m Part D Investigating energy Work energy and power Work Energy Power Electric charge Charged conductors Charge and potential Storing chargeJ I V Using energy Types of energy Conservation of energy Conversion of energy Conversion of other forms of energyto internal energy Electrons Free electrons Beams of free electrons Evidence for the structure of the atom Part G Physics in actionPart E Investigating matterUsing SI prefixes and standard form Working with lenses Cameras The eye Magnifiers Telescopes The structure of matter Molecules States of matter Working with reflectors Converging mirrors Diverging mirrors Total internal reflection Matter and heat Vibrating molecules Evaporation and boiling Evaporation and cooling Expansion Using electricity Heat from electricity Light from electricity Force from electricity The chemical effects of electricity Matter and electricity The structure of atoms Carriers of electricity Ohms law Resistance Flight Pressure in moving fluids ivScanned with CamScanner Aerofoils Forces acting on an aeroplane inflight Transistors A transistor as a switch How a transistor works A transistor as an amplifier Using transistors Engines Energy from chemical fuels Internal combustion engines Gas turbines and jet engines Rocket engines Radio Oscillators Radio transmitters Radio wave detection Producing electricity Electricity from mechanical energy Electricity from chemical energy Electricity from other sources ofenergy Transformers Distribution of electricity Nuclear power Matter into energy Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion Generating electricity from nuclearenergy Using materials Investigating the properties ofmaterials Electrolytic corrosion Making the best use of the propertiesof materials Pari H Answers and DiscussionRevision questionsTablesIndexScanned with CamScanner
2211
C PLUMPTON
MULTIPLE CHOICE MATHEMATICS FOR GCSE
7D
ENGLISH
MACMILLAN
1988
cPLUMPTONMULTIPLECHOICEMATHEMATICSOR GCSEt ESHIPTON mrt Wiv r vfiVScanned with CamScannerContentsPreface ivLevel X List syllabus with options except Tests and which have optionsTests questions minutesTests questions minutesTests questions hourLevel Y List syllabus with optionsTests — questions minutes Level Y List syllabus with additional material and optionsTests questions minutes ILevel Z Extended syllabus with optionsTests questions minutesTests questions hourAnswersScanned with CamScanner
2213
PETER CHURCHILL
ALL COLOUR WORLD OF HORSES
8B
ENGLISH
GALLY PRESS
197887
TaHEBEED EZJEScanned with CamScannerContentsIntroduction Horsesaroundtheworld Horsesatwork Thehorseatrestandplay Thehorseonshow Equestriansports Horsesinart Care of thehorse Index
f K v V V MIsO X r lkjP spy W i t Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSsVmcrxrt DATALOGARITHMS A t mL O GAWTIIMS NATURAL SINKNATURAL COIKMNATURAL TAHORNTRNATURAL SECANTS NATURAL COSRCANTS J i JMjMNATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS or SINES LOGARITHM OF COSINE LOGARITHMS or TAHOEHT LOGARITHMS or SICAHTLOGARITHMS or COSECANTS LOGARITHMS or COTAHGRKTSDACRRRS TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSMMJi t o lFUNCTIONS or ANGLES AT INTERVALSHYFBRIKJUC OR NAFRRIAN LOGARITHMS PONERI ROOTS AND RECIPROCALS V SOUAR HOOTS FROMSQUARE ROOTSRECIPROCALSARRAS TO FROM TO IOO Fo TO to or CIRCLES or NUMBERS APVAHCIKO T HEIGHTHS AREAS TENTHS or CIRCLES DIAMETEB OF FOURFICURE AND HrPERBOUC TABLE roDIAMETERSVAHCWO r MIFTNRKTt L tUs cScanned with CamScanner
2264
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSUESFUL DATALOGARITHMS ANTTLOGARITHMS NATURAL SINESNATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTS XGGARITHM OP COTANGENTS DEGREES TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS B FUNCTIONS OFAISLES AT I° INTERVALS HYPERBOLIC OR NAPBRIAN LOGARITHMSPOWERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARE ROOTS FROMSQUARE ROOTS FROM TO IOQRECIPROCALS OP NUMBERS FROMARRAS OF CIRCLESEIGHTHS op CIRCLESTENTHSEXPONENTIALUSEI TO X TO IO DIAMETERS ADVANCING BYMDIAMETERS ADVANCING VHYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSGURR TABLES AND °° FoURp i SScanned with CamScanner
2265
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


uLt cCONTENTS UnUSEFUL DATALOGARITHMS ANTTLOGARITHMS NATURAL SINESNATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTShIII DECREES TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS OF ANGLES AT I° INTERVALSHYPERBOLIC OR NAPBRIAN LOGARITHMSPOSTERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARE ROOTS FROMSQUARE ROOTSRECIPROCALSE OV CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCING yIGKTHAREASHI TO IO FROM TO IOO tfjOF NUMBERS FROM I TO OF CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCING YHYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSGu TABLES TENTHSff ONTlAL ° PoORpAND
2266
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


uLt cCONTENTS UnUSEFUL DATALOGARITHMS ANTTLOGARITHMS NATURAL SINESNATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTShIII DECREES TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS OF ANGLES AT I° INTERVALSHYPERBOLIC OR NAPBRIAN LOGARITHMSPOSTERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARE ROOTS FROMSQUARE ROOTSRECIPROCALSE OV CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCING yIGKTHAREASHI TO IO FROM TO IOO tfjOF NUMBERS FROM I TO OF CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCING YHYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSGu TABLES TENTHSff ONTlAL ° PoORpAND
2267
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPAGESUSEFUL DATA LOGARITHMSANTILOGARITHMSNATURAL SINESNATURAL COSINES NATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTS NATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SINESLOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTSDEGREES TO RADIANSIOIIMbRADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS OF ANGLES AT I° INTERVALSHYPERBOLIC OR NAPERIAN LOGARITHMSPOWERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALS SQUARE ROOTS FROM I TO SQUARE ROOTS FROMRECIPROCALS OF NUMBERS FROMSQUARES FROM TO IOOI TO IOI TO IOCUBES FROM TO EXPONENTIAL AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSUSE OF FOURFIGURE TABLESScanned with CamScanner
2268
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


f jScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSi toA USEFUL DATA LOGARITHMS ANTOOGARITKHS NATURAL SIKES NATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTS DEGREES TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONSOF ANGLES AT I° INTERVALSHYPERBOLIC OR NAPBRIAN LOGARITHMSPOWERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARE ROOTS FROM I TO IO SQUARE ROOTS FROM IO TO XOORECIPROCALS OF NUMBERSAJIBAS OF CIRCLESEIGHTHS AREAS OF CIRCLESTENTHSRTKWKNTAL MD HVPBRBOUC FUNCTIONSUSE OF FOURFIGURE TABLESi i VS t lou IMJ Vl °l FROM I TO IO DIAMETERS ADVANCING BY DIAMETERS ADVANCING BY °iScanned with CamScanner
2269
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


CONTENTSVIUSEFUL BATALOGARITHMS ANTTLOGARITOMS NATURAL Sims NATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTS LOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTSDEGREES TO RADIANSRADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS OF ANGLES AT I° INTERVALSHYPERBOLIC OR NAPKRIAN LOGARITHMS IOIH HI H JPOWBM ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARB ROOTS FROM TO so SQUARE ROOTS FROM SO TO IOORECIPROCALS OF NUMBERS FROM S TO SOARRAS OF CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCING BYEIGHTHS CIRCLESEEPNNTIALUsx OF FoouFlDIAMETERSHYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSGURR TABLES ADVANCING BYAND°
2270
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


CONTENTSUSEFUL BATALOGARITHMS AimLOGARITHMS NATURAL SINES NATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTS cNATURAL SECANTS TTNATURAL COSECANTS NATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINES LOGARITHMS OF TANGENTSLOGARITHMS OF SECANTS LOGARITHMS OF COSECANTS XOGAMTHMS OF COTANGENTSDEGREES TO RADIANS RADIANS TO CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS OP ANGLES AT I INTERVALSHVPERBCUC OR NAPERIAN LOGARITHMSPOWERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALS SQUARE ROOTS FROM I TO IO SQUARE ROOTS FROM IO TO XOGRECIPROCALS OF NUMBERS FROM I TO IOAREAS OF CIRCLES DIAMETERS ADVANCINGEIGHTHS a AaETENTHS op CIRCLHS DIAMSTBRS ADVANCING EXPONENTIALUes op FOUSFIGURK TABLESpiT° IH°AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTION
2271
FRANK CASTLE
FOURE FIGURE MATHEMATICAL TABLES
7D
ENGLISH


Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSUSEFUL DATALOGARITHMS ATtljOGARITHMS NATURAL SIKESNATURAL COSINESNATURAL TANGENTSNATURAL SECANTSNATURAL COSECANTSNATURAL COTANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SINES LOGARITHMS OF COSINESLOGARITHMS OF TANGENTS LOGARITHMS OF SECANTSLOGARITHMS OF COSECANTS LOGARITHMS OF COTANGENTS IO II M V DECREES TO RADIANS CIRCULAR FUNCTIONSANGLES AT I° INTERVALSRADIANS TOFUNCTIONS OFHYPERBOLIC OR NAPERIAN LOGARITHMSPOWERS ROOTS AND RECIPROCALSSQUARE FOOTS FROM x TO so SQUARE ROOTS FROM TO IOORECIPROCALS OF NUMBERS FROM X TO DIAMETERS ADVANCING H AREAS op CIRCLESEIGHTHS AREAS or CIRCLES DIAMETERSTENTHS EXFOHBHTIAI AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONUSE OF FOURFIGURR TABLESADVANCING V WfScanned with CamScanner
PROGRESSIVE A MATHEMATICS OR WINNIE TAN ST RAJAH TAN SPECIMEN SPECIMEN CONTENTS The Number System Long Multiplication and Long Division The Four Operations p Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions p Problems on Addition and Subtraction of Fractions p Multiplication of Fractions D Multiplication of Fractions p Division of a Fraction by a Whole Number p Problems on Multiplication and Division of Fractions p Fractions of Weights and Measures p Fractions of Weights and Measures p Decimal Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Decimals p Problems on Addition and Subtraction of Decimals p Multiplication of Decimals p More Multiplication of Decimals p Division of Decimals by Decimals p Problems on Multiplication and Division of Decimals p More Problems on Decimals p Percentage Averages Factors and Prime Numbers Squares and Square Roots Cubes and Cube Roots Squares and Square Roots and Cubes and Cube Roots p Area Area of Triangles p Area and Perimeter of Rectangles p Volume and Capacity Assessment on Specific Topics General Assessment
2406
WINNIE TAN
PROGRESSIVE MATH 5B
7D
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1989
l nMJth I D I D i I I i si A A Antmvi ri V HmPiffll AM r EHSScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPageDirect ProportionRatio Equivalent Ratios p Ratio and Proportion p Rate and SpeedScale DrawingGraphsCircle or Pie Graphs p Ordered PairsUse of Geometrical InstrumentsUse of Setsquares p Measuring and Drawing Angles p Use of Compasses p Bisection of Lines p Construction andBisection of Angles with Ruler and Compasses p Construction ofPerpendicular Lines p Angles Triangles Construction of Triangles p The Sum of the Angles of a Trianglep Exterior Angle and Interior Opposite Angles p Algebra Letters used as numerals p The Four Operations in AlgebraAddition and Subtraction p Problems on Addition and Subtractionp Multiplication p Division p Problems on Multiplication and Division p Removal of BracketsAssessment on Specific TopicsGeneral AssessmentivScanned with CamScanner
2457
M SHARIF
MATHEMATICS 8
7D
ENGLISH
STBB
1989
Scanned with CamScannerICONTENTSS NO HEADING PAGE NOCHAPTER — Sets Set Subset Proper and Improper SubsetEqual SetsPower SetUnion of Two SetsIntersection of Two SetsUniversal SetsDifference of Two SetsComplement of a Set CHAPTER HDirected Number and Rational Number SystemIntegers or Directed NumbersAbsolute value of NumbersAddition of Directed NumbersSubtraction of Directed NumbersMultiplication of Directed NumbersDivision of Directed NumbersRational NumbersAddition and Subtraction ofRational NumbersMultiplication and Division inRational numbersProperties of Rational NumbersM I I Kl i CHAPTER System of Numbers Decimal SystemBase Two system or Binary SystemConversion of Decimal System intoBase Two SystemConversion of Base Two intoDecimal System Scanned with CamScannerSNO HEADING PAGENAddition in Binary System Subtraction in Binary SystemMultiplication in Binary SystemBase Five SystemConversion of Decimal System intoBase Five SystemConversion of Base Five intoDecimal SystemAddition and Subtraction in BaseFive SystemMultiplication in Base Five System CHAPTER Square Root To find Square root by Division MethodSquare root of Decimal Fraction andCommon FractionSquare Root of Number which isnot Perfect SquareOral Practice of Finding first Digitin Square RootProblems involving Square Root CHAPTER Algebraic Expressions Formulas and Factors Algebraic Expressions and use ofBracketsFormulas and their ApplicationFactors of Expression of the Formka ± kb ± kcFactors of Expression of the Formob bc ad cdFactors of Expression of the Forma lab b jfSiNO HEADING PAGE NC Factors of Expression of the Form a lab b Factors of Expression of the Forma hFactors of Expression of the Formax bx r c CHAPTER Linear Equation in one Variable Revision Solution Set of a Linear EquationProblem on Linear Equations nrAFTER I Ratio and Proportion Ratio Simplified or Standard form of RatioContinued RatioProportionKinds of ProportionCompound ProportionP P CH APTER Percentage Profit and Loss Profit or Loss PercentZakatTaxesCHAPTER Geometry To Draw Parallel LinesTo Divide a Line Segment intocongruent segmentsTo Divide a Line Segment into givenRatioSN HEADING PACEJCHAPTER Measurement of TrianglePythagoras TheoremTo Find the Area of a Triangular Region Heros FormulaConstruction and Area of aQuadrilateralConstruction of QuadrilateralConstruction of FihombusConstruction of TrapeziumConstruction of Isosceles TrapeziumArea of Quadrilateral RegionCHAPTER CHAPTER Surface Area and Volume of Cone Cone SIanting Height of ConeSurface Area of ConeVolume of Cone ANSWERS lScanned with CamScanner
2462
FEP
GENERAL SCIENCE BOOK 3
8D
ENGLISH
FEP INTERNATIONAL
1982
Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPageBIOLOGY THE WHOLE ORGANISMCells tissues organs and systemsNUTRITIONFoodstuffs and balanced dietsa Typical green plant nutritionb Mammal nutrition VESPIRATION IN PLANTS AND MAMMALSExperiments to show germinating seeds green plants and mamma s respirecycle TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTSExperiments to show plants transpire Root pressure TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS IN PLANTS AND MAMMALSa Translocation in plantsb The circulatory system of mammal RESPONSES TO EXTERNAL STIMULIa Nervous system and sense organs of a mammal b Animal movements c Plant movements EXCRETION IN MAMMALSKidneys lungs liver and skin REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALSMale and female reproductive organs FertilisationCarbonCHEMISTRY LIMESTONE AND CARBON DIOXIDECarbonate Natural forms of calcium carbonate chemical properties uses of slakedlime and quicklimeCarbon dioxide Preparation and properties the carbon cycle uses of carbon dioxide VHARDNESS IN WATERHardness Natural water temporary and permanent hardness removal of hardness advantages and disadvantages of hard and soft water stalactites and stalagmites Scanned with CamScanner THE STUDY OF CARBONOccurence Natural forms hydrocarbons and other compounds of carbonFlame Burning of hydrocarbons the candle flame the bunsen flame ACIDS BASES AND SALTSAcids Common acids general methods of preparation of some acids propertiesBases and alkalis Properties some common bases and alkalis uses of common basesand alkalisSalts Methods of preparation of salts examples of some preparationsCommon salt Occurence production and purification of common salt uses preparation and properties of hydrogen chloridePHYSICS FORCETAND MACHINESForces Force of gravity effects produced by a forceFriction Experiments with friction methods of reducing frictionExtension Elastic body load and extension the spring balanceEquilibrium Moment of a force the law of momentsMachines Lever classes of levers centre of gravity and equilibrium SOLIDS IN FLUIDS Archimedes Principle Demonstration of the principle relative density of an objectFlotation The law of flotation simple calculations on flotation the hydrometer the Plimsoll line airships and balloons Measurement of heat The jouleSpecific heat capacity The method of mixtures heat capacity determination ofspecific heat capacities calorific values of fuels and foodstuffs UGLenses T Converging and diverging lenses focal length construction of ray diagramsimages formed by lenses magnificationApplications The magnifying glass the camera the slide projectorHuman eye Structure of the eye power of accommodation defects SOUND Transmission Frequency and vibration hearing transmission in a material medium soundwaves echoesVelocity Determination of velocity of sound in air finding distances by soundreflection echo sounder pitch and loudnessr ELECTRICITYElectric circuit Resistance current potential difference Ohms lawMagnetic effect Electromagnets the electric bellChemical effect Electrolysis electroplating Scanned with CamScanner
2514
ADNAN A SIDDIQUI
SOLUTION TO MATHEMATICS
7D
ENGLISH
GHAZALI FOUNDATION

LO rytxji ToiM i i Vj rnOMATHEI i ciracElective EUR —CifctsgJ V iB r tiX rruzarxyj VScanned with CamScannerContentsChaptersration on Sets and Coordinate System Ope of Real Numbers Exponents and SystemRadicals Algebraic Expressions Factor Highest Common Factorlowest Common Multiple and FractionsjAlgebraic Sentences VariationCYN fiip Logarithms Basic Congruent Transformation Concept Triangle Geometry apla Sia£ f The Circle Practical Geometry TrigonometryObjective vA
2539
MAHMOOD ALI MULK
DIABETIES OR GHIZA
8C
URDU
DIABETIES ASSOCIATION
1990
à¤ªàà¥ à¥à¥ h meem oscanned with camscanner o tarteeb anwanat deebacha ziyaan bees aur ghiza ke baray mein bunyadi malo baatnashasta daar Ú chiknai protein namkiyat aur madniyaato pani ke ilaaj ke bunyadi usool ziyaan bees mein ghizai ilaaj ka hadaf scanned with camscanner ziyaan bities ke mareez ke liye ghizai meino ki tayari naap toal ke pemanay ziyaan bhi mein ghiza ke baray mein ghalat fehmiya aur un ka azaala mein mashrobat ka istemaal ghiza mein sher €n ajzaa aur phalon ka istemaal ziyaan betike khusoosi masail aur ghiza Ú ke ajzaye turkey ki Ú ð”¹ taaruf Pakistan associationscanned with camscanner
NAVIED AHMED SCHAUMS OUTLINE SERIES THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF PROGRAMMING WITH BASIC ed Including Expanded MICROCOMPUTER BASIC Section BYRON S GOTTFRIED NAVEED AHMED GOT UDING SOLVED PROBLEMS AND COMPLETE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES Software Available for Programming Examples Details on Page INTERNATIONAL EDITIONS Schaums Outline Series Scanned with CamScanner
r VnraJUDV£ j mT BOOK BOARD JAMMAITm Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPTER Operations on Sets and Coordinate SystemSections Page The Set Builder Notation Finite and Infinite SetsProper and Improper Subsets Operations of Intersection and Union onThree Sets Properties about the Operations on Sets Power Set Ordered Pairs Cartestian Coordinate System for a Plane The Cartesian Product Graph of Cartesian Product Binary Relations Functions lxX CHAPTER vof Real Numbersand RadicalsSystemExponentsThe Real Number System Properties of the Set of Real Numbers Properties of Equality of Real Numbers Properties of Inequality of Real Numbers Positive Integral Exponents Laws of PowersPower with Integral Exponents Square Roots qth Root of Rational Exponents Surds CHAPTER Algebraic Expressions Kinds of Algebraic Expressions Classification of Polynomials Value of a Polynomial Ordering Polynomials Addition Mutiplication and Subtraction of Polynomia ofsPolynomials xl Division of Polynomials Finding Square Roots of Algebraic Expressions CHAPTER IFactors Highest Common FactorLowest Common Multiple and Fractions Concept of Factors Finding Common Factors Factors of Second Degree Polynomials Factors of Expressions of Type cfi± abbP Factors of Expressions of Type efi—b Factors of Expressions of Type a± bi Factors of Expressions ofType a b c—abc Hightest Common Factor Finding H C F by Division Least Common Multiple Algebraic Fractions Product of Fractions Quotient of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of FractionsCHAPTER Algebraic Sentences Algebraic Sentences Use of Equations in Problems Absolute Value of Numbers Solution Sets of Equations Involving AbsoluteValues Equations Involving Radicals Scanned with CamScannerxiCHAPTER VariationI Introduction Kinds of Variations Direct Variation Inverse Variation Proportion Properties of Proportion Theorems on Proportion Applications to Problems CHAPTER Logarithms Logarithms Definition of Logarithm f Common LogarithmsL Characteristic Mantissa Antilogarithm C Laws of Logarithms Applications Scientific NotationScanned with CamScanner xiv CHAPTER Transformation of a Plane Transformations Rigid Motions S Reflection Coordinate Axes and Reflection Rotation Finding Centre of Rotation Rotations With the Same Centre Rotations And Coordinate Axes Translation Translation and Coordinate Axes Symmetry Line Symmertry Rotational Symmetry Symmetry and Coordinate AxesCHAPTER VectorsTranslation and Vector Finding Image of a Point P under Translation AB Vectors and Coordinates Equivalent Vectors Vector Addition Multiplication of Vectors by Scalar Standard Base Vectors Resolution in Perpendicular Directions I t Scanned with CamScanner X V CHAPTER Basic Concepts of GeometryDeductive Method Basic ConceptsPostulatesBetween and BeyondLine SegmentRay and Half LineConvex Set— Correspondence Between Points of a Lineand Real NumbersAngieThe Interior and Exterior of an AngleMeasurement Of AnglesRight Angles and Congruence of AnglesTriangles CHAPTER Geometrical TheoremsVertical AnglesCongruence of TrianglesParallel Lines CHAPTER The CircleDefinitionsTheorems Scanned with CamScanner x v i CHAPTER Practical GeometryReview of Previous Work The Ambiguous Case of Construction fTriangles Similar Figures Construction of Triangle Similar to Given TriangieTo Draw the Medians of a Triangle and to Showthat They are ConcurrentDrawing Right Bisectors of Sides of Given TriangleTo Construct Altitudes of a Triangle Drawing Bisectors of Angles of a Triangle To Construct the Bisectors of One Interior andTwo Exterior Angles of a Triangle To Draw Tangent to a Given Circle at a Point onthe Circle To Draw Tangents to a Given Circle from a PointOutside the Circle The Pythagoras TheoremCHAPTER Trigonometry TrigonometryTrigonometric Ratios Trigonometric Relation Between Ratios Trigonometric of ° ° and ratios of Com plementary Angles Trigonometric IdentitiesSolution FindiAnswersof Right Trianglen Heights and DistancesScanned with CamScanner
mammm asaETsisimnuBESssmHaagSMiBIiLM r tillgj v nlli il SPjilife V J WS v JftrK fci r I — iW SPx o Tn rr x f S o T Xjt I Hi Iv T yEuliiiiliiiSg I Imm i tek jsat ijr i A t ir I i i wmhi trc IT rVNJAB TEXTBOOK BOARD LAHOREScanned with CamScannerTable of ContentsSeta and Number The Concept of Sets Subsets Equality of Sets Union nncl Intersection ofSets Power set of n Set Complement of a Set Fundamental LAWS of Sets Proof of the Distributive Laws Proof of DeMorgans I BWR ExamplesExercise The Seta of Integers and Rational Numbers The Real Number System Theorem Theorem ExampleExercise The Complex Number System Relation between Points of CartesianPlane and Complex Numbers Examples Exercise Some Additional Properties of Complex Numbers Exercise Matrices and Determinants Inf riwliiH innExercise Determinants and their Properties Singular and NonSingular Matrices Adjoint of a Matrics Inverse of a Square Matrics Homogeneous and NonHomogenous LinearEquations Cramers RuleExercise Groups Properties of a Binnaiy OperationExercise GroupsExercise I Equations Polynomials Remainder Theorem Factor Theorem Synthetic DivisionExercise Quadratic Equation Solution of a Quadratic EquationExercise Revision Equations Reducible to the Quadratic FormExercise Simultaneous Equations Solution of Simultaneous EquationsExercise Nature of the roots of the Quadratic Equation Avi iExercise Relationship between the Roots andthe coefficients in a quadratic equation Formation of a Quadratic Equation when itsRoots are givenExercise Cube Roots of Unity Properties of the Cube Roots of UnityExercise Solution of Problems involving EquationsExercise Sequences and Series SequencesExercise Arithmetic Sequence General Term of an Arithmetic ProgressionExercise Arithmetic MeansExercise Arithmetic SeriesExercise Geometric Sequence General Term of a GPExercise Geometric MeansExercise Geometric SeriesExercise Sum of an Infinite ConvergentGeometric Series Recurring DecimalsExercise I Inrmonic sequence orProgression HPExercise Harmonic MeansRelations between Arithmetic Geometric andHarmonic MeansProblems Involving Sequences and Series iggExercise Exercise HarmonicPermutation Combinationand Introduction to Probability Factorial of Positive Integer Permutation Formula for nPrExercise Permutation of Objects not all differentExercise Combinations Find the Number of Combination of n dissimilarobjects taken r at a tune ie Find nCr Complementary CombinationExercise Probability Sample Space EventSmfMutually Exclusive XEqually likelyBasic definitior Disjoint °n of Probability viii Exercise Estimating ProbabilityExercise More about ProbabilityExercise A counting PrincipleExercise Principle of Mathematical Inductionand Binomial Theorem Introduction Principle of Mathematical Induction General Form of the Principle ofMathematical InductionExercise To find sums of the squares and the cubesof the First n Natural NumbersExercise The Binomial Theorem Characteristics of the Binomial ExpansionExercise Binomial Theorem when Exponents is Negativeor a Fraction Summation by use of Binomial SeriesExercise Fundamentals of Trigonometry Introduction Measurement of Angles The Degree Measure The Radian Measure or Circular Measure Relationship between Degree andRadian MeasureivRelation between the length of acircular Arc and the Radian Measure ofits Central AngleExercise The General AngleTrigonometric Function of any Angle Fundamental Identities Signs of the values of TrigonometricFunctions in the Four Quadrants Given the Value of one Trigonometricfunction to find the value of otherTrigonometric Functions for the givenvalue of the measure of the angleExercise Trigonometric Ration of some special Angles Trigonometric Ratios of ° Trigonometric Ratios of ° Trigonometric Ratios of ° Trigonometric Ratios of ° Trigonometric Ratios of Negative Multipleof TT Trigonometric Ratios of angles ofMeasures of the form Qtkfl k is a positiveinteger and O ± rExercise STrigonometric Identities Distance Formula Fundamental Law Deduction from the Fundamental LawExercise Double Angle Identities Half Angle IdentitiesExercise Converting Products to Sums or Differences Converting sums or Differences to ProductsExercise Trigonometric Functions Domain and Ranges of Trigonometric Function Domain and Ranges of the Sine and Cosine Domain and Ranges of Tangent andCotangent Functions Domains and Ranges of Secant and Cosecent Periods of Trigonometric Functions Periods of Sine and Cosine Periods of Tangent and Cotagent Periods of Secant and CosecantExercise Graphs of Trigonometric Functions The Sine graph The Cosine graph ° to ° The Tangent graph Graph of the cotagent T to Graph of the Secant Graph of the Cosecant Variations of the Trigonometric Functionsin the Four QuadrantsExercise Solution of Triangles andArea of a Triangle Solution of Right Triangles xiExercise Heights and Distances involving Right TrianglesExercise The Law of SinesExercise The Law of CosinesExercise Solution of oblique Triangles The Law of TangentsExercise The Half Angle FormulaeExercise X Area of a TriangleExercise Circles connected with Triangles To find R the circumradius of a triangleABC in terms of measures of a side andits opposite angles To find inradius r for any triangle ABC To find the Radis of ecircle of a TriangleExercise Inverse Trigonometric Functionsand Trigonometric Equations Inverse Trigonometric FunctionRelations involving inverse functionsExercise Trigonometric EquationsExercise xiicanned with Cams
2651
SANA ULLAH BHATTI
A TEXT BOOK OF ALGEBRA AND TRIGNOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
PUNJAB BOARD
1990
A TEXTBOOKOFALGEBRAANDTRIGONOMiTRYCLASS XIPublished byPUNJAB TEXTBOOK BOARD LAHORETable of ContentsSets and Numbers What is Algebra Sets Members and Subsets The Empty Set Equivalent Sets Finite sets Infinite sets The Power Set The Universal Set Complements Operations on Sets DEMorgans Laws Operations on Three SetsExercise The Real Number SystemThe Set of Rational NumbersExercise The Complex Number System ASpecial Subset of CExercise Conjugate of a Complex Number Geometrical Representation of ComplexNumbers iv—bleofCojExercise Matrices and Determinants Introduction Algebra of MatricesExercise Determinants and their Properties Singular and NonSingular Matrices Adjoint of a Matrix Inverse of a Square Matrix Homogeneous and NonHomogeneousLinear Equations Cramers RuleExercise Groups Binary Operations Properties of Binary OperationsExercise GroupsExercise Equations Polynomials Remainder Theorem Factor TheoremExercise Synthetic DivisionExercise Quadratic Equations Solution of a Quadratic Equation Table of ContentsExercise Equations Reducible to the QuadraticFormExercise Simultaneous Equations Solution of Simultaneous EquationsExercise Nature or Character of the Roots of agiven Quadratic EquationExercise Relations between the Roots and theCoefficients Formation of a Quadratic Equation whenits Roots are givenExercise Cube Roots of Unity Properties of the Cube Roots of UnityExercise Solution of Problems Involving EquationsExercise vSequences and Series SequencesExercise Arithmetic Sequence General Term of an Arithmetic ProgressionExercise Arithmetic MeansExercise SeriesviSt Arithmetic SeriesExercise Geometric Sequence GS General Thrm of a GPExercise Geometric MeansExercise Geometric SeriesExercise Convergence and Divergence of InfiniteGeometric Series Recurring DecimalsExercise Harmonic SequenceExercise Harmonic Means Relations between ArithmeticGeometric and Harmonic MeansExercise Problems involving Sequences andSeriesExercise r Permutation Combination andIntroduction to Probability Factorial of a Positive Integer Permutation Formula For nPrExercise Permutation of Objects not all differentScanned with CamScannerTable of Contents viiExercise Combination Find the Number of Combination of nDissimilar Objects taken r at a time ieFind nCr Complementary CombinationsExercise Probability Sample Space Event Mutually Exclusive or Disjoint Equally likely Basic Definition of ProbabilityExercise Estimating ProbabilityExercise More about ProbabilityExercise A Counting PrincipleExercise Principle of Mathematical Induction andBinomial Theorem Introduction Principle of Mathematical Induction General Form of the Principle ofMathematical InductionExercise Sums of the Squares and the Cubes of theFirst n Natural NumbersExercise BKviii TaM ofA Binomial Theorem Characteristic of the Binomial ExpanvonBxerriac Binomial Theorem f o r Rational Index Evaluation by uw of Binomial SenesExercise Fundamental of Trigonormiry Introduction Measurement of AnglesExercise The General Angle Trigonometric Function of any angle Fundamental Identities Signs of the Value of TrigonometricFunctions in the Four Quadrant Given the Value of one TrigonometricRatio of an Angle to find the Value ofother Trigonometric RatioExercise Trigonometric Ratios of Some SpecialAngles Trigonometric Ratio of NegativeMultiples of z Trigonometric Ratio of Measures of thef o r m k z f k is a ve IntegerExercise Sl TVigonomctrtc Identity Distance Formula A Fundamental LawPScanned with CamScannerTable of Contents ix Deductions from the Fundamental LawExercise Double angle identities Half angle identitiesExercise Converting Products to Sums orDifferences Converting Sums or Differences toProductsExercise Trigonometric Function Domain and range of a TrigonometricFunctions Domains and Ranges of the Sine andCosine Domains and Ranges of Tangent andCotangent Functions Domains and Ranges of Secant andCosecant Periods of Trigonometric FunctionsExercise Graphs of Trigonometric Functions Variations of the TrigonometricFunctions in the Four QuadrantsExercise Solution of triangles and Area of a Triangle Solution of Right TrianglesExercise Heights and Distances involving RightTriangles x Table of cNExorcise The Law of SinesExercise A The Law of CosinesExercise The Law of Tangents The Half Angle Formulae Solution of Oblique TrianglesExercise Area of a triangleExercise Circles connected with Triangles a To find R the circumradius of atriangle ABC in terms of measure of a sideand its opposite angleb Circumradius in terms of themeasurements of sides of a triangle ABC To find inradius V for any triangle ABC To Find the Radii of ecircles of atriangleExercise elsllwl Mtrbir nInverse Trigonometric Functions andTrignomctric Equationst Inverse Trigonometric Functions C Now we write some relations involvinginverse functionsExercise Trigonometric EquationsExercise i I JScanned with CamScanner
2668
NAYYAR RANG
SHARAH TABIYAT
7E
URDU
NYARANG

2672
SYED KHURSHEED ALAM
BUSINESS MATHEMATICS
7C
ENGLISH
REHBER
2003
According to prescribed syllabus effective from BUSINESSMATHEMATICSFor First Year Commerce Class XI INCLUDING WORKED EXAMPLESSKHURSHEED ALAMREHBAR PUBLISHERSScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS CHAPTER BASIC CONCEI I Real Number Symbols for Real Numbers Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Coefficients and ExponentsI S Operations on Algebraic Expressions Some Important ExpansionsExercises lfrCHAPTER RATIOS PROPORTIONS ANDPERCENTAGES Ratio Equal Ratio Continued Ratio Dividing in a given Ratio Combining Ratios Ratio of Variables using Coefficients Proportion Direct Proportion Inverse ProportionCompound Proportion Percentage Profit and LossWorked ExamplesExercises CHAPTER INTEREST AND ANNUITIES Simple Interest Rank DiscountI ompound InterestMultiple CompoundingEllective Rate of Interest SScanned with CamScanner AnnuityAmount of AnnuityPresent Value of AnnuitySinking FundAmortizationWorked ExamplesExercises FUNCTIONS AND THEIRGRAPHSCoordinate SystemOrdered PairDistance between two pointsFunctionLinear FunctionSlope and y InterceptForms of Linear EquationsQuadratic FunctionDirection Vertex and RootsWorked ExamplesExercisesCHAPTER LINEAR ANDQUADRATIC EQUATIONSLinear Equation in one VariableSimultaneous EquationsMethod of EliminationMethod of SubstitutionQuadratic EquationMethod of FactorizingMethod of Completing the SquareMethod of Quadratic FormulaWorked ExamplesExercisesCHAPTER HAITI u HINARY NUMBERS Number SystemDecimal or Denary Numbers Octal Numbeis Base Five Numbers lBinary Numbers Decimal to Binary Binary to Decimal Binary Addition Binary Subtraction Binary Subtraction using IsComplements Binary Multiplication Binary DivisionWorked ExamplesExercisesr CHAPTER MATRICES ANDDETERMINANTS Definition Row ad Column Vectors Square Matrix Identity Matrix Zero Matrix or Null Matrix Transpose of a Matrix Equal Matrices Addition and Subtraction ofMatrices Multiplication of a Matrix by aNumber Matrix Multiplication Inverse of a Square Matrix Solving Simultaneous EquationsDeterminants Inverse of a x Square Matrix Cramers RuleWorked Examples ExercisesAnswersTables
2673
WILLIAM EMBLETON
READ'S MATHEMATICS FOR MARINE ENGINEERING
7C
ENGLISH
THOMAS REED
1965
WIjvC tY V REED S PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS SERIESA VOLUME IiIil ikkfg i h v ¥MpScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPAGECHAPTER —ARITHMETICPowers and roots Ratio and proportionMethod of unity Variation PercentageAverages — CHAPTER —ELEMENTARY ALGEBRAAddition and subtraction multiplicationand division Removal of brackets Factorisation Lowest Common MultipleFractions Evaluation — CHAPTER —LOGARITHMSReading fourfigure tables Multiplication and division powers and rootsNaperian logarithms — CHAPTER —SIMPLE EQUATIONSProblems involving simple equationsTransposition of formulae LogarithmicequationsCHAPTER —SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONSVarious methods of solving Examplesinvolving two or three unknownsCHAPTER —QUADRATIC EQUATIONSSolutions by factorisation completingthe square and formula Simultaneousquadratics— — — CHAPTER —GRAPHSPlotting Determining equation tostraight lme graph Graphical solutions ofsimultaneous and quadratic equationsDetermination of laws —CHAPTER —MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES ANDTRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOSUnits of measurement Sine cosine andtangent and relationships between themComplementary and supplementaryangles Theorem of Pythagoras Readingtables Angles greater than ° Latitudeand longitude —Scanned with CamScannerPAGECHAPTER —GEOMETRYConstruction of perpendiculars Bisectinglines and angles Construction of triangles Cyclic triangles and quadrilateralsCircumscribed and inscribed circlesSimilar triangles CHAPTER —SOLUTION OF TRIANGLESRatios Sine rule and cosine rule Areasof triangles Equilateral and isoscelestriangles Circumscribed and inscribecircles Compound and double anglesCHAPTER —MENSURATION OF AREASParallelogram Rhombus TrapeziumTriangles Polygons Circle sector andsegment Ellipse Surface areas ofcylinder sphere cone and frustrumTheorem of Pappus Similar figuresIrregular figures Simpsons and midordinate rules———CHAPTER —MENSURATION OF VOLUMES AND WEIGHTSVolume density and specific gravityVolumes of prisms pyramids and thesphere Theorem of Pappus applied tovolumes Centres of gravity Simpsonsrule applied to volumes Flow of liquidthrough pipes and valves FirstRULES AND FORMULAEfrom SOLUTIONS TO TEST EXAMPLESmoments ———A SELECTION OF EXAMINATION QUESTIONSSOLUTIONS TO—EXAMINATION QUESTIONS —Scanned with CamScanner
2674
S L GREEN
ADVANCED LEVEL PURE MATHEMATICS
7C
ENGLISH
UNIVERSITY TETORIAL PRESS
1976
wm A i i iP t A IScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPART I ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRYCHAPTERPAGEI RECTANGULAR CARTESIAN COORDINATESII THE STRAIGHT LINE III Two STRAIGHT LINESIV THE CIRCLEV THE PARABOLATHE ELLIPSETHE HYPERBOLAVIII CONIC SECTIONS IN GENERALVIIIA RECTANGULAR CARTESIAN COORDINATES IN THREEDIMENSIONSVI VII aPART II PURE GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRYIX THE TRIANGLEX THE LINE AND PLANEXI SOLID FIGURESXII THE SPHEREXIII THE TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOSXIV ADDITION FORMULAEXV SOLUTION OF TRIANGLESXVI THE TRIANGLE AND ITS CIRCLESXVII POLYGONSXVIII INVERSION COAXAL CIRCLES PART III ALGEBRA AND ANALYSISXIX THEORY OF INDICES LOGARITHMSXX CHOICE AND CHANCEXXI THE BINOMIAL THEOREMXXII RATIONAL FUNCTIONS viiScanned with CamScannerV I I I I UlNTMNTM ii A r ricnX X I I I I NIOQIIA IIITIIOH I VXXVX X V IX X V I I X X V I I I I ll J tNUM l INil It I MMII M I T M A N D D M U I V A T I V I O MCURVES MAXIMA AND MINIMAINTEO RATION QlU UltATIONA It It A M l KyUATIONSHlNITM Hmiti IMINK INITIO NMIUMN M r O N M N T I A I A N I I L u O A U l T J I M l C i AW IX AX AX X X I X X X I I IlYTEnnoLio PUNOTIONNXXX I I I MlflTJIOOS UK I NTEORATION X X X I V C u nv i a TRACING ARMAN AND ARONXXXV VOLUMES OK DEVOLUTION CENTROIDS ETCXXXVI MAOLAURIN S THEOREMX X X V I I CURVATURE POLAR COORDINATESXXXVIII DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONSXXXIX COMPLEX NUMRERS XL DETERMINANTS AND MATRICESXLI PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION ANSWERSINDEXAPPENDIXScanned with CamScanner
2675
C J TRANTER
ADVANCED LEVEL PURE MATHEMATICS
7C
ENGLISH
THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITES PRESS
1967
CONTENTS Tun THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONSThe roots of a quadratic equation The sum and product of the rootsMiscellaneous equations involving one unknown Simultaneous equationsThe square rool of a N INDICES AND LOGARITHMS THE REMAINDER THEOREM THE PRINCIPLEOF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS PARTIAL FRACTIONSFundamental laws for positive integral indices Fractional zero andnegative indices Theory of logarithms Common logarithms Equationsin which the unknown occurs as an index The remainder theorem Theprinciple of undetermined cocflicients Partial fractions ARITHMETICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSIONS PERMUTATIONS ANDCOMBINATIONS THE BINOMIAL THEOREMSeries The arithmetical progression The geometrical progression Simpleand compound interest The convergence of the geometric series Seriesinvolving the natural numbers Permutations and combinations Probability or chance Binomiu theorem for a positive integral index Binomialtheorem when n is not a positive integer TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR ANY ANGLE GRAPHS OF TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS TRIGONOMETRICAL EQUATIONSIntroduction Trigonometrical ratios for the general angle Trigonometricalratios of some related angles Graphs of the trigonometrical ratios for acuteangles Graphs of the trigonometrical ratios for the general angle Solutionof trigonometrical equations ADDITION THEOREMS MULTIPLE AND SUBMULTIPLE ANGLES FURTHERTRIGONOMETRICAL EQUATIONS THE INVERSE NOTATION SMALLANGLESAddition theorems for the sine and cosine Addition theorem for the tangentMultiple angles Submultiplc angles Factor formulae Further trigonometrical equations The equation a cos bsinO c The inverse notationSmall unglcs RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SIDES AND ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE THESOLUTION OF TRIANGLES HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES Notation The sine formula The cosine formula Area of a triangle Radiusof the inscribed circle Radii of the escribed circles Formulae for the anglesof a triangle in terms of the sides The tangent formula Summary of formulaefor the triangle Numerical solution of triangles Examples of the use of thesine formula Examples of the use of the cosine formula Example of theuse of the tangent rule Alternative methods of solution of triangle withthree sides given Heights and distances INTRODUCTION TO THE IDEAS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUSFunctions and functional notation Gradient of a curve The incrementnotation Differentiation from first principles The differential coefficientDifferential coefficient of x n a positive integer Differential coefficients ofsin x and cosx The differential coefficient as a rate measurer ApproximationsixScanned with CamScannerx C O N T E N T SDIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS TECHNICAL PROCESSES IN THE sigglisisiiDifferential coefficients of tan x and sin x Differentaton of implicitfunctions List of standard forms Higher derivativesDIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS SOME APPLICATIONS OF THEipplicaUtiinsn Maximum and Applications to practical problemsPoints of inflexion Curve sketching INTRODUCTION TO THE IDEAS OF THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS The nature of the fundamental problem Standard forms Some geometricalCalculation of an area as a limit of a sumThe integral asaTumTxamples of definite integrals and calculation of areaVolumes of figures of revolution SOME METHODS OF INTEGRATION Introduction Generalisation ol the list ol standaid integials The integrationof products of sines and cosines Integration by change of variable Definiteintegrals by change of variable Integration by parts Approximate methodsof integration SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS Introduction Further examples of the calculation of area Calculation ofvolumes Mean values Centres of mass Moments of inertia Length ofarc Areas of surfaces of revolution THE LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Introduction The area below the curve y x Important properties ofthe function hyp t The logarithmic function The exponential functionDifferentiation and integration of ex Integrals depending on Jx dxLogarithmic differentiation Successive approximations and Maclaurinsseries Series for e and loge x COORDINATES LENGTHS OF LINES AREAS OF TRIANGLES LOCI INTERSECTION OF CURVESSystems of coordinates Relation between Cartesian and polar coordinatesDistance between two points with given rectangular coordinates A proof ofthe addition formulae of trigonometry Coordinates of a point dividing aline in a given ratio Area of a triangle whose vertices have given coordinatesEquation to a locus Intersections of two curves whose equations are known THE COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF THE STRAIGHT LINEraeiMatin lle firSt degree rePresents a straight line Equation to a lineLtw Perlndtrul Anplpen pttwl coordinate inPTnCe inesfCondlt axis °f PSpecial °ml“from nsforms foraparallelism line of the The equation bisectors and perpendicularity to aof straight the angles linemernai Equation data To a mi P rnfnrPaSST The determinat rough theintersection on of linearof laws twofrom given lines THE COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF THE CIRCLEcircleEquation acirde whnJ entre and radius General equation to aEquation to a circle through thrpTd ameteriS the j°in of two given Pointsgiven point Points of intersectionpoilsThe tangent to a circle at aihe tangent from an external nnim° n sfraight lme and circle The length olcircles Circle through intersections twoSven circlesS a“ °f W° experiScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS THE PARABOLA ELLIPSE A N D HYPERBOLAIntroduction The equation to a parabola The tangent and normai to aparabola Points of intersection of straight line and parabola Parametricequations to a parabola An important property of the parabola Theequation to an ellipse The tangent and normal to an ellipse Points ofintersection or straight line and ellipse Parametric equations to an ellipseThe eccentric angle The equation to a hyperbola The tangent and normalto a hyperbola Points of intersection of straight line and hyperbolaParametric equations to a hyperbola Asymptotes of a hyperbola Therectangular hyperbola The rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptotesas axes SOME THEOREMS IN PURE GEOMETRYIntroduction Some theorems on the circle Revision examples Theoremson proportion and similar triangles Revision examples Similar rectilinearfigures Some ratio and rectangle properties of the triangle and quadrilateralSome further properties of a triangle The theorems of Ceva and Menelaus ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY OF THE PLANE AND SPHEREIntroduction and definitions Axioms and further definitions Some theoremson parallels Normals Orthogonal projection and dihedral angles Somegeometrical properties of the sphere Rectangular Cartesian coordinates inthree dimensions The distance between two points The directioncosinesof a straight line The equation of a plane The equations of a straight line MENSURATION OF SIMPLE SOLID FIGURESIntroduction The volume of a right prism The volume of an oblique prismThe volume of a pyramid The volume and curved surface of a cylinder Thevolume and curved surface of a cone The mensuration of the sphereSummary of formulae COMPLEX NUMBERSIntroduction The geometrical representation of complex numbersjugate complex numbers The manipulation of complex numbers Additionof complex numbers in the Argand diagram Products and quotients olcomplex numbers De Moivres theorem The cube roots of unityANSWERS TO THE EXERCISESxiCon INDEXScanned with CamScanner
jauuBosuJBOiijMpauueos c oqqv d v CONTENTSCHAPTER ITHE MEANING OF ALGEBRAPARA Algebra and Arithmetic A Formula PAGE PARACHAPTER IIELEMENTARY OPERATIONS Symbols of Operation Algebraic Expression Terms Brackets Coefficient Addition and Subtraction Evaluation by Substitution Multiplication Powers of Numbers Multiplication of Powen Division of Powers Easy Fractions CHAPTER IIIBRACKETS AND OPERATIONS WITH THEM Removal of Brackets Systems of Brackets Addition and Subtraction ofExpressions within Brackets CHAPTER IVPOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS Operations with NegativeNumbers Rules for Signs Powers SO The Scale of a Thermometer Motion in Opposite Directions S Positive and Negative NumbersCHAPTER VSIMPLE EQUATIONS Problems Leading to SimpleEquations Meaning of an Equation Solving an EquationCHAPTER VIFORMULAE Treatment of Formulae I Literal Equations n Transformation of Formulae CHAPTER VIISIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS Problems Leading totaneous Equations Slmul Solution of SimultaneousEquations Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPTER VIIGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUANTITIESPAGE The Object of Graphical Work The Column Graph A Straightline Graph PARA PAGE Examples of Graphs and theirUses TARA CHAPTER IXTHE LAW OF A STRAIGHT LINE COORDINATES Equation of a Straight LinePassing Through the Origin Equation of a Straight LineNot Passing Through theOrigin Graphic Solution of Simultaneous Equations The Law Represented by aStraightline Graph Graph of an Equation of theFirst Degree Position in a Plane Coordinates A Straight Line as a Locus CHAPTER XMULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSIONS Product of Binomial Expres Product of Sum and Difference sions CHAPTER XIFACTORS Factors of the Difference of£ Binomial Factors Two Squares CHAPTER XIIFRACTIONS Addition and Subtraction Simple Equations InvolvingFractions Laws of Fractions Reduction of Fractions Multiplication and Division CHAPTER XIIIGRAPHS OF QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS The Curve of y x The Curve of y — Vs The Curves of y ax The Curves of y x ± a Change of Axis The Graph of y x — — The Graph of y — x — jr Constants and Variables Dependent and IndependentVariables Functions Graph of a Function Graph of a Function of SecondDegree CHAPTER XIVQUADRATIC EQUATIONS Algebraic Solution Solution by Factorisation General Formula Problems Leading to Quadratics Simultaneous Quadratics CONTENTSCHAPTER XVINDICESPARA Laws of Indices Extension of the Meaning ofan Index PAGR PARAJ Fractional Indices° Negative Indices Standard Fopr rms of Number hCHAPTER XVI LOGARITHMS A System of Logarithms Characteristic of a Logarithm Mantissa of a Logarithm Rules for therithms UM O to sjCHAPTER XVIIRATIO AND PROPORTION Meaning of a Ratio Proportion Theorems on Ratio and Proportion Constant Ratios CHAPTER XVIIIVARIATION Inverse Variation Functions of More than OneVariable Direct Variation To Find the Law ConnectingTwo Variables CHAPTER XIXTHE DETERMINATION OF LAWS Plotting Against a Power of Use of Logarithms a Number CHAPTER XXRATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL NUMBERS SURDS Operations with Surds CHAPTER XXIARITHMETICAL AND GEOMETRICAL SERIES Simple and Compound Interest Accumulated Value of Periodical Payments Annuities APPENDIX Irrational Numbers The Meaning of a Series Arithmetic Progression Harmonic Progression Geometric Progression Infinite Geometric Series The Roots of a QuadraticEquationPermutations and CombinationsThe Binomial TheoremSS SAnswers Logarithm TablesScanned with CamScanner
2715
ZIAUDDIN AHMED
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
SOHAIL PUBLICATIONS
1964
OORDINATEGEOMETRYforUGHER SECONDARY Intermediate CLASSESi ZIAUDDIM AHMADC O N T E N T SChapterPageI Introduction The Point lThe Point IIIIIIV Locus of a Point also see Chapter XIII V The Straight Line I VI The Straight Line IIThe Straight Line IIIVII VIII The Circle IX Conic Sections mX The Parabola XI The Ellipse I XII The Ellipse II XIII Locus Miscellaneous Problems AnswersScanned with CamScanner
2720
M AFZAL QAZI
MODERN CALCULUS AND ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
URDU ACADEMY
FORCLASS XIISINDTEXTBOOK BOARDJAMSHQROf PUBLISHED BYLKARACHICONTENTSCHAPTER PreliminariesSection Page Field properties of real numbers Coordinate Systems Mathematical induction and natural numbers Partially ordered sets Linear ordering of real numbers Definition of real numbers CHAPTER IMatrices and Determinants Introduction Matrix Notation Addition of matrices Definition scalar multiplication Muliplication of matrices Some types of matrices Determinants Properties of determinants Linear transformation Adjoint of a matrix Inverse of a matrix Simultaneous linear equations Scanned with CamScannerViiiCHAPTER IIFunctions and LimitsSection Interval Cartesian coordinate system for plane Functions and their graphs Meaning of the phrasex tends to a Theorems on limit The limit and the value of a function Some important limits ContinuityPage CHAPTER HQDifferentiation and Integration of Algebraic Functions Increments Rate of change The derivative Differentiation Composite functions Parametric representation of curves Differentiation of implicit functions Antiderivative Formulae for indefinite integrals Definite integral Ill CHAPTER IVDifferentiation of Trigonometric Logarithmic andExponential Functions Differentiation of trigonometric functions Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions Exponential function The number e The function e and its derivative Scanned with CamScannerixSection Par t ns n limitThe logarithmic functionLogarithmic differentiation CHAPTER VMethod of Integration IW differentiation of a functionStandard differential formulaeApproximation by differentialsStandard formulae for integrationFindinf indefinite integrals h mbMitutionSi in definite integralsTrigonometric substitutionCompleting the squareIntegration by panTheoremIntegration of rational functionI i CHAPTER VIHigher Derivative and Expansion of FunctionDrrvativirf second and higher orderCalculation of the n tb derivativeExpansion of function CHAPTER VIIFudar enia ut Plan Aralytic Geometry andStraight Lin Locus of an equationIntercepts and symmetryIntersection of lociDirected distances on a lineDivision of a line segment in a given ratioAngle from one line to another Scanned with CamScannerXSection The inclination of the line passing through Slope PCvof aOand line Qx y Parallel and perpendicular lines Equation of a straight line Linear equation The intersection of two straight lines Equation of a line passing through intersectionof two lines Angle from one line to another in terras of tbeirslopes Inequalities of the first degree Distance of a point from a line Area of a triangle Application to elementary geometry Equation of locus Homogeneous equations of second degreePage C H A P T E R V I I BConic Sections Introduction Equation of a circle The general equation of a circle The equation xygxfyc Circles determined by given conditions Circle through the points of intersection of two givencircles The length of tangent from a point Coaxal circles Standard equation of a parabola General equation of a parabola H Equation of the ellipse A focus directrix property of the ellipse AEquation more general of theform hyperbola of the equation of the ellipse The asymptotes of a hyperbola xiSection Page Focus directrix property of the hyperbola A more general form of the equation of thehyperbolaCondition of tangency of ymxc CHAPTER IXVectors Cartesian coordinate system for space Distance and displacement Scalar and vector quantities Addition of vectors Position vectors Equivalence of vectors and vector addition Vector subtraction Multiplication of a vector by a scalar Components of a vector in a Plane Components of a vector in space The unit vectors i j k The scalar product The vector product ExamplesCHAPTER XApplication of Calculus to Geometry Geometrical interpretation of derivative dy Theisequations slope of of tangent tangent and normal The intersection of two curves Increasing and decreasing functionsMaxima and minima of a functionHow to distinguish between maxima andminima Scanned with CamScannerxiiSection Procedure for finding maximum and minimum values Use of second derivative Problems in maxima and minima Motion in a straight line Related rates Application of integral calculus to geometry Area under a curve DOTATION is less than is greater than is less than or equal to is greater than or equal to is not less than is not greater thanis equal to is not equal tonl n factorial n n nI x I absolute value of xr is similar toII is parallel toe belongs toc is contained iniff if and only if Implies Twoway Implication or if and only if or is equivalent wrt with respect to Scanned with CamScanner
2721
M AFZAL QAZI
MODERN CALCULUS AND ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
URDU ACADEMY
ri fFORCLASS W HsMTPTPETERIAMDVECTORSTEXTBOOK BAPUMSHQRGPUBLISHED BYKARACHI V y ui L u zi rM ffi CONTENTSCHAPTER PreliminariesPageSection Field properties of real numbers Coordinate Systems Mathematical induction and natural numbers Partially ordered sets Linear ordering of real numbers Definition of real numbers CHAPTER IMatrices and Determinants Introduction Matrix Notation Addition of matrices Definition scalar multiplication Muliplication of matrices Some types of matrices Determinants Properties of determinants Linear transformation Adjoint of a matrix Inverse of a matrix Simultaneous linear equations viiiCHAPTER nd Limts Page Functi°nS aSection Interval for PlaneCartesian coordinate systemFunctions and their graphs Meaning of the phrasex tends to a Theorems on limit The limit and the value Some important limits Continuityof a functionCHAPTER SISDifferentiation and Integration of Algebraic Functions I l l Increments Rate of change The derivative Differentiation Composite functions Parametric representation of curves Differentiation of implicit functions Antiderivative Formulae for indefinite integrals Definite integralVCHAPTER IVDifferentiation Exponential of Trigonometric Functions Logarithmic and Differentiation of Differentiation of inverse trigonometrief unctionstrigonometric functions Exponential The number functions e Tfie function eX e and its derivative Scanned with CamScannerixSection e as a limit The logarithmic function Logarithmic differentiation Page CHAPTER V VMethods of Integration The differentiation of a function Standard differential formulae Approximation by differentials Standard formulae for integration Finding indefinite integrals by substitution Substitution in definite integrals Trigonometric sutistitution Completing the square Integration by parts Theorem Integration of rational functionsCHAPTER VB hHigher Derivatives and Expansion of Functions Derivatives of second and higher order Calculation of the n th derivative Expansion of functions CHAPTER VIIFundamentals of Plane Analytic Geometry andStraight Line Locus of an equation Intercepts and symmetry Intersection of loci Directed distanceson a llineDivision of a line segment in a given ratio Angle from one line to another Scanned with CamScannerXPagethroughSection thd line pnsins The inclination of — P x v and QV Slope of a line Parallel and perpendicular lines Equation of a straight line Linear equation The intersection of two straight lines Equation of a line passing through intersectionof two lines Angle from one lineslopes Inequalities of the Distance of a point from Area of a triangle Application to elementary geometry Equation of locusHomogeneous equations of second degree of theirto another in terms first degree a line CHAPTER VIIIIConic Sections Introduction Equation of a circle The general equation of a circle The equation xygxyc Circles determined by given conditions Circle circlesthrough the points of intersection of two given The length of tangent from a pointCoaxal circlesStandard equation of a parabola General equation of a parabola Equation of the ellipse AAEquation more focus general directrix of theform hyperbola property of theof equation the ellipse of the ellipse The asymptotes of a hyperbola Scanned with CamScannerxiPage Section Focus directrix property of the hyperbolaA more general form of the equation of thehyperbolaCondition of tangency of ymxc ISCHAPTER IXVectorsV Cartesian coordinate system for space Distance and displacement Scalar and vector quantities Addition of vectors Position vectors Equivalence of vectors and vector addition s Vector subtraction Multiplication of a vector by a scalar Components of a vector in a Plane Components of a vector in space The unit vectors i j k The scalar product The vector product ExamplesCHAPTER xApplication of Calculus to Geometry Geometrical interpretation of derivativeis slope of tangent £ The equations of tangent and normal The intersection of two curves Increasing and decreasing functions Maxima and minima of a function How to distinguish between maxima andminima Scanned with CamScannerxiiPageSectionand minimum Procedure for finding maximum ” valuesUse of second derivativeProblems in maxima and minima Motion in a straight line Related rates Area under a curveNOTATIONApplication of integral calculus to geometry is less than is greater than is less than or equal to is greater than or equal to is not less than is not greater than is equal toi is not equal ton n factorial n n nI x absolute value of xr is similar toII is parallel toe belongs toc is contained iniff if and only ir Implies Twoway implicatinwrt with rcsPect to °r if an only if r is equivalent to article or section
2722
WALLACE KIRKLAND
CONTINUITY PART 3
8A
ENGLISH


DATE a WAV ACC NO—CALL NOSHELF NOSUBJECTCiilFsIOT ISLAMIA SCSiOOL COLLEGES ML p SC iev C P A R TCONT NUSTY
2723
HARBRCE PHOTO
DIVERSITY PART 2
8A
ENGLISH


DATACC NO—CALL NOSHELF NOSUBJECTCHiHIOT ISLAMIA SCHOOL CCLLE i P JSnxiRCPLI sP A R T DIVERSITY
j SCHAUMSOUTLINESERIESTHEORY and PROBLEMSofMODERNALGEBRAb y F R A N K A V R t S J R l VliA NOc l IincludingsolvedproblemsSIH U NUSCHAUWS OUTUNHMgM HI r V hC O N T E N T SPageChapter SETS Sets Equal sets Subsets of a set Universal sets Intersection and unionof sets Venn diagrams Operations with sets The product set MappingsOnetoone mappings Onetoone mapping of a set onto itselfChapter RELATIONS AND OPERATIONS Relations Properties of binary relations Equivalence relations Equivalencesets Ordering in sets Operations Types of binary operations Welldefinedoperations Isomorphisms Permutations Transpositions Algebraic systemsChapter THE NATURAL NUMBERS The Peano postulates Addition Multiplication Mathematical inductionThe order relations Multiples and powers Isomorphic setsChapter THE INTEGERS Introduction Binary relation Addition and multiplication The positiveintegers Zero and the negative integers The integers Order relationsSubtraction Absolute value Other properties of integers Multiples andpowersChapter SOME PROPERTIES OF INTEGERS Divisors Primes Greatest common divisor Relatively prime integers Primefactors Congruences The algebra of residue classes Linear congruencesPositional notation for integersChapter THE RATIONAL NUMBERS The rational numbers Addition and multiplication Subtraction and division Replacement Order relations Reduction to lowest terms DecimalrepresentationChapter THE REAL NUMBERS Introduction Dedekind cuts Positive cuts Multiplicative inverses Additiveinverses Multiplication Subtraction and division Order relations Properties of the real numbers SummaryChapter THE COMPLEX NUMBERS The system of complex numbers Addition and multiplication Properties ofcomplex numbers Subtraction and division Trigonometric representationRoots Primitive roots of unityhapter GROUPS Groups Simple properties of groups Subgroups Cyclic groups Permutation groups Homomorphisms Isomorphisms Cosets Invariant subgroupsQuotient groups Product of subgroups Composition seriesScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS Ja Characteristic DiVj uChapfer RINS Principal idealsEings Properties of rings Siibrings Types rplijsms of rin eals rjng sors of zero Homomorphisms and lsngS EocUPrime and maximal ideals Quotient — FIELDS UT I C T O N R i n s Ordered integralChapter domains Integral INTEGRAL domains Division DOMAINS algorithm Unit associate DlVlS foctoriz SubGdn £ ° Division rings FieldsDivision Commutativepolynomial domainChapter j POLYNOMIALS —SuMtitUtW Monic P I CThe Greatest commonidIntroduction Polynomialpolynomial rings with unityyfarl Prime polynomialsof theThepolynomdivisor Properties space Linear dependenceVECTOR SPACES Subspace of a VJC linear transformations TheIntroduction Vector aPcctor spaces overalgebra Bases ofofa linear vector sPac transforma rniationsChapter A matrix of orderVw transformationsSngular and diagonal matrices Aformations Elementary matricesonsingular matrixChapter MATRICES matricesIntroduction SqUrC vvstcmSolutions of a systemmatrix Upper triangmla Elemental yof linearlowercolumn transThe inversematrix SystemsProperties of determinantsIll X on acanonical form of a nof linear equations DeEvaluation ofmatricesInverses elementary Minimum polynomialterminant of a squaredeterminantsof a squarematrixMATRIX POLYNOMIALS Elementary transformations NormalMatrices with polynom e em Division algorithm The characOrthogonal matrices Conics and quadric surfacesChapter matricesChapter IS LINEAR ALGEBRAS £Linear algebra An isomorphismfiapter BOOLEAN ALGEBRASBoolean algebra Boolean functions Normal forms Changing the form of anetworks Simplification reiati of networks ° “ B°°lean algebra Aleebra of electricalINDEX INDEX OP SYMBOLS Scanned with CamScanner
2729
WILLIAM D SCHRAER
BIOLOGY THE STUDY OF LIFE
8A
ENGLISH
CEBCO
1985
I I IOLOGYfHE STUDY OF LIFEmm x M VSp u La J I£ ryIiv f IAi s r VSirr ri £ r r i vV ft r £kiEi H YScanned with CamScannerNTENTSUNIT S INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGYChapter The Nature of LifeINTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGYS LIVING AND NONLIVING THINGS Borderline Cases e ppcniratinn eI THE LIFE PROCESSES Nutrition Transport p Synthesis and Assimilation Growth Excretion Regulation Reproduction Metabolism Biology as a ScienceTHE NATURE OF SCIENCE The Scientific Method Scientific Measurement TOOLS OF THE BIOLOGIST The Need for Instruments The Optical Microscope The Simple Microscope The Compound Microscope Magnification Resolution Fixation Sectioning and Staining The Stcreomicroscopc ThePhaseContrast Microscope The Flectron Microscope i Other Special Techniques Characteristics of Life Some Basic Ideas of ChemistryATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER Elements and Compounds Structure of Atoms Atomic Number Isotopes Atomic Mass Symbols of Isotopes RadioactiveIsotopes Electron Structure of Atoms CHEMICAL BONDING Covalent Bonds Diatomic Molecules CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical Formulas Formulas Chemical Equations SOLUTIONS AND SUSPENSIONS Mixtures Suspensions Colloidal Dispersions ACIDS BASES AND SALTS Acids Neutralization Salts I The pH Scale Ionic Bonds Structural Solutions Bases Dissociation of Water Scanned with CamScannerChemical Compounds of Life ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Definition of Organic Compounds Structure and Types of Organic Compounds CARBOHYDRATES Characteristics of Carbohydrates Dehydration Synthesis Polysaccharides Hydrolysis LIPIDS Chemical Composition of Lipids Saturated andUnsaturated Fats Functions of Lipids PROTEINS The Nature of Proteins Amino Acids ThePeptide Bond The Structure of Proteins NUCLEIC ACIDS The Nature of Nucleic Acids Structure of DNA and RNA ENZYMES The Importance of Enzymes How Enzymes Work Characteristics of Enzyme Action The Cell THE CELL THEORY Historical Development of the Cell Theory Summary of the Cell Theory CELL STRUCTURE General Characteristics of Cells Cell Walls The Cell Membrane The Nucleus The Cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Lysosomes Mitochondria Microtubules Microfilaments Centrioles Cilia and Flagella Vacuoles Chloroplasts Leucoplasts and Chromoplasts PASSAGE OF MATERIALS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES SelectivePermeability of the Cell Membrane Diffusion FacilitatedDiffusion Osmosis Osmotic Pressure Effectsof Osmosis Passive and Active Transport ORGANIZATION OF CELLS IN LIVING THINGS Unicellular and ColonialOrganisms Complex Multicellular Organisms Classification of Living Things Chapter Introduction CLASSIFICATION Classification Systems Early ClassificationSchemes Classification Categories Nomenclature Taxonomic Keys Modern Taxonomy MAJOR TAXONOMIC GROUPS Kingdoms of Organisms Kingdom Monera Kingdom Protista KingdomFungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Scanned with CamScannerUNIT ANIMAL MAINTENANCE Cellular Respiration The Release of Energy EnergyCHAPTER INTRODUCTIONSTORAGE AND TRANSFER OF ENERGY ATP and ADP Sourceof Energy for ATP OxidationReduction Reactions Hydrogen Acceptors ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Types of Respiration Splitting OTGlucose Glycolysis Fermentation AEROBIC RESPIRATION The Importance of Oxygen Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Net Reactions ofAerobic Respiration Efficiency of Cellular Respiration Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt CATABOLISM AND ANABOLISM Breakdown of Substances in the TheCell Nutrition NUTRITION Nutrients Energy Content of Food Types of Nutrition Digestion ADAPTATIONS FOR NUTRITION Nutrition in Protozoa Nutrition in Hydra Nutrition in the Earthworm Nutrition in the Grasshopper HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Parts of the Human Digestive System The Mouth and Pharynx The Esophagus TheStomach The Small Intestine The Large Intestine Transport Chapter Introduction ADAPTATIONS FOR CIRCULATION Transport in Protists Transport in Hydra Transport in the Earthworm Transport in the Grasshopper THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Blood Vessels Heart Blood Pressure and the Flow of Blood PATHWAYS OF HUMAN CIRCULATION Systemic Circulation and TFunction rofthe Lymphatic SYSTEM System Intercellular Fluid Structure The Pulmonary Circulation lScanned with CamScannerTO The Blood I Chapter Introduction COMPOSITION OF BLOOD Plasma Red Blood Cells I White Blood Cells Platelets BLOOD CLOTTING The Clotting Process Clottingj Problems IMMUNITY Defenses Against Disease How ImmunityWorks Types of Immunity Disorders of the ImmuneSystem Transplants HUMAN BLOOD CROUPS ABO Blood Croups Transfusions Rh Factors Respiratory Systems CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Respiration The RespiratorySurface ADAPTATIONS FOR RESPIRATION Respiration in Protozoa Respiration in Hydra Respiration in Large MulticellularAnimals Respiratory Pigments Respiration in theEarthworm Respiration in the Crasshopper GillRespiration HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure of the Human RespiratorySystem Phases of Human Respiration Diseases of theRespiratory System Excretion CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Importance of Excretion MajorMetabolic Wastes ADAPTATIONS FOR EXCRETION Excretion in Protozoa Excretion in Hydra Excretion in the Crasshopper EXCRETION IN HUMANS Role of the Liver in Excretion TheUrinary System The Lungs The Skin Excretion in the Earthworm Support and Locomotion CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Advantages of Locomotion Muscles and Skeletons ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCOMOTION Locomotion in Protists Locomotion in Hydra Locomotion in the Earthworm Locomotion in the Crasshopper HUMAN MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Bones and Cartilage The Human Skeleton Skeletal Muscle VoluntaryMovement Smooth Muscle Scanned with CamScannerRegulation — Servers ControlCHAPTER INTRODUCTION vT PeguVkm VedherVrs of ierccs TJMEUROMS ASDXHWKSyracse Typei of ecVc grC H eeg THE HBfVECEl MEMBRANE AND IMPULSES The Nerve fmcche xi The V Ve r Jr VJr v eC SYSAPSES “ gc icc g e r vve Njrornyscularfunekns Orjgs ged VSyngpve ADAPTATIONS FOR NERVOUS REGULATIONPrcCuzoe n £s era EegVglor n theEarEwcrm RegugCor C rtteVS XAfThe Human Nervous System THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Tre SVo and Seine Column The Brain The Spinel Cord THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Structure of the PeripheralNervouiSystem TheSomatic Nervous System TheAutonomic Nervous System SENSE RECEPTORS Toe Ee The Egr Receptorsof the Skin Tge Smell BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING Innate and Acquired Behavior Reflexes Instincts Conditioned Responses Habits Voluntary Behavior Memory Regulation — Chemical Control Two Systems of Control GLANDS AND HORMONES Gland Regulation of Hormone Secretion Action HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Hormones Mechanisms of HormoneSystem u Parathyroid ilM M I yGland Pituitary CHand y JrtirofiuaUjn Adrenal Thyroid Glandto Gland the Human lf l Endocrine Pancreaslrtetin IhyrouXV r mX Pineal Gland Stomach and Small Prostaglandins ined with CamScannerJuli PLANT MAINTENANCEPlant Nutrition IPhotosynthetic DUYNTHESI Pigments IHistorical Background Photosynthetic Membranes Light Chemistry of Photosynthesis The Light Reactions The Dark Reactions The Importance of PCAL Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION IN PLANTS Parasitic Plants Insecteating Plants AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION IN BACTERIA BacterialPhotosynthesis Chemosynthesis Plant Structure Chapter Introduction PLANT TISSUES Meristematic Tissues Protective Tissues Conducting Tissues Fundamental Tissues THE ROOT Types of Roots Root Tip Zones RootStructure and Function THE STEM Woody and Herbaceous Stems Monocots andDicots Dicot Stems Monocot Stems THE LEAF External Structure of the Leaf Internal Structureof the Leaf i Plant Maintenance Chapter Introduction TRANSPORT IN VASCULAR PLANTS Transpiration Transportin the Xylem Translocation EXCRETION Gas Exchange Nitrogenous and OtherWastes NUTRITION AND SYNTHESIS Plant Nutrients PlantSynthesis HORMONES AND GROWTH RESPONSES IN PLANTS PlantHormones Photoperiodism Scanned with CamScannerREPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTductionUNIT Chapter Mitosis and Asexual ReproNucleus Stages of MitosijiniAn lasmic Division inPIantCells m hmcSpan of Cell Division Control cl Reproduction ASEXUALMPRODUaiON Spore formation Ilinory Regeneration fission “ vVegeta getaOve Meiosis and Sexual ReproductionCHAPTER INTRODUCTION Sexual Reproduction MEIOSIS Diploid and Monoploid Chromoso Stages of Meiosis SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PROTISTS Conjugation and MatingTypes Conjugation in Spirogyra Conjugation inParamecium SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS Reproductive Systems Separation of Sexes and Hermaphroditism Gametogcnesis Comparison of Egg and Sperm Fertilization and ZygoteFormation Parthenogenesis Animal DevelopmentEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Cleavage Gastrulation Growth and Differentiation CONTROL OF DEVELOPMENT Role of the Nucleus and Cytoplasm inDevelopment Role of Neighboring Cells in Differentiation Development Water AD NTERNALDEVELOPMENT lopment on Land Exlernal Dcvolopmen Inlernal inme Numbers Human ReproductionHUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMSSystem slagmoUhe MThe nsiruaVcyde Female Reproducdvl CleriSiCS°et e Mensrual Cycle Nourishment of the Embryo VR P DeveloPmt Birth Multiple Births Extraembryonic Membranes Scanned with CamScanner Sexual Reproduction in PlantsCHAPTER INTRODUCTION Alternation of Generations LIFE CYCLES OF LOWER PLANTS Life Cvcle of Mosses LifeCycle of Ferns CYCLE OF GYMNOSPERMS Development of Gametes Fertilization and Seed Development LIFE CYCLE OF ANGIOSPERMS Structure of a Flower Development of Gametes Pollination Fertilization Fruits Structure of the Seed andEmbryo Seed Dispersal Seed Dormancy andGermination UNITS GENETICS Mendelian Genetics Chapter Introduction MENDELS PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY Mendels Experiments The Principle of Dominance The Principle of Segregation i The Concept of the Gene BASIC CONCEPTS IN GENETICS Alleles Genotypes andPhenotypes The Law of Probability The PunnettSquare Punnett Square for a Hybrid Cross I Independent Assortment Phenotype Ratios in a DihybridCross The Test Cross Incomplete Dominance l Multiple Alleles Modern Genetics DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENECHROMOSOME THEORY TheChromosome Theory Sex Determination and Chromosomes TH Morgan and Drosophila SexLinked Traits SexLinked Traits in Humans Gene Linkage CrossingOver MultipleGene Inheritance Environment and Heredity MUTATIONS Types of Mutations ChromosomalMutations HUMAN GENETIC DISEASES Difficulty of Studying HumanHeredity Genetic Diseases Genetic Counseling Amniocentesis GENETICS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL BREEDING Breeding Methods Scanned with CamScannerChapter Molecular Genetics IDENTIFICATION OF THE GENETIC MATERIAL PROTEINS CSRepicarfo AND n CELLULAR SFDNA BACTIVITY Composition Genes and and Structure rotem Enzymes vsof Nuc RNA encI The One Gene—One Enzyme Hypothesis PROTEIN SYNTHESIS The Idea of a Genetic Code i Messenger RNA Transfer RNA RibosomalI RNA Assembly of a Polypeptide Control of Gene Transcription GeneMutations THE GENE DNA Outside the Nucleus Transformationi and Transduction Genetic Engineering Cloning UNIT EVOLUTION Evidence of Organic Change Chapter Introduction THE EVIDENCE OF FOSSILS The Formation of Fossils Sedimentary Rocks The Fossil Record AbsoluteDating The Geologic Time Scale OTHER EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION Evidence from ComparativeAnatomy Evidence from Comparative Embryology Evidence from Comparative Biochemistry and Immunology EARLY THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Lamarcks Theory ofEvolution Weismanns Experiment Darwin Natural Selection Darwins Theory of Evolution Applying Darwins Theory Weaknesses in Darwins Theory Theories of Evolution VARIATION DeVries and the Mutation Theory Sources ofVariation Population Genetics Gene Frequencies Differential Reproduction The HardyWeinberg Law The HardyWeinberg Law and Evolution ADAPTATIONS Types of Adaptations SPECIATION Speciation and Geographic Separation Typesof Speciation OBSERVED NATURAL SELECTION Industrial Melanism Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics Insect Resistance toDDT EARLY BELIEFS ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF LIFE Early Observations Van Helmont Redi Van Leeuwenhoek Needham Spallanzani Pasteur MODERN THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE The HeterotrophHypothesis Scanned with CamScannerUNT DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS Monera Protista and Viruses KINGDOM MONERA Procaryotic Cells BlueGreenAlgae Bacteria KINGDOM PROTISTA Phylum Euglenophyta—The Euglenoids Phylum Chrysophyta—YellowGreen and GoldenBrown Algae andDiatoms Phylum Pyrrophyta—The Dinoflagellatcs TheProtozoa Phylum Sarcodina—Ameboid Protozoans Phylum Ciliata—The Ciliates Phylum Mastigophora—TheZooflagcllntes Phylum Sporozoa—The Sporozoans The Slime Molds VIRUSESDisease Viral Structure and Reproduction Viruses and Plants and Fungi KINGDOM PLANTAE—THE PLANTS Introduction to the PlantKingdom Phylum Chlorophyla—The Green Algae Phylum Phaeophyta—The Brown Algae Phylum Rhodophyta—The Red Algae Phylum Bryophyta—Mosses Liverworts andHornworts Phylum Tracheophyta—The Vascular Plants The Whisk Ferns The Club Mosses TheHorsetails The Ferns The Seed Plants TheGymnosperms The Angiospcrms KINGDOM FUNGI General Characteristics of Fungi Phylum Zygomycota—The Conjugation Fungi PhylumOomycota—The Water Molds Phylum Ascomycota—The SacFungi Phylum Basidiomycota—The Club Fungi Lichens Invertebrates — Sponges to Mollusks CHAPTER INTRODUCTION The Animal Kingdom Symmetry PHYLUM PORIFERA—THE SPONGES General Characteristics Structure and Life Functions PHYLUM COELENTERATA—HYDRAS JELLYFISH AND CORALS General Characteristics Structure and Life Functions Corals Life Cycle of Aurelia PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES—THE FLATWORMS GeneralCharacteristics Structure and Life Functions PHYLUM NEMATODA—THE ROUNDWORMS GeneralCharacteristics Structure and Life Functions ParasiticRoundworms of Humans PHYLUM ANNELIDA—THE SEGMENTED WORMS GeneralCharacteristics Structure and Life Functions PHYLUM MOLLUSCA—THE MOLLUSKS General Characteristics Structure and Life Functions Scanned with CamScannerChapter Invertebrates — Arthropods and EchinodermsINTRODUCTION TO THE Ar ICharacterishcsofdhropods Habitats The CrayfishExternal Structure—Internal Structure and Life Functions CMTIOFOES ANDheChltopod General Characteristics of the Diplopoda b CLASS Arachnids ARACHNIDA —General THE ARACHNIDS Characteristics of SArachnids ntroduc to Introduction to the Insects CLASS INSECTA—THE INSECTS The Grasshopper—A Structural Variations Among Insects Representative Insect Reproduction in Insects Development in Insects Classification of Insects Economic Importance of Insects PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA—THE SPINYSKINNED ANIMALS General Characteristics Structure and Life Functions of theStarfish Vertebrates — Fishes to Reptiles PHYLUM CHORDATA—THE CHORDATES Characteristics ofChordates Characteristics of Urochordates andCephalochordates Characteristics of Vertebrates BodyTemperature in Vertebrates CLASS AGNATHA THE JAWLESS FISHES General Characteristics ofJawless Fishes Lampreys and Hagfish CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES—THE CARTILAGINOUS FISHES GeneralCharacteristics of Cartilaginous Fishes Skates Rays and Sharks Rnf BonyVFishes °hTES m Structure THE B°NY and RSHES Life Functions General of Bony Characteristics Fishes ofCLASS AMPHIBIA—THE AMPHIBIANSDevektp CLASS REPTILIA meHn—Fro THE REPTILES OO° General ndeP uards anVSoT AigarS Vertebrates — Birds and Mammalsof Birds r r O r i g i n s y i n H U FossilScanned with CamScannerUNIT ECOLOGY Organization in the Biosphere Chapter InirruliK lion ABIOTIC FACTONS IN Tilt INVIHONMINT l emperatme BIOTIC ORCANI AIIONFcosyslems lIf I ili h i Water GJ U SfnI and Minerals b Populations immunities andhr Biosphere NUTRITIONAI AND INI RCV Rll ATIONSIIIPS IN AN ECOSYSTEMK fl Autotrophic and Helrrotrophic Nulrilion SymbioticRelationships If ID Producers Consumers inrl Droimpfivr K I Food Chains and Food Webs Pyramids of Energy andBiomass BCYCLES OF MATERIALS The Carbonand Oxygen Cycles B IS The Wafer Cycle COMPETITION IN ECOSYSTEMS Habitat and Niche Inlraspccific and Intersper ifir Comprlihon MAINTENANCE AND CHANGE IN ECOSYSTEMS B Maintenance in an The Nitrogen Cycle Ecosystem l r ologiral Succession Bionics of the Earth Chapter Introduction TERRESTRIAL BIOMES The Tundra i The Taiga C S Grasslands l lfecis of Altitude on The Ternperale Deciduous forest Deserts Tropicil Ram Forests limax Vegetation Physical factors in Aquatic homes The I freshwater Hiomes AQUATIC BIOMESMarine llmmc Human Ecology Chapter Infroduf lion CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGEGrowth Urbanization B Poor Farming Practices Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Pesticides Importation of Human Population Land Pollution Organisms RESTORING THE ENVIRONMENT Conservation of Natural Resources Soil Conservation Conservation Wildlife Conservation Pollution Control Forest Biological Controls of Pests Classification of Organisms Further ReadingGlossaryIndexScanned with CamScanner
2736
J BEN HILL
BOTANY
8A
ENGLISH
MACGRAW HILL
1960
BdknyA T E X T B O O K F O R C O L L E G EJ BEN HILLLEE O OVERHOLTS deceased HENRY W POPPALVIN R GROVE JrDepartment of Botany and Plant PathologyThe Pennsylvania State University andThe Pennsylvania State AgriculturalExperiment StationTHIRD EDITION MCGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY INC New York Toronto LcScanned with CamScannerPreface vii The Plant Kingdom Its Distribution and Importance Plant Cells Coloration in Plants Plant Pigments Leaves Metabolism the Anabolic Phase Food Synthesis Roots Absorption of Water and Inorganic Substances Stems Growth and Movement Flowers Fruits Seeds and Seedlings Metabolism the Catabolic Phase Digestion Respiration Fermentation Heredity Plant Taxonomy Divisions of the Plant Kingdom Algae Bacteria Viruses Actinomycetes Slime Molds Fungi Liverworts and Mosses Vascular Plants the Lower Groups Vascular Plants the Higher Groups Seed Plants X j G lossary Index i XScanned with CamScanner
2737
DALE C BRAUNGART
AN INTRODUCTION TO PLANT BIOLOGY
8A
ENGLISH
TOPPAN COMPANY
1965
Scanned with CamScannerContentsPart IPlant structure and functionChapter Introduction Scientific method Objective of science Science and philosophy Sources of scientific information Interrelationships of the sciences Chapter History and developmentof botany History Divisions of botany Chapter Protoplasm Physical characteristics Chemical characteristics Biological characteristics Energy relationships Chapter Life processes and the cell Life processes The cell Mitosis xScanned with CamScannerChaplor Photosynthesis and plantdevelopment Photosynthesis Plant growth Differentiation Chapter Anatomy of flowering plants—roots stems and leaves Roots Stems Leaves Chaptor Anatomy of flowering plants—flowers fruits and seeds Flowers Fruits Seeds Chapter Dynamic relationsin plants Diffusion Mineral relations in plants Plant growth regulators Chapter Plant heredity Variation Chromosome behavior Mendelism Linkage Crossing over Hybrid vigor Mutation Lethal genes Multiple genes Converter genes Modifying genes Interaction of genes Chromosomal aberrations Cytoplasmic inheritance Scanned with CamScannerPart IIPUuit life and evolutionCKnpr oKinds of plants Plants versus animals Namine of plants Classification of plants Structures user in plant classification Useful plants Harmful plants Preparation of plant specimens CKnplor Basic principles of plantlife cycles Basic principles Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Sporophytes Gametophytes Evolution of the plant body Plant life cycles I ife cycle — Nostoc Life cycle —Chlamydomonas Life cycle —Volvox Life cycle —Ulothrix Life cycle —Chara Life cycle —Ectocarpus Life cycle —Fucus Life cycle R—Vaucheria Life cycle —Nemalion Life cycle —Saprolegnia Lifecycle —Rhizopus Lifecycle —Saccharomyces Life cycle —Microsphaera Life cycle —Puccinia Life cycle —Agaricus Life cycle —Marchantia Life cycle —Polytrichum xliiScanned with CamScannerContentsChapter Pteridophytes Class Psilophyta—the psilophytes Class Lycopsida—the lycopods Class Sphenopsida—the horsetails Class Pteropsida—the ferns Life Life cycle cycle ——Solnflinelln Equisctum Life cycle —Polypodium Life cycle —Plnits Life cycle —Lilitim Chapter Bacteria and viruses Bnctcrin Viruses Chapter Gymnosperms Chapter Taxonomy of the floweringplants Subclass Dicotyledoneae Thalamiflorae Corolliflorae Calyciflorae Ovariflorae Amentiferae Subclass Monocotyledoneae Chaptor Algae Phylum Cyanophyta—the bluegreenalgae Phylum Chlorophyta—the grassgreenalgae Phylum Charophyta—the stpncworts Phylum Euglenophyta—the euglenoidalgae Phylum Phaeophyta—the brownalgae Phylum Xanthophyta—the yellowbrownalgae Phylum Chrysophyta—the golden brownalgae Phylum Bacillariophyta—the diatoms Phylum Dinophyta—the dinoflagellatesChapter Plant ecology anddistribution Plant ecology Ecological factors Biotic factors Distribution mechanisms of plantsBiomes synecology Botanical life zones Plant forms in relation toenvironment Conservation and land developmerPhylum Rhodophyta—the red algae Biological significance of algae Chapter Fungi Phylum Myxomycophyta—the slimemolds Phylum Eumycophyta true fungi Class Phycomyceteae—the molds Class Ascomyceteae—the sac fungi Class Basidiomyceteaefungi —the clubClass Deuteromyceteaefungi —the imperfectClass Lichenes—the lichens Chapter Plant evolution Premises of evolutionary theory History of the theory of evolutionEvidence of evolution Paleobiology Plant history Speciation Species Chapter Experimental systematics Bryophytes Class Hepaticae—the liverworts Class Anthocerotae—the hornworts Class Musci—the mosses References xiv Glossary Scanned with CamScanner
2739
J MAYNARD
COMPUTER PROGRAMING MADE SIMPLE
16E
ENGLISH
ELBS
1983
Computer Programming Made Simple JMaynard MAY LOWPRICED EDITION Second Edition Scanned with CamScanner Contents PEACE AND PREFACE TO SECOND EDIO ACKNOWLEDGMENT ART ONE INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION COMPUTER STRUCTURE Input Unit Racking Store Memory Unit Output Unit Program Exercises INPUT DEVICES Punched Cards Punched Paper Tape Keyboard Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Optical Character Recognition Optical Mark Reading Encoders Exercises OUTPUT DEVICES Printing Line Printers Exercises BACKING STORE DEVICES Backing Store Devices Magnetic Tape Devices Magnetic Disc Devices File Organization File Sequencing File Security Exercises LOGIC AND FLOWCHARTINO Flowcharting Flowcharting Symbols Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents PROGRAM SPECIFICATION ANALYSIS Program Specifications Introduction Input Output Throughput Exercises OPERATING SYSTEMS The Supervisor Program Scheduling Operator Communication JCL Interpretation Compilers Compiler Functions Operating Systems Library Maintenance Sorting Utilities Error Recovery Software Exercises DATA AND NUMBERS Data Sets and Numbers Structures Arrays Number Systems The Decimal System The Binary System The Octal System The Hexadecimal System Number Notations Exercises PART TWO COBOL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION TO COBOL Language Structure The COBOL Character Set Punctuation Program Division Exercises WORD TYPES AND CONSTANTS Reserved Words Keywords Optional Words Connectives Scanned with CamScanner Procedure Names Constants Figurative Commits General Format Notation Exercises TE COBOL CODING FORM Sequence Numbers Continuation of Lines Area A and B Blank Lines Exercises ARITHMETIC STATEMENTS ROUNDED Option GIVING Option SIZE ERROR Option The ADD Statement The SUBTRACT Statement Exercises MULTIPLY AND DIVIDE The MULTIPLY Statement The DIVIDE Statement The COMPUTE Statement Arithmetic Expressions Exercises PROGRAM FLOW Procedure Name The GO TO Statement The ALTER Statement Exercises PROGRAM CONTROL The PERFORM Statement Embedded PERFORM Statement The EXIT Statement The STOP Statement Exercises THE DATA DIVISION Data DivisionOrganization Organization of External Data Description of External Data The DATA DIVISION Data Division Entries Level Numbers Special Level Numbers Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents xi FILE DESCRIPTIONS BLOCK CONTAINS Clause RECORD CONTAINS Clause Recording Mode FixedLength Recording Mode VariableLength Recording Mode UndefinedLength Recording Mode SpannedLength Recording Mode RECORDING MODE Clause F Mode V Mode Other Modes Exercises FILE DESCRIPTIONS— File Labelling Generation Numbers LABEL RECORDS Clause VALUE OF Clause DATA RECORDS Clause Data Record Descriptions The FD in Use Exercises DATA CLASSES IN COBOL Alphabetic Class Numeric Class Alphanumeric Class Data Description General Rules Dataname Clause Exercises DATA DESCRIPTION PICTURE Clause Symbols Used in the PICTURE Clause Other Combinations of PICTURE Characters Symbol Repetition The PICTURE Clause in Use The USAGE Clause Exercises DATA DESCRIPTION— Further Data Description Entry Clauses The OCCURS Clause Subscripting Redefinition The REDEFINES Clause Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents DATA VALUES Data Item Content The VALUE IS Clause BLANK WHEN ZERO Clause Exercises EDITING Types of Editing Editing in Use Exercises THE DATA DIVISION IN USE File Section Entries Working Storage Section Entries Notes on Data Division Entries Exercises THE PROCEDURE DIVISION Organization Statement Types Conditional Statements Imperative Statements Compiler Directing Statements Exercises CONDITIONS Class Condition Sign Condition Relation Condition Condition Names Compound Conditions Exercises THE IF STATEMENT Nested IF Statements Exercises DATA MANIPULATION— The MOVE Statement Alphanumeric to Alphanumeric Numeric to Numeric Numeric to Alphanumeric Alphanumeric to Numeric Exercises DATA MANIPULATION— The EXAMINE Statement UNTIL FIRST Option ALL Option LEADING Option TALLY REPLACING Option The TRANSFORM Statement Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents XIV PREPARING DATA FILES The OPEN Statement The CLOSE Statement Exercises DATA TRANSFER The READ Statement The WRITE Statement Print Files Printing by Channel Exercises COMMUNICATION WITH THE COMPUTER OPERATOR The DISPLAY Statement The ACCEPT Statement Exercises FILE PROCESSING File Matching Exercises PROCESSING PRINT FILES Printing on Plain Stationery Printing on Preprinted Stationery Stationery Lineup Exercises QUALIFICATION CORRESPONDING Option Exercises TABLE HANDLING PERFORM VARYING Option Exercises TABLE SEARCHING Keys in Serial Order Table Optimization Exercises SUBROUTINES Parameters The ENTRY Statement The CALL Statement Exercises PROGRAM TERMINATION Program Controls Exercises DOCUMENTATION AIDS The COPY Statement Mixed Programming Languages Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents TH SORT FEATURE Sorting Using the SORT Statement Exercises PROGRAM TESTING FACILITIES The TRACE Statement The EXHIBIT Statement The DEBUG Statement Exercises EJECT AND SKIP The EJECT Statement The SKIP Statement Exercises THE IDENTIFICATION DIVISION Required Entries Optional Entries Exercise THE ENVIRONMENT DIVISION The Environment Division The Configuration Section Special Names Exercise THE ENVIRONMENT DIVISION InputOutput Section The FILECONTROL Paragraph The OCONTROL Paragraph Exercises REVISION QUESTIONS SETS PART THREE FORTRAN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE HISTORY INTRODUCTION TimeSharing Computer Systems FORTRAN Coding CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES Constants Variables Initial Value TimeSharing Initial Value NonTime Sharing Exercises Scanned with CamScanner XVI Contents Tun ASSIGNMENT STATEMENT Arithmetic Expressions The Assignment Statement in Use Exercises PROGRAM CONTROL STATEMENTS The GO TO Statement The Computed GO TO Statement The Assigned GO TO Statement Exercises PROGRAM DECISIONS AND LOOPS Additional Program Control Statements Relational Expressions The DO Statement Exercises ARRAYS Variable Subscripting The DATA Statement Exercises INPUT AND OUTPUT STATEMENTS The INPUT Statement The PRINT Statement Formatting Exercises BACKING STORE HANDLING File Layout Outputting Data Inputting Data Arrays and Files Exercises SUBROUTINES Passing Parameters Arrays in Subroutines Exercises FUNCTIONS Builtin Functions Functions in Use User Defined Functions Exercises REVISION QUESTIONS SET Scanned with CamScanner xvii Contents PART FOUR BASIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION Instruction Format BASIC Statements CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES Data Numbers Texts Variables Numeric Variables String Variables Exercises THE LET STATEMENT Expressions Order of Evaluation Strings Functions Exercises FURTHER FUNCTIONS More Intrinsic Functions Exercises INPUTTING DATA DATA and READ Statements The INPUT Statement Exercises THE PRINT STATEMENT The TAB Feature PRINT USING Blank Lines Exercises PROGRAM CONTROL The GO TO Statement The IF THEN Statement Extensions to the IF THEN Statement The ON GO TO Statement Exercises LOOPS AND SUBROUTINES The FOR and NEXT Statements The GOSUB Statement Exercises Scanned with CamScanner Contents xviii ARRAYS AND SUBSCRIPTS Arrays Subscripts Exercises REVISION QUESTIONS SET PART FIVE THE MICROPROCESSOR EXPLAINED THE HOME COMPUTER Random Access MemoryRAM Read Only MemoryROM Programmable Read Only MemoryPROM Erasable PROMEPROM THE HOME COMPUTER IO SYSTEM Input Output Backing Storage Other InputOutput THE BUS SYSTEM REVISION QUESTIONS SET APPENDIX ONE GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED APPENDIX Two COBOLLIST OF RESERVED WORDS APPENDIX THREE ANSWERS TO EXERCISES Exercises Part One Exercises Part Two Revision Questions Sets Exercises Part Three Revision Questions Set Exercises Part Four Revision Questions Set Revision Questions Set INDEX Scanned with CamScanner
2741
A C DUTTA
CLASS BOOK OF BOTANY
8A
ENGLISH
OXFORD
1962
ACLASSBOOK OF BOTANY FOR INTERMEDIATE HIGHER SECONDARYSENIOR CAMBRIDGE AGRICULTURAL MEDICALAYURVEDIC AND VETERINARY STUDENTS A C DUTTA MScFORMERLY HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF BOTANY AND BIOLOGYCOTTON COLLEGE GAUHATIELEVENTH EDITION Revised and Enlarged KM r yx AOXEORD UNIVERSITY PRESSCONTENTSPAGE viiHAPTERINTRODUCTIONPART I MORPHOLOGYI PARTS OF AN ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTII THE SEEDELI THE ROOTIV THE STEMV THE LEAFVi DEFENSIVE MECHANISMS IN PLANTSVII THE INFLORESCENCEVIII THE FLOWERIX POLLINATIONXI X FERTILIZATION THE SEEDXII THE FRUITXIII DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AND FRUITS XPART n HISTOLOGY I THE CELLII THE TISSUEIII THE TISSUE SYSTEMIV INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF STEMS VV INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ROOTSVI INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF LEAVESVII SECONDARY GROWTH IN THICKNESSVIII HEALING OF WOUNDS AND FALL OF LEAVESTPART HI PHYSIOLOGYI GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS A Physiology of Nutrition or Chemical PhysiologyII SOILSIII CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE PLANTIV ABSORPTION OF WATER AND RAW FOOD MATERIALS V CONDUCTION OF WATER AND RAW FOOD MATERIALS VI MANUFACTURE OF FOODVII SPECIAL METHODS OF OBTAINING FOODVIII TRANSLOCATION AND STORAGE OF FOOD IX DIGESTION AND ASSIMILATION OF FOODXI X METABOLISM RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION Scanned with CamScannervi CONTENTSB Physiology of Growth and MovementsCHAPTERXII GROWTHXIII MOVEMENTSC Physiology of ReproductionXIV REPRODUCTIONPART IV ECOLOGYI PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONSII ECOLOGICAL GROUPSPART V CRYPTOGAMSI DIVISIONS AND GENERAL DESCRIPTIONII ALGAE III BACTERIA SCHIZOMYCETES IV FUNGIV LICHENSVI BRYOPHYTAVII PTERIDOPHYTAPART VF GYMNOSPERMSI GENERAL DESCRIPTIONn CYCADALESvWn CONIFERALESIV GNETALESPART VII ANGIOSPERMSI LIFEHISTORY OF AN ANGIOSPERMII PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATIONIII SELECTED FAMILIES OF DICOTYLEDONSIV SELECTED FAMILIES OF MONOCOTYLEDONS PART vm EVOLUTION AND GENETICSl ORGANIC EVOLUTION II GENETICSAPPENDIX GLOSSARY OF NAMES OF PLANTSINDEXScanned with CamScanner
2746
S M A TARMIZI
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
7F
ENGLISH
RAHSHEED & SONS
1986
vr ry Scanned with CamScannerHEAT TemperatureGas LawsKinetic interpretation of the Gas Laws Heat as a Form of EnergyThermal ExpansionHeat of VaporizationHeat of FusionSpecific HeatMolar Specific Heat of SolidsMolar Specific Heat of GasesCv and Cp of a GasThe Measurement of Specific Heat uuTHERMODYNAMICSIntroduction The First Law of Thermodynamics — Applications of First Law of Thermo dynamicsThe Second Law of Thermodynamics — Efficiency of a Heat Engine —Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics rxTRANSFER OF HEAT Conduction of Heat Convection Radiation— — Fundamentals of PhysiCjEmission and Absorption of Radiation Black Body or Cavity RadiatorBlack Body RadiationDistribution Formulae l EnergytELECTROSTATIC Electric ChargeCoulombs LawElectric FieldElectric intensity due to a Point Charge Electric Lines of Force Electric Flux— Gausss Law Electric intensity due to a Sheet of Charge — Electric Intensity Between Two ChargedPlates Electric Potential Equipotential Planes The Charge on an Electron Capacitors Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor — Capacitors in Series and in Parallel Energy of a Charged Capacitor Energy Stored in an Electric Field— SODIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS — — Electric CurrentConventional CurrentOhms LawResistivity and its Dependence uponTemperaturePower Dissipation in ResistorsElectromotive Force emf and TerminalPotential Difference Resistances in Series— — Scanned with CamScannerCmtetm Resistances in Parallel i I I The Scope of Ohms Law A Complex Network Kirchhoffs Rules Node Analysis Loop or Mesh Analysisv Wheatstone Bridge A Potentiometer ElectrolysisMeasurement of Potential Difference tFIELD OF MOVING CHARGES Field of Moving Charges Force on a Charge Moving in aUniform Magnatic Field Magnatic Lines of Force Magnatic Flux and Flux Density Motion of Charged Particle in theMagnatic Field Determination of —m Force on a Current bearing Conductor n a Magnetic Field Amperes Law and determination of B Origin of Magnetism The BH Curve Hysteresis Curve The Earths Magnetic Fieldof an electron ELECTROMECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS Torque on a Currentcarrying coil in aMagnetic Field Galvanometer Ammeter and Voltmeter Induced Current and Induced EMF Other Means of Producing Induced EMFScanned with CamScannerFundamentals of Faradays law of Electromagnetic Induction Direction of Induced EMF Motional emf Mutual Induction m SelfInduction The Alternating Current Generator Direct Current Generator Motors DampingALTERNATING CURRENT The Effective or Rootmeansquare rmsiValue of voltage and current Impedance AC through a resistance AC through a Capacitor AC through Inductance only Combined RLC Series Circuit An ower Electric Consumed Oscillator in the LACCCircuit Circuit The Transformer ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESElectric Field Induced Around AND a Changing ELECTRONIC Magnetic FluxMagnetic Field Due to Changing Electric I Moving Fields or Electromagnetic Waves Mechanism of Electromagnfetic Waves jGeneration of Radio waves—a Type ofElectromagnetic Waves Spectrum of Electromagnetic WavesElectronics Thermionic emission SpaceChargeScanned with CamScannerCounts A Vacuum Tube Diode The Diode and Rectification The High Vacuum ThermionicTriode Tube Static Characteristic Curves of a Triode Tube Triode as an Amplifier Semiconductor Devices n and p type Substances The pn Junction or a SemiconductorDiode Transistor THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS The Birth of Modern Physics The Demise of the Ether Theory Special Theory of Relativity The Photoelectric Effect Quantum Theory of Light XRays Momentum of a Photon The Compton Effect Pair Production Particle Waves Uncertainty Principle Quantum MechanicsATOMIC STRUCTURE ANDTHE EMISSION OF LIGHT The Nuclear Atom The Spectrum of Hydrogenc The Bohr Atom Hydrogen Atom Ionization Energy or Ionization Potential Atomic Structure of Different Elements Absorption Spectra Spectra of Other AtorpsFundamentals ofPhyics Continuous Spectra and MoleculrSpectra Qj DeBroglle Waves and Bohr AtomUncertainty within Atoms THE ATOMIC NUCLEUSStructure of the NucleusIsotopesRadioactivityHalflife of an ElementDecay Products and Radioactive SeriesRadioactive SeriesMass Deficit Nuclear Reactions and Transmutations The Fission Reaction The Fusion Reaction Cosmic Rays Elementary Particles Matter and Antimatter £Nuclear Forces The Photon Field The Meson Field Graviton SiNUCLEAR RADIATIONITS DETECTIONPRODUCTION AND USE Properties of Nuclear RadiationWilson Cloud ChamberThe Geiger CounterThe Van de Graaff GeneratorThe CyclotronBetatronRadiation TherapyRadioactive TracersAppendix IAppendix II Scanned with CamScanner
2747
RUTH B . FREEMAN
HOME NURSING
8C
ENGLISH
DOUBLEDAY & CO
1951
gRED CROSSHOMEm American National Red CrossI W SHINGTON CCONTENTSAbout This Book vForeword vii Causes and Symptoms of Illness Illness and How To Meet It The Patient in Bed Food and Nutrition Nursing Care in Special Conditions Home Emergencies Personal and Family Health Community Health Home Nursing Procedures Chart of Selected Communicable Diseases Supplementary Reading Index Scanned with CamScanner
2748
PUNJAB TEXT BOOK BOARD
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
8A
ENGLISH
IMPERIAL BOOK
1973
2749
DR MANZOOR AHMED
BIOLOGY FOR CLASS XI
8A
ENGLISH
WAFAI PRINT
FOR CLASS XIfif ff WWlMriS ti gfSINDH TEXTBOOK BOARDJAMSHOROCONTENTShapter No Particulars Page NoIntroductionCellular Basis of LifeChemistry of CellsDiversity in FormPlantsDiversity in FormAnimalsDiversity in FunctionPlantsDiversity in FunctionAnimals
Scanned with CamScannerContentsUNIT ONE Biology The Interaction of Facts and Ideas Science as InquiryHow Do Scientific Problems Arise Scientists deal with problems dence r is i e etective work The creative part of science A Sample° ff How are coral islands formed Darwins hypothesis containsa prediction Darwins prediction is tested The Work of Scientists jV cTw co“ct acts through observation Scientists formulate hypothesesa sample °blSeSll teStec trough experimentation Einstein suggestsChapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Some Biological Problems Related to the Variety of Living Things The Variety of Living ThingsClassifying Living Things Methods of classification differ Earlyattempts at classification Some organisms are difficult to classify Variety and the Theory of Evolution The theory of evolution helps to explain variety Fossils supply evidence for evolution The theoryof evolution brings changes in biological classification Chart of majorcategories Scientific inquiry and the variety of life Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography A Brief Classification of Organisms The Means of Evolution Two Conflicting ViewsViews on Evolution Before Darwins Time Early ideas on evolution Lamarck explains evolution Darwins Theory of the Means of Evolution The voyage of the Beagle The clue from Malthus Cluesfrom observation and experimentation Darwins theory of evolution bynatural selection Darwin announces his hypothesis ComparingLamarcks and Darwins hypotheses Adaptations and Selection Howadaptations relate to natural selection Experiments confirming naturalselection Recent examples of natural selection Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography xiScanned with CamScannerxiiC O N T E N T S The Origin of Living ThingsSpontaneous Generation Aristotle proposes a hypothesis on the origin oflife The theory of spontaneous generation becomes widely accepted Biogenesis A Challenge to Spontaneous Generation Redis famousexperiment raises questions The microscope supplies new evidence The work of Needham and Spallanzani The Downfall of SpontaneousGeneration Pasteur performs conclusive experiments The theoryof biogenesis raises new questions Alternative Hypotheses on the Origin ofLife on Earth Life from outer space The autotroph hypothesis The heterotroph hypothesis Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography UNIT TWO The Evolution of the Cell The Forerunners of LifeConditions on Earth Before Life Began The ancient earth Theancient atmosphere — A key to the chemistry of matter the atomic theory Chemical composition of water The electrical nature of matter — Combinations of atoms Molecules of simple gases TheEvolution of Chemical Compounds The formation of organic compounds Molecules of amino acids Building with amino acids An experiment with amino acids Organic Compounds in the AncientOceans — Clusters of organic molecules Interaction of coacervatesand other organic materials The nature of life Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Chemical Energy for LifeCoacervates and Energy Organization and energy Source ofenergy for the coacervates Releasing energy from chemical bonds Energy Release in Primitive Heterotrophs Catalysts in living organisms Raw materials for energyreleasing reactions Another wayto activate reactions ATP enzymes and fermentation Fermentation as a source of energy Transfer of Materials into PrimitiveOrganismsi The nature of the cell boundary Movement ofmolecules through the cell membrane The diffusion of water The process of active transport Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Projects Bibliography Master MoleculesThe Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are found in all life The partsof a nucleic acid molecule Nucleic Acids in Action Nucleic acids cantransform bacteria into new types Viruses and nucleic acids Scanned with CamScannerC O N T E N T S xiii Two Orir mvm Ta vns Nucleic aciclx control cell a tiviii — Volume and l — A requirement lor sucre duplicationto divide pUr lce arca during growth Wliat rau of DNA n CluesH Prolen f dupllcutlon A Mol The DNA “ DNA mysty A molecular model The test of t ie model h of t moH Chapter Summafy Highlights Questions Bibliography The Biological Codea Wher CCU eS he UNA and RNA of a cell are closely related Protinc aicL PwteinS matef HO How are proteins made new code mPl ° cebs New Code Messages The origin ofThe life of uagGS A mutation affects the life of a cell e a rea m°ld Molds with damaged genes a i e pzymes New Genetic Patterns Sets of DNA molecules T h neS n nCW combinations The transfer of genes e a vantages of sexual reproduction to microorganisms Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Biological Theme UNIT THREE The Evolving Organism Light as Energy for Life Evolution in a Changing World The changing environment Anew form of life— the autotroph A problem of energy change The nature of light The Nature of Photosynthesis The rawmaterials and the products Factors that affect photosynthesis An energychanging molecule Photosynthesis — A Series of Reactions Carbon in carbon dioxide becomes carbon in carbohydrate Energy carriers in the reactions of photosynthesis Oxygen —important byproduct The Evolution of Photosynthesis The similarity and variety of photosynthesis Living material for experimentaluse The first autotroph The Development of Respiration Oxygen for evolving organisms Respiration and fermentation compared The mitochondria and enzymes The citric acidcycle Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Biological Theme anO The Evolved Cell Cells as Operational Units Cells in general Cells maintaintheir organization The cytoplasm contains many structures Division The nature of cell division Division of plant cells Scanned with CamScannerxiv CONTENTS Division of animal trlls The control of cell division HI in i oi Cod in odb fvist without i nucleus Ikrtrria — more cells without a distinct nucleus A variety of motion A variety of structure and function A biochemicalcuriosity Can cells exist without cytoplasm Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography The Cell Theory Early Observations of the Cell The microscope leads to new observations Hooke views the cell Other biologists observe cells Generalizations about Cells Knowledge of cells gradually accumulates The cell theory is proposed The Growth and Success of theCell Theory Better tools aid research Every cell from a cell The living substance of the cell New dyes reveal nuclearactivity The functions of whole organisms depend upon cells The cell theory illustrates the interrelation of facts and ideas New instruments bring new advances The cell theory fits into ageneral scheme Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Project Bibliography Biological Theme The Multicellular OrganismCompetition or Cooperation Aggregates of cells — Division oflabor Life on the old frontiers The Complex MulticellularOi uinism — Energetic efficiency Life on land Structure and function Problems of Complexity— Some Examples Reproduction and development Raw materials and wastes Distribution of materials Integration of activities Multipurpose systems Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Project Bibliography UNIT FOUR Multicellular Organisms New Individuals Reproduction Essential Features of Reproduction Sexual reproduction involves the fusionof two nuclei Gametes and chromosomes Meiosis — theproduction of monoploid cells — Fertilization completes the cycle ofsexual reproduction Sexual Reproduction in Protists and Plants Theproduction of gametes Sexual reproduction in a protist The reproductive cycle of the mosses The success of the floweringplants The reproductive cycle of the flowering plants Theformation of seed and fruit Insect pollination — an example of highlyspecific adaptation Sexual Reproduction in Animals The productionof gametes in animals Patterns of external fertilization Patterns of internal fertilization Maintaining the developing organisms Protection and nourishment by the egg Protectionand nourishment from the mother Reproduction in Placental Mammals Scanned with CamScannerC O N T E N T S Thefemll System The female reproductive sysfunction of the placenta KI reproluctivc cycles Structure andof milk Hormone To The birth process The secretionThe role of hormones nrn S° Reproductive System in Mammal tary hormones y be ovaries The role of the pitnimone controls of thne male Iormonal control by the placenta I lorproductive system V Highlights Questions Bibliography xv The maletern Chapter Summ Developmentm imm li in i ar y kleas about development The mystery ofof Develnn evelopment ° Pmenb Cleavage invertebrate The beginnings embryos of development The cavities Ivent ofearly animal embryos The primary cell layers in animals ine Degmmngs of plant development The primary growth tissues inplants Explanations of Development The experimental approachment the problem ofTthe eye The of differentiation experiments of Roux and Driesch Embryonic induction Further in the develop light on— The culture of tissues Unusual Kinds of Development Regeneration in plants Regeneration in animals Variations in development Uncontrolled growth Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography UNIT FIVE Multicellular Organisms Genetic Continuity Patterns of HeredityHeredity and Environment What is genetics Selective breeding The role of environment Nature and nurture identicaltwins The Work of Mendel Planning the experiments Performing the experiments How a trait is inherited Probabilityand Genetics What is probability Two principles of probability Applying the principles of probability Using probabilityin genetics Interpreting Mendels results Hereditary Patterns Dominance Lack of dominance The test cross Multiple alleles Inheritance of two traits Highlights Questions Bibliography Chapter SummaryBiological Theme Genes and Chromosomes C n on Fvrdnnation for Mendels Principles The neglect of Mendelswork eeiin Suttons ttheory to explain y Mendel s principlessex linked inherit HowHeredity Chromosomes are inScanned with CamScannerxvi C O N T E N T Smental results Nondisjunction as an explanation Nondisjunction observed in cells Further Light on Chromosomes Link age many genes on one chromosome The mapping of chromosomes Giant chromosomes The study of human chromosomes Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Biological Theme Origin of New SpeciesChanges in Genes New kinds of genes arise by mutation Howoften do genes mutate What causes genes to mutate How radiation was shown to cause mutations Radiation can haveother biological effects Genes and Populations How frequently docertain genes occur in a population The genes of a population arepooled for puiposes of study The importance of population geneticsPopulations in Transition The gene pool of a population changes veryslowly How populations change How gene pools becomeisolated The origin of new varieties The Origin of New Types — The domestication of plants and animals — New genetic typesand agriculture The origin of species Is evolution takingplace today Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography The Human SpeciesThe Rise of Modem Man — Studying the evolution of man — Thesearch for human fossils Measuring the age of human fossils Reconstructing the story of human evolution The Genes of Man What kinds of human traits are under genetic control Genes affecting mans appearance Genes affecting mans intelligence Genes affecting mans health The Genetics of Human Populations Defining a population Sampling a population Determining the frequency of a gene in a population Finding the frequency ofa gene The HardyWeinberg principle Applying theHardyWeinberg principle Changes in Human Populations Thevarieties of mankind Frequencies of blood group genes in humanpopulations The “races” of man The future of thehuman species Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography UNIT SIX Multicellular Organisms Energy Utilization Photosynthetic SystemsEvolution of Photosynthetic Systems The evolutionary pathway The final product of photosynthetic evolution — the multicellular green plant Problems of the multicellular green plant The Structure of Multicellular Plants in Relation to Photosynthesis The entry of carbon dioxideinto multicellular plants The pathway of oxygen in multicellularScanned with CamScannerC O N T E N T Sxviiplants — Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts Multicellular multicellular phyll absorbsPlants plant light energy Factors —Which The entry Affectand thetransport Rate of of Photosynthesis materials — Chloro in the in jplant — Photosynthesis and the growth rate of the multicellularsynthesis intensity on photosynthesis — Carbon dioxide concentration The effect oftemperature — The effect on ofphoto light— The effect of — water Mineral concentration nutrition and on photosynthesis its effect on photosynthesis Chapter Summary HighlightsBiological Theme Questions Bibliography Transport Systems Transport in Plants Two b J r le transport system is the product of evolution rln ° conducting tissue xylem and phloem The mechaon pia r ransP°rt in plants is a complicated engineering problem iG es°ntension theory The phloem conductor of organicna s transport Systems in Animals Transport A problem of complex organisms Two major types of transport systems Thetransport fluid is a complex substance Early investigations of bloodflow m transport systems Operation and Regulation of the Transport System — The heart and its control How the nerves affect changesin heart rate the Internal Environment — Blood pressure The meaning and bloodofflow homeostasis Homeostasis and Tissue fluid the internal environment The mechanism of fluid exchange through the capillaries The lymphatic system Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Respiratory SystemsThe Discovery of Respiration Our knowledge of respiration Form and Function of Respiratory Surfaces The respiratory surfaces ofplants and small animals The form and function of gills The form and function of tracheae — The form and function of lungs The mechanics of lung breathing — the human as an example Adaptations for the Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide The transportof oxygen in complex animals — The important properties of the transport pigments The role of blood in carbon dioxide transport Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Digestive Systems Patterns of Digestion The significance of digestion Intracellularand extracellular digestion Digestion in plants Digestion inanimals The Human Digestive System The human digestive tract Digestion starts in the mouth and esophagus Alexis StMartins stomach Digestion continues in the stomach Thesmall intestine the pancreas and the liver Final breakdown andabsorption in the small intestine The role of the large intestine Highlights Questions Bibliography Chapter SummaryScanned with CamScannerxviii C O N T E N T S Excretory Systems I he evolution of excretory processes miils vv t j excretion Excretion in plants Excretion in ani Vertebrate Excretory Systems The excretory system of man The kidneys blood supply The kidney as a filter Realism ption and active excretion Urea formation Herniation of the internal environment by the kidney Adaptations ofvertebrate excretory processes Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Project Bibliography Patterns of Excretion UNIT SEVEN Multicellular Organisms Integrative Systems Regulatory Systems Regulation in Plants The discovery of a regulating mechanism in plants Other biologists work with coleoptiles Auxins plant hormones Regulation in Animals Regulation is the basis of homeostasis Many coordinators act to regulate one compound Thethyroid and its general function The discovery of thyroid function The regulation of the thyroid gland Thyroid disordersdisturbance of homeostasis Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Project Bibliography Nervous SystemsTin Nerve Cell — Structure and Function Nerve structures in differentorganisms The characteristic nerve cell The nerve impulse Transmission across synapses Nerve Control and Homeostasis Stimuli receptors and sensory neurons The brain spinalcord and effector neurons Regulation by nerves Reflexactivity of the spinal cord Brain reflex activity Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Skeletal and Muscular Systems Supporting Structures Skeletal systems provide support and protection Bone is the building material of skeletons Control of boneformation Muscle — Its Structure and Function Muscle function Muscle tissues Muscle types in different organisms Organization of muscles Muscular Contraction Muscle actionin different animals What stimulates striated muscle to contract The mechanics of contraction Energy for rnuscle contraction Glycolysis ATP and creatine phosphate Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Project Bibliography Biological Theme Scanned with CamScannerC° N T C N T S xix T h e Integrated O rf l a n i s mSSteas Ss conditioned Sv Reasoning relnglc piskh nv characters ce —metj ort r and i ” Behavior mPrinting vertebrates avor — and the total experiments ac tivities with of an mazes through organism theas an aspect of adaptation Q and Prmates BehaviorChapter Summar Highlight Questions Bibliography UNIT EIGHT Higher Levels of Organization PopulationsI he Population Concept lation controls Groups of similar individuals Popu fid CSUesed hY Plato Malthus population and foodtion ffrnwth Mu Variabe and proportions Verhulst and populaZ Paramecia v in competition Some Population Problems Lynx sunspots Populations and snowshoe of mice hares Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Biological Theme SocietiesThe Structure of Societies Groups of animals Group structurebased on sexual differences Group structure based on body adaptations of individuals Group structure based on behavioral adaptationsof individuals Social Adaptations Problems of a society Order in a society Leadership Territoriality Communication among bees Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography Biological Theme Communities The Structure of a Community A collection of species living together The dominant species of communities The layers of acommunity The boundaries of communities Size andnumhpr The Functions of a Community Food chains and food webs The transfer of energy and matter in a community Community integration Changing communitiessuccession The climax community A Study ot a Communty Chapter Summary Highlights Questions Bibliography In conclusion Index AppendixLaboratory Investigations Ll — L Scanned with CamScanner
2778
DR MUNAWER HUSSAIN
ELEMENTARY OF VECTOR ANALYSIS
7C
ENGLISH
CARVAN BOOK
1986
Dr MUNAWAR HUSSAINSH MUHAMMAD HAFEEZ SHAMIM A SAEEDCH BASHIR AHMADISTHE CARAVAN BOOK HOUSEKUTCHERY ROADLAHOREScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPTER VECTOR ALGEBRAScalars and vectorsL Representation of vectors Types of vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Properties of vector additionMultiplication of a vector by a scalar Properties of Multiplication of vectors byscalars The unit vectors i j kCHAPTER SCALAR AND VECTORPRODUCT OF VECTORPage Introduction Vector or cross product of two vectors Vector area of a triangle Product of three Vectors Geometrical Interpretation of scalar tripleproduct Condition for four points to be coplanar Vector triple product Scalar and vector products of four vectors Evaluation of axb cxd Evaluation of axb x cxd Vector equations of a line and a plane Vector equation of a line through twopoints Equation in Cartesian form Vector equations of bisecters rPage Vector equation of a plane Condition for caplanar of four pointsVECTOR CALCULUS CHAPTER Introduction DefinitionContinuous functionDifferentiation of a vector functionRules of DifferentiationDerivative of a function of a functionDerivative of a constant vectorGeometrical meaning ofdtDerivative of a function in terms of itscomponentsIntegration of vector functions Scanned with CamScanner
2783
E GILLAM
COLLEGE PHYSICS 1
7E
ENGLISH
ELBS
1979
jJSfrjIvVH fif f S Z tW f rUMijHh W x VC GiHam and VJR M King R vScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSTAOEAUTHORS PREFACE VCHAPI Mechanics Measurement units and symbolsMovement in space and time kinematicsThe conservation lawsUniform motion in a circleII Vibrations and wavesHarmonic motion The principle of superposition Wave motion The Doppler effect The velocity of sound waves theoretical The measurement of the velocity of soundMeasurements of frequency and intensityIII Gases Introduction The kinetic theory of gasesReal gases at ordinary pressuresIV Liquids I Hydrostatics Liquids in motion The measurement of the visoosity of gasesV Liquids II Surface tensionThe measurement of surface tensionVI Solids The solid state The elastic behaviour of solidsThe plastic behaviour of solidsElastic constants The measurement of Youngs modulusThe measurement of the rigidity modulusThe measurement of Poissons ratio The measurement of bulk modulus viiScanned with CamScannerviii CONTENTSCHAVMiscellaneous topics in elasticityVII Gravitation The acceleration due to gravityNewtons gravitational constantThe relat ivity theory I c JVIII Heat I niThermometryThermometersThe thormal expansion of solids and liquids The thermal expansion of gasesinHiCalorimetry Thermodynamics and t hespecific heats of gases inVariations in specific heatsIX HoatllChange of phaseThe measurement of latent heatThe measurement of saturation vapour pressures The production of low temperatures and tholiquefaction of gases Introduction to thermodynamicsMethods ofmtfiimeasuring tho ratio of theprincipal spocilio heats of a gasX Tho transfer of heatConductionConvectionRadiationInstruments formeasuring radiant heatPyrometrySolid state diffusionVacuum techniqBaclcitwoenergy mXI Ung pumpsMeasurement of iowXII The atom pressuresAtomio spectra Tho nucleus —further offectsScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS ixPAGE CHAPXIII RadioactivityXIV Xrays The structure of crystalsXray methods for crystal analysis XV Wave mechanics Equations of wave mechanics Applications of the Schrodinger equationAPPENDIXESI List of SI unitsII Conversion tablesIII Selected physical constantsIV Examination techniqueV Examination questions INDEX Scanned with CamScanner
2784
E GILLAM
COLLEGE PHYSICS 2
7E
ENGLISH
ELBS
1979
r C ftIKvv TV n andr LvriCoScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPAGEAuthors prefaceI Geometrical optics Theoretical considerations Reflection and refraction Axial spherical refracting and reflecting surfaces Lens and curved mirror calculations II Geometrical optics Practical considerationsThe measurement of refractive index The measurement of focal lengthThe measurement of radii of curvatureLenses and curved mirrors in practice aberrations Optical instruments III Physical optics The nature of light The wave nature of light The particle nature of light Spectroscopy Photometry The velocity of light IV Physical optics Light waves and interferenceWave theory and light waves The interference of light waves using division ofwavefront The interference of light waves using division ofamplitude Interferometers V Physical optics The diffraction and polarisation oflight Fresnel diffraction Fraunhofer diffractionPolarised light Optical activity VI Electrostatics Stationary electric charges and fieldsGauss theorem and its applications Capacitance Dielectrics vIAP viiviii CONTENTSCHAPVII The conduction of oloctrio charge The conduction of electricity through gasesThe conduction of electricity through liquidsThe conduction of electricity through solidsVIII The circuit properties of steady electric currentOhms law The measurement of resistance The potentiometer and its uses IX Magnetism and electromagnetism The magnetic effects of a currentCurrent loops and magnetic dipolesThe motion of free charges in a magnetic fieldElectromagnetic inductionThe movingcoil galvanometer Magnetic materials Magnetic measurements X Alternating current Basic AC theory AC bridges AC instruments v XI Electron physicsThe properties of free electronsElectron emission from metalsXII ElectronicsRectifiersTriodes and multigrid valvesSolidstate electronicsThermoelectricity APPENDIXES List of SI unitsII Conversion tables HI Selected physical constantsv Examination technique Examination questions IVINDEXScanned with CamScanner
2799
SHANTI NARAYAN
THE ELEMENTS OF SOLD GEOMETRY
7C
ENGLISH
DOABA HOUSE
1952
ryCONTENTSCHAPTER ARTICLE Introduction CoordinatesP Further explanation of co ordi natJS Distance between two points Division of the join of two points Angie between two skew lines Direction cosin s of a line Reletion between direction cosines S Projection on a straight line Angle between two lines in terms of their direction cosintCondition of perpendicularly of two linesCHAPTER IIThe Plane Every equation of the first degree in x y represents aplane Normal form of the equa tion of a plane Transformation of the general equation cf a plane to tbenormal form Direction cosines of normal to a plane Determination of a plane under given conditions Equationof a plane in terms of its intercepts on the axes Equation of the plane through three given points Systems of planes Two sides of a plane Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a give°plane Bisectors of angles between two planes Joint equation of two planes Orthogonal projection on a plane Projection of a gifIplane area on a given planeT Volume of a tetrahedron in terms of the co ordinates its verticesIScanned with CamScannerMA RTICLK PAGE APT ion Ml£ The Right Uric Equations of a lino Equations of a straight lino in tormuof its direction cosines and tho ooordinates of a point oni Equations of a H lino through two pointsSymmetrical and unsymmol rioul forms of tho equationsof a lino Translormation of the equations of a line to thesymmetrical form Anglo between ft lino and a piano Tho condition that a given lino may lio in a given piano L The condition that two given linos may interest Numbor of arbitrary constants in tho equations of astraight line Sots of conditions whion determine alino Tho shortest distanco botwoon two linos Tho length andequations of tho lino of shortest distunco between twostraight lines Length of the porpondioular from a given point to a givenlino S Intersection of throe pianosCHAPTER IVInterpretation of equationsLoci Introduction The equation to a surface The equations to a curve Surfaces generated by straight lines Locus of a straightline intersecting three given lines Equations of two skew lines in a simplified formCHAPTER VTransformation of Cordinates Introduction Formulae of transformation Tho degreof an equation remuins unaltered by transformationaxes Relations between the direction cosines of three mutuallyperpendicular linesRevision Questions UScanned with CamScannerI Vi IAmin K CHAPTER VI Tho sphere Definition and equation of a splioro Kq nation of tho Hphoro through four given points Plano sootion of a aphoro Intersection of two spheres Equations of a oirolo Sphoros through a given circle Intersection of a sphors and a lino Power of a point Tangent piano Plano contact Polar plane Anglo of intersection of two spheres Condition for twospheres to bo orthogonal Radical piano Coaxal HyHtorn of spheres Simplified form of tho equation of two spheresisHiHIHiHiCHAPTER VIIThe Cone and Cylinder Definition of a cone vertex guiding curve generatorsEquation of the cone with a given vertex and guidingcurve Enveloping cone of a sphere Equations ofconos with vertex at origin are homogeneous Condition that the general equation of the second degreeshould represent n cone Condition that a cone may have three mutually perpendicular generators P Intersection of a line and a quadric cone Tangent linesand tangent plane at a point Condition that a planemay touoh a cone Reciprocal cones Intersection of two cones with a oommon vertex Rght circular cone Equation of the right circularwith a given vertex axis and semivertical angle cone lot Definition of a cylinder Equation to the cylinder whosegenerators intersect a given conic and are parallel toa given line Enveloping cylinder of a sphere Suf of the right oircuar RevisionQuestions II — Scanned with CamScannervhARTICLE rAGEAPPENDIXHomogeneous Cartesian CoordinatesA l Homogeneous cartesian coordinatesA Elements at infinityA IllustrationsA Sphere in Homogeneous coordinatesAo Relationships of perpendicularly CHAPTER VIIIThe ConicoidST The general equation of the second degree and the varioussurfaces represented by it Nature of Ellipsoid Nature of hyperboloid of one sheetNature of hyperboloid of two sheets Intersection of a line and a central conicoid Tangent linesand tangent plane at a point Condition that a plane maytouch a central conicoid Director sphere Normals to a central conicoid Plane of contact Polar plane conjugate points conjugate planes conjugateliaes polar lines Enveloping cone Enveloping cylinder Locus of chords bisected at a given point plane sectionwith a given ceDtre Lccus of mid points of a system of parallel chords Conjugate diamaters and diametral planes Paraboloids Nature of elliptic paraboloid Nature of hyperbolio paraboloid Intersection of a line and a paraboloid Properties of paraboloids Number of normals from a given point to a praboloid Conjugate diametral planesScanned with CamScannerviiiPAGEARTICLE CHAPTER IXPlane Sections of Conicoids Introduction Determination of the naturo of planeconicoids Axes of central planeCondition for a rectangular hyperbola sectionssection of central sections Area of the section oArea of parallelAxes of noncentral planeplane sectionsCircular sections of an ellipsoidAny two circular sections of opposite systems liesphere on a UmbilicsNature of plane sections of paraboloidsAxes of plane sections of paraboloids Condition forarectangular hyperbola Area of a plane section Anglebetween the asymptotes of a plane section Circular sections of paraboloids Umbilics of paraboloids i SCHAPTER XvGeneratingl ines of Conicoids Generating lines of hyperboloid of one sheet Equations of generating lines through points of principalelliptic section Projections of generators on principal planes Locus of the intersection of perpendicular generators Central tion forpoint generators line of ofstriction hyperboloid and parameter of distribu Systems of generating liof hyperbolic paraboloid Central point line of striction and parameter of distribu General tion Quadric for generators Consideration determinedofby hyperbolic Generators three generators paraboloid of any quadric Quadrics with real and distinctLines intersecting three linesSolved ExamplesRevision Questions IIInes pairs of generators Jf Scanned with CamScanner
2802
SRI KIRSHAN KAPUR
ELEMENTS OF PLAIN TRIGNOMENTRY
7C
ENGLISH
GULAB & CHAND SONS
1945
vV xSftaPltlSml l VHST wtM H lHtoTS ViM aB MMfflm ms srcmysmiSKWmZ £md iSelssp ywf s vS wiiSSlI piSvKWM Tmu ymid If ££ TVj i v IV S v Vi ll rtt Ti J M I IvScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSSection ICHAPTER PAGEI Measurement of anglesII Trigonometric RatiosIII Circular functions of certain wellknownangles use of tables solution of rightangled triangles and simple cases ofHeights and DistancesIV Trigonometric Functions of Allied Angles V Variations in the values of the Trigonometric functions and their graphical representationMiscellaneous Set ISection IIVI Addition and Subtraction FormulaeVII Elementary Transformations of Productsand sumsVIII Trigonometric Functions of Multiple andSubmultiple AnglesIX Relations between the Sides and theAngles of a TriangleX Properties of TrianglesMiscellaneous Examples Set II Section IIIXI Logarithms and their ApplicationsXII Logarithmic Solution of TrianglesiiXIII General Expressions for all Angles havinga given Trigonometric Function Trigonometric Equations and Elimination uXIV Miscellaneous TheoremsXV Heights and DistancesMiscellaneous Examples III AnswersLogarithmic Tables etc S l toi to xi
2810
D C PAVATE
THE ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
7C
ENGLISH
POPULAR BOOK

e viT mm sMsmmmm viWfiWM MKkjCONTENTSCHAPTER IREAL NUMBERS FUNCTIONSArt Real numbers Real variable Function Dependent and IndependentvariablesExamples I Graphical representation of functionsExamples II Page CHAPTER IILIMITS AND CONTINUITY General idea of a limit Limit of a function of a continuous variable Fundamental theorems on limitsExamples III Continuity of functionsExamples IVCONTENTSCHAPTER IIIDERIVATIVESArt DerivativesGeometrical meaning of the Derivative Rates Application to mechanics Derivatives of some Standard Forms Rules of differentiationExamples V £CHAPTER IVCOMPOSITE FUNCTIONS INVERSE FUNCTIONS Differentiation of composite functionsExamples VI Inverse Functions Implicit FunctionsExamples VIIiiitoCHAPTER VEXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS REPEATED DIFFERENTIATION Exponential and Logarithmic functions The number e The graphs of y ex and y log The derivative of the exponential function The derivative of the logarithmic function Repeated differentiation Leibnizs TheoremExamples VIIIScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS viiCHAPTER VIAPPLICATIONS CF THE DERIVATIVESArt Page Tangents and NormaJs Meaning of die sign of the derivative Maxima and minima Points of inflexion on a curveExamples IX RatesS Differentials Small CorrectionsExamples X CHAPTER VHINTEGRATION The nature of the problem Definitions and notation Some standard forms Rules of integration Change of independent variable orMethod of substitutions Integrals of type — dxf i x Integrals of tan x cot x cosec x sec x Examples XI Integration by parts Algebraic or trigonometric transformationsExamples XIIScanned with CamScannerviii CONTENTSCHAPTER VIIIRATIONAL FRACTIONS METHOD OF PARTIAL FRACTIONSArt Pa The integral f dxA ax bx cExamples XIIIMethod of partial fractionsIllustrative ExamplesRational functions of sin x cos x the i n t e g r a l Examples XIV CHAPTER DCr METHOD OF SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION IRRATIONAL FUNCTIONS Formulae of reduction Some special cases Some irrational functions Examples X VScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS ix CHAPTER XINTEGRAL AS TEE LIMIT OF A SUMArt Pane Definition of an area Expression of an area as an integral The definite integral Sign of an area Area referred to polar coordinates Examples XVICHAPTER XIDEFINITE INTEGRALS APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION Simple properties of the definite integrals Two types of infinite integrals Reduction formulasExamples XVII Approximate integration Application to Mechanics Application to ratesExamples XVIIICHAPTER XHRECTIFICATION OF PLANE CURVES VOLUMES OF SOMSSOF REVOLUTION Rectification of a plane curve Scanned with CamScannerrCONTENTSxArt Fundamental Theorem about rectification Volumes of solidsExamples XIXEXAMINATION PAPERS lflWANSWERSAPPENDIXINDEXp
2818
P ABBOT
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
7D
ENGLISH
ELBS
1965
ymv VrffftiC M VOftigLfVTi LCyUbJ rt f vMilVS kv r Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSCHAPI FUNCTIONS II VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS LIMITSIII RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION GRADIENTSIV DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT DIFFERENTIATION V SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATIONVI MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES POINTS OFINFLEXION VII DIFFERENTIATION OF THE TRIGONOMETRICFUNCTIONS VIII EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS IX HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS X INTEGRATION STANDARD INTEGRALS XI SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATIONXII INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONSXIII AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS DEFINITEINTEGRALS XIV INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION AREASXV THE LENGTHS OF CURVES XVI SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION VOLUMES ANDAREAS OF SURFACES XVII USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS XVTII PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION XIX SERIES TAYLORS AND MACLAURIN S THEOREMS XX ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONSSTANDARD AND USEFUL INTEGRALSPAGX l viiScanned with CamScanner
2820
SHANTI NARAYAN
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
7D
ENGLISH
DOABA HOUSE
1951
V r Ii i j JAC j t a t iT s I r I t I I V V i m iXt t t rr r iLC C U I U Sy c r l i A i f lL vJ Ii t oyvT VJ V i t i N I VIlVI l AV I vJ V i i i JJ X X il “ V ii t r i V i kv I I Ir i t I I Vi l I wT rV t ii l t F I “I i T ii Il Tv fi I I i s V J i r s v rI V t v r r i v Ii r A it ii t i t t T r I V t I I t i ti r S y r xr i t r i r ci v f r I o l i W I I T t i i X A V r rI i i r rV h i V i v i i VsV i n t U e r AV i IJv Iv F I K tv J t V If y Jr i i ii I ti H V t fi If k AX rI fiIc i t “J rIt if i V A ri ivi M i i lI T xv i V rf t r i i i x i ¥Scanned with CamScannerCHAPTER IReal Numbers Variables FunctionsARTICLES PAGES Introduction Rational Numbers Representation of rational numbers bypoints along a line Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Decimal representation of real numbers The modulus of a real number Some results involving moduli Variables Functionsl t Independent Variable and its domain of Variation T Graphical representation of Functions CHAPTER IISome Important Classes of Functions and theft Graphs Graph of yxn Monotonic Functions Inverse Functions Graph of yz n Graph of yax Graph of jylogax Graphs of sin x cos x tan x cot z sec xcosec zGraphs of sin cos x tan xf cot sec a cosec xifP Classification of functionsFunction of a function Vvi CHAPTER and LinxitsContinueIntroduction onContinuity of a of continuous fnnetiStatements of theoremsSome important p °nLimit of a functionlimitsContinuity of sum difference productquotient of two continuous functions ContiWrof elementary L fictionsvI Limit of xn as nx co Limit of xn jn as nccoand Limit of Limit of as Limit of sinx as Note on Hyperbolic Functions Inverse Hyperbolic FunctionsLimit of AaAa as aCHAPTER IVDifferentiationL Introduction Derivability Derivative Derived Function An important th Geometrical Expires ions Interpretation for velocity eorera andof acceleration a derivative Derivative of Someeral theorems on differentiationhtY Derivative of a function of a function Differentiation of inverse finotions Differentiation of functions defined by means of aparameter Derivatives of Trigonometrical Functions Derivative of Inverse Trigonometrical FunctionsTil Derivative of log x Derivative of aL Derivatives of hyperbolic Functions Derivatives of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions Logarithmic differentiation j Transformation before diffc entiation Differentiation ab initioCHAPTER VSuccessive Differentiation Notation Calculation of the wth derivative Somestandard results Determination of the wth derivative ofrational functions Determination of the wth derivative of theproduct of the powers of sines and cosines Leibnitzs theoremT Value of the th derivative for x—SCHAPTER VIGeneral Theorems Mean Value Theoremsd Introduction Rolles theoremScanned with CamScannerttfiV Lagranges mean value theorem Some deductions from mean value theorem Cauchys mean value theorem Solved Examples Taylors development of a function in afinite form Lagranges and Cauchys formsof remaindersH iCHAPTER VIIMaxima and Minima Greatest and least values Definitions A necessary condition for extreme values Criteria for extreme values Application to problemsCHAPTER VIIIEvaluation of limits Indeterminate forms Introduction Limit of F when f x and FxQ Limit of fxlfx when f x co and Fz oo Limit of fx Fx when f x and Foo Limit of f x — Ft when oo and T x cor Limit of under various conditionsCHAPTER IXTaylors infinite series Definition of convergence and of the sum ofan infinite series A Taylors and Maclaurins infinite series Expansions of £sin xt toixlog Formal expansions of functions Use of infinite series for evaluating limitsJScanned with CamScannermCHAPTER XFUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLESPartial Differentiation Introduction Functions of two variables and their domains ofdefinition Continuity of a function of two variables Limit of a function of two Variables Limit of continuous functions Partial Derivatives Geometrical representation of a function of twovariables Geometrical interpretation of partial derivativesof first order Homogeneous Functions Eulers theorem on Homogeneous functions Choice of independent variables A New Notation Theorem on Total Differentials ApproximateCalculation Composite functions Differentiation of Composite Function Differentiation of Implicit FunctionsMiscellaneous Examples ICHAPTER XISome Important Curves Explicit Cartesian Equations Catenary Parametric Cartesian Equations CycloidHypocycloid Epicycloid Implicit Cartesian Equations Branches of acurve Cissoid Strophoid SemiCubical parabola Polar Coordinates Polar Equations Cardioide Lemniscate Curves rmzam cosSpiralscurvesrasinandra sin c — CHAPTER XIITangents and NormalsT Explicit implicit and parametric Cartesianequations Angle of intersection of two curves Cartesian Subtangent and Subnormal Pedal Equations Cartesian equations Angle between radius vector and tangent Equations of tangent and normal in polar coordinates Perpendicular from the pole to a tangent Polar subtangent and subnormal Pedal Equations Polar equationsi Derivative CHAPTERof XIII Arcs On the meaning of lengths of arcs An axiom Length of an arc as a function To determine d sd x for the curves y— fx To determine d sd t for the curve x f i tynt To determine d s f d e for the curve r f y e CHAPTER XIVConcavity Convexity Inflexion Definitions Investigation of the conditions for a curve tobe concave upwards or downwards or tohave a point of inflexion at a point Another criterion for points of inflexion Concavity and convexitr w r to a line CHAPTER XVCurvature Evolute i Introduction Definition of Curvature Curvature of a circle Radius of Curvature Radius of Cuvature for Car tesian Explicit Equations Implicit Equations Parametric Equations Newtons formulae for radius of curvature Generalised Newtonian Formula Radius of curvature for polar curves Radius of curvature for pedal curves Radius of curvature for tangential polar curves Centre of curvature Evolute Involute Evolute Circle of curvature Chord of curvature Two properties of evolutesCHAPTER XVIAsymptotes curves Bp l Definition Determination of Asymptotes Determination of Asymptotes parallel to coordinate axes SolvedExamples Asymptotes of general Algebraic Equations Asymptotes by inspectionP Intersection of a curve and its asymptotesRPosition Asymptotes ofaincurve polarrelative coordinates toitsasymptotes xii CHAPTER XVIISingular Points Multiple Points Introduction Definitions Definitions Tangents at the origin Conditions ior multiple points Types of cusps Radii of curvature at multiple pointsCHAPTER XVIIICurve Tracing Procedure Equations of the form y f x Equations of the form y yf x F Polar Curves Use of Cartesian as well as polar form ofequations Parametric EquationsCHAPTER XIXEnvelopes One parameter family of curves Definitions Envelopes of ystnxlMobtained ab initio Determination of Envelope Evolute of a curve as the envelope of its normal Geometrical relations between a family ofcurves and its envelopeMiscellaneous Examples IIAPPENDIXA Taylors Theorerti for a function of two variables A Necessary and sufficient conditions for extreme values of a function of two variablesA Lagranges method of undetermined multipliedAnswers Scanned with CamScanner
2825
S M YOUSUF
MODERN ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMENTRY
7D
ENGLISH
PAKISTAN POST
CON I I N I NItifteI SetsBinary Relations unctions and Their Graphs Operations Groups and KingsQuudiatic I quntionsSystems ol liquationsSequences and ScriestCounting Problems and Probability Elements of Symbolic LogicMathematical Induct on Ihe Binonjil TheoremPolynomial Functir nsPartial I ructionsexponential ami I ogarithmic FunctionsTrigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities S dution ol li tangles and Area of a Triangleiimise Functions and Frigc nometric Equations AnswersBibliography f vv Scanned with CamScanner
2832
ALLAH BAKHSH KAMALI
COLLEGE ALGEBRA
7D
ENGLISH
URDU ACADEMY
1965
ri iA V v r YT iVA V v r f iIkvi O L L C ESltAfi Iri sl TJf I Ji irf W I iN I V f Vi V iuT£ k Vi f K I“v f irScanned with CamScannerI LIST OF TOPICSprcfaccList of topicsVtv tChapter I Indices Chapter SurdsChapter Complex NumbersChapter LogarithmsChapter Quadratic liquationsChapter Quadratic ExpressionsChapter Equations Reducible to QuadraticsMifChapter Simultaneous Equations Chapter Arithmetic Progression AP Chapter Geometrical Progression GPChapter Harmonical Progression HPChapter Summation of Series noChapter PermutationChapter CombinationChapter J Binomial TheoremChapter The Remainder TheoremChapter Partial FractionsChapter Determinants and their application toSimultaneous EquationsAnswers
2833
MUHAMMAD SADIQ
A TEXT BOOK OF DYNAMICS
7D
ENGLISH
AKHTAR BOOK
1966
b Tgr c oPrNAMlCi i V A WVva JHIIiScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSPAOIitemI Definition ami llluttratioo of Variou TermH Motion in a Straight Line with ComtantAcceleration Compoitioo and Resoltifi n of VcJootieclcation and I ofccIV Newton Three Low of Motion V Motion of Connected Particle and Motionon an Inclined Planev Motion with Variable Acceleration SimpleHarmonic Motionn Vfl Motion of a Particle to a Plane Projectile flit Motion Along a CircleIX Work I netgy ami ImpulseX Collision of Mattie ICHIICXl Unit and DimensionAneweft ¥
2834
ALLAH BAKHSH KAMALI
CALCULUS
7D
ENGLISH
URDU ACADEMY
1965
cALULXJS y r r yf R V L i s t o f T o p i c sPART IDIFFERENTIATIONVariables and Function ConceptsLimitsThe Continuity of FunctionsDifferentiationGeometrical Meaning of the Derivative Meaning of the Sign of the DerivativeMaxima and MinimaSome More Applications of the Derivative Successive DifferentiationAppendixTaylors and Maclaurins SeriesChapter I Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter ANSWERS SOLUTION Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise BExercise Exercise Scanned with CamScannerpARTlNTEGRATlONIntegrationI Definite Integralsintegration by Parts Quadratic Expressionsetrical Functions of Partial Fractions and someChapter ChapterChapter Chapter ChapterChapter Trigonom The useMiscellaneous PointsDefinite Integral in lengths of CurvesDefinite Integral in Area under planeChapter Chapter curvesDefinite Integral in Solids of RevolutionExpansionChapter Chapter ANSWERSExercise AExercise QBExercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise gExercise
2836
SOM DATT
AN INTRODUCTIN TO STATICS
7D
ENGLISH
ATMARAM & SONS
1950
it ITfionociiN ToSTATICSH Scanned with CamScannerCONTENTSctfAP i Introduction and Definitionsii Forces Acting at a Point Stat ics of a ParticleMiscdlaneous Exercises I TV Parallel Forcesv Momentsvi CouplesVII Equilibrium of a Rigid Body under the action ofan number of Ojplanar ForcesVIII Solution of ProblemsMiscellarieous Exercises II Centre of Gravityx Frictionxi W ork Virtual WorkTI Equilibrium of StringMiscellaneous Exercises AnswersriT — IX
2898
BALIGHUDDIN JAVED
SABZION SAY ELAJ
8C
URDU
KHYAM

ka yav scanned with camscannera hari bhari boss Ú bhi bazyan kaisay payi jayen bhindi toree kin kin mahino mein kon Ú paas haisabzian pera ho ti hain ya to ya ba Ú ka saalmeem palaak yeh darya patelsardar aur un se ilaaj aur beti aur awwal li beeet phool gobhiwa pichli si ummscanned with camscanner bijli mo ÚÚÚ lobia Ú tattay chakandar bh Ú ka saag halwa kaddu daal Khurram ya ulfat ka saag Ú zameen qand sarson ka saag saal July Ú neez meem sagh sonf saag kareemray wim ka h kh o cover slaw silayaam sir skndke mooli ma scanned with camscanner
2958
M S ANWAR
PROGRAMMING IN BASIC
16E
ENGLISH
AWAMI KITAB GHAR

karogramming BASIC M S ANWAR o o ANW Awami Kitab Ghar URDU BAZAR LAHORE Scanned with CamScanner CONTENTS UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER e of Computers mo Importance of Computers Computer Types The InputProcessOutput Concept History of Computers Computers Micro or Mini Bits Words and Memory The Total System Program Processing Modes Language of the Computer Highlevel Languages Using a Using a Computer Review Questions ll PROBLEM SOLVING AND FLOWCHARTS Problem Solving Flowcharting Branching Looping The Connector Hints for Flowcharting Review Questions Exercises OTU Is Thema reme BASICS OF BASIC Importance of BASIC Sample Program Program Analysis Getting BASIC into the Computer Listing and Editing BASIC Program Running the Program System Commands Common BASIC Statements Review Questions Exercise Scanned with CamScanner CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES The Character Set Constants Variables Naming the Variables Getting Data into the Memory The RESTORE Statement Review Questions Exercises EXPRESSIONS IN BASIC Introduction Arithmetic Expressions Hierarchy of Operations Rules of Arithmetic Evaluation of Expressions – The LET Statement TELEFON Refinements in Programming Logical Expressions Library Functions Review Questions Exercises PRINTER CONTROLS Introduction The Comma Control The Semicolon Control The TAB Function The PRINT USING Control Review Questions Exercises TRAHIO JUEV E JUMPING BRANCHING AND LOOPING Introduction Jumping The GO TO Statement Branching The IF THEN Statement Multiple Branching – The ONGO TO Statement Looping – The FORNEXT Statement Review Questions Exercises SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES Introduction SingleSubscripted Variables DoubleSubscripted Variables Searching and Sorting Review Questions Exercises Scanned with CamScanner FUNCTIONS AND SUB ROUTINES Introduction UserDefined Functions Subroutines Multipleparameter Functions Multipleline Functions Named Subroutines with Arguments Review Questions Exercises HISTOGRAMS AND GRAPHS Introduction Histograms Graph Plotting Single Function Plotting Two Functions Plotting an Ellipse Exercises MATRIX ALGEBRA Introduction Reading and Printing of Matrices Matrix Additions and Subtractions Matrix Multiplication Special Matrix Operations Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations Initializing Matrices Review Questions Exercises CHARACTER STRING MANIPULATIONS Introduction Subscripted String Variables The IF THEN Statement ASCII Code and the ASC Function The CHR Function The CHANGE Statement The LEN Function Alphabetical Sorting Review Questions Exercises PROGRAM DESIGN EFFICIENCY AND TESTING Introduction Introduction Program Design Program Efficiency Program Bugs Scanned with CamScanner Debugging Program Testing Review Questions Exercises CASE STUDIES Introduction Characteristics of AC Electric Circuits Parts Replacement Problem Preparation of Pay Bills Solutions of a Polynomial Equation Salesman Problem Current Transients in AC Electric Circuits APPENDIXES II Files Summary of Basic Statements Summary of Points to Remember List of Computer Manufacturers III IV Glossary Bibliography Index Scanned with CamScanner
2981
BERTRANL RUSSELL
THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY
8D
ENGLISH
ALLIES
1960
pA he Ijnpact ofScience onScanned with CamScannerCONTENTSChapter ISCIENCE AND TRADITIONpage Chapter II page GENERAL EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUEChapter III page SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUE IN AN OLIGARCHYChapter IV page DEMOCRACY AND SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUEChapter V page SCIENCE AND WARChapter VI page SCIENCE AND VALUESChapter VII page CAN A SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY BE STABLE Scanned with CamScanner
2982
CHRIS OXLADE
THE SCIENCE PROJECT BOOK
8D
ENGLISH
LORENZ BOOK

ROJECTSBOOKRYSTEP FUN SCIENCE EXPERIMENTSQME LEARNING AND SCHOOL STUDYScanned with CamScannerContentsIntroduction GREAT SCIENCE EXPERIMENTSScience at Heme io°ur Restless Earth Recording weatherBroken EarthRestless EarthMeasuring earthquakesDoityourself seismographSlips and faultsBuilding fold mountainsFire down belowMoving magmaErupting volcanoesSpinning planetphases of the MoonThe rise and fall of tidesOcean wavesand currentsChanging coastlinesWater on the moveCloud and rainWhat is humidityThe way the wind blows Volcanic shapesVicious gasesSteaming hotVolcanic rocksMaking crystalsGlass and bubblesLayers on layersWhats a fossilHard as nailsTesting for minerals Natural Wonders Close to Home What is soilExamining soilTree studyLooking at barkSpecimen collectionHow plants growReaching for lightNatural water pumpsSeeds and plant lifeGrowing from fruit Life in the forestSoil erosionThe balance of lifeAnimal tracks and footprints Searching for insectsWhat is an insectStudying insect lifeInsects in disguiseInsects to watchMoths and butterflies Watching a caterpillargrowCrawling coloniesDiscovering birdsBirdwatchingListening to birdsBirds nestsFeed the birdsTelltale bird tracesBird travel and flight Physical and Material Marvels The power of energyWind and water powerEnergy from liquidand airHow magnets workMagnetic EarthMagnets and mapsElectric magnetsComputer data storageFun with magnetsChemical changeTests with yeastPreservation and decayStone and concreteBuilding bridgesTunnel constructionThe strength of a pyramidSurveying a sitePowerful leversLevers at workMagnet sportsImages from lightCameras and lightA photographic imageGetting in focusLetting in the lightHow telescopes workSatellites and orbitsPower boost in SpaceListen to this Travel and Transportation Streamlined design Curve and liftJet propulsionPropeller flightModel planesEscaping from EarthRocket launchGoing to the MoonArtificial gravityWorking in SpaceSimple boats powerHow ships floatWhats in a hullShip stabilityPower and steering afloatSafety atSubmarine actionMaking railsRolling stockLocomotiveBrake vanMonorailMaking car wheelsturnChanging gearCar controlKeeping coolPrototype carParachutes and balloonsSail sea Scanned with CamScanner
2984
SALEEM AHMED SIDDIQUI
SHAHAD (HONEY)
8C
URDU
FEROZSONS

pn p aqudrati ghizal l ascanned with camscanneraernoon shehad aik Nemat kya haitang sale Ú yan astmal bh shahar Ú ki fi qadeem zamane mein shha bator ghiza aur dawa o haal Rashd ka husool aur bilhaaz Malik bh o o ÚÚ ki kasmainÚ muasarjanasheenmurshid kyun thi ka daur hayaatne kanzam carki tayari gharelo sanat ghiza ra meem shud Ú is Isna mukhtalif sandwich kiranscanned with camscannercustard hi ÚÚ e anton ke amraazo shud tor ghiza awwal nagar ke palon ke motapadouble roti cake ban amraaz jald shahar bator ghiza joron ki bemariyanÚbachon ke amraazasaas Ú hai jaamo shehad ke taluqaatchawal ÚÚ Ú Ú Shahi jellymashrobat ar ra Úamraaz tanaffus amraaz dandan amraaz meda tafyanscanned with camscanner
3005
RONWILSON
DINOSAURS
8B
ENGLISH
MODERN

hIntroductionTable of ContentsChapter One Allosaurus Chapter Two Archaeopteryx Chapter Three Brontosaurus Chapter Four Chasmosaurus Chapter Five Dimorphodon Chapter Six Hypsilophodon Chapter Seven Ichthyosaurus Chapter Eight Iguanodon Chapter Nine MamenchisaurusChapter Ten Triceratops jFactsabout DinosaursSJC
3026
RAFIQ DOGAR
100 AZEEM SCIENCEDAN
8F
URDU
ALEEM

3056
S M GHUFRAN AFGHANI
MIARE NABATIAT 2
8B
URDU
KASHIF
1988
s am Ghafran am s sito ik urdu scanned with camscanner awwal cryptogamsab kamarunwanalgaelovoscillatoriapehla baab kar mutter gas aam khususiyaat aur jamaat bandi asya piroyra dictyotateesra baab Meer kar aur ka farq fungimucoragaricusbacteriachoutha baabbryophytayeyond marchantiamossbosspanchawan baabrido
3065
NAJEEB KHAN
DIL OR SEHAT
8C
URDU
INTER SERVICES

niji ba Ú scanned with camscannerfehrist mazameenqadeem tehzibi roshni mein dil ka tasawwur dil apna kaam kis terhan baja lata he dil ke feel se kya morad hai sharianon ke ho jane se kya morad hai kya nabz dil ke mutaliq maloomat karti he e si jee kya he hai aur dil ki bemari ka aapas mein kya talluq he qalb ki aur asbaab kya kefiyat se dil ki bemariyan hoïº—ï¯½ Ú blood pressure se kya morad hai blood pressure par kaisay qaboo paaya ja sakta he blood pressure kam se kya morad hai seenay ke dard se kya morad hai aur is haalat mein kyaahthyat karni cha hï¯ dil ke doray se kya morad hai sardarscanned with camscannerkya Ú Ú ki paish beeni kar ke is kirokkk thaam ki ja sakti hï¯ Ú ya dil ki sharianon mein injmaadkhoon ki dil ki sharianon mein injmaad khoon ke doray ke baadkya karna Ú kya dil ka dard dil ki bemari ki wajah se bhi Ú dil ki pedaishi bemari se kya morad hai tibbi istilaah Â matic se kya morad haiaur kya is soorat se bachao mumkin hai kya aur deegar pehphron ke amraaz dil ki bemaripeda kar saktay Ú khoraak ka dil ki bimarion se kya talluq hai motapay ke buray asraat kya Ú aur is faaltu wazanse kaisay nijaat mil sakti hai baqaida werzish dil ko kaisay mutasir kar sakti hai orakya dil ke mareez ko shadi karni Ú kya dil ki bachay ko janam day sakti he dil ke ilaaj mein jadeed jarrahi ka kya hissa hï¯ kya dil ki bemariyan aam hoïº—ï¯½ ja rh€¬ Ú Pakistan mein dil ki bimarion ki sharah aur unki mukhtalif aqsam scanned with camscannerdil ki hifazat kaisay ki ja sakti he munasib wazan mardon aur aurton ke liye qad aurjasamat ki munasbat se Umar saal ya aam kaaf ki ashyaaik so hararayscanned with camscanner
3068
K LOVELL
TWO GRADE 3 ARITHMETIC
7D
ENGLISH
GINN & CO
1982
3070
AGHA ASHRAF
NAMWER MUSALMAN SCIENCEDAN
8F
URDU
ALEEM

sofderarend aistrese pilot acadyfalsafi aur ans daanchiniot islamia public school libraryam ae am airmaktab alia aikdarna kilahoreolaineu wilt camstarteebbuali seenamohammad ban Ú razy farabi nadi bohri ban shakir umer khayam naseer aldeen babar ban hussain ban ishaq Ú ocaleu wilt cams
3071
S M GHUFRAN AFGHANI
MIARE NABATIAT1
8B
URDU
AFZALI
1990
s am Ghafran am s sito ik urdu scanned with camscanner awwal cryptogamsab kamarunwanalgaelovoscillatoriapehla baab kar mutter gas aam khususiyaat aur jamaat bandi asya piroyra dictyotateesra baab Meer kar aur ka farq fungimucoragaricusbacteriachoutha baabbryophytayeyond marchantiamossbosspanchawan baabrido
3091
ZOE GILBERT
MONTH BY MONTH
8B
ENGLISH
AFZALI
1990
The South African gardenMonthby MonthZoe GilbertScanned with CamScannerContentsIntroduction January February March April May June July August September October November December Making your garden grow Pests and diseases Glossary of terms Index C H i NUBHi
3107
JHON DAVIS
MATHS PUZZLES
8D
ENGLISH
SCHOLASTIC
1994
Scannered NrthCamTeachers notes Amazeing Number chainsLetternumbs Hangmaths Cuckoo in the nest Mix and match Percentage bingo Types of fractionsUsing number Flower powerDotty pictureFishy businessFieldsGuessing gameFruit stallBullseyeSome sumsLollipopsMoney mattersNumber routesDicey digitsMystery numbercrosswordTimes bingoReducing squaresBest guessPyramaddsBook fairAdding decimalsUsing bondsMagic squaresCrafty cornersMake Finding primesDartboard Integers Fibonacci Pascals triangle Triangular patterns Shape space and measuresAnimal earsAnimal magic Car chase Repeating shapes Block patterns Colour spots Tidy the toy cupboard Roboshape Shape snake Shipshapes Metre maze Jackinthebox Shopping shapes Riddlemeshape Shape pictures Halving Pattern squares My day Calendar puzzleCompass pointsShapes in pieces Number patterns Calculator patterns Snakes and ladders The puzzled postie Counting calculator Colour matchArrowgraphs Function mazes Magic dice Picture value Table patterns Egyptian counting Crack the code Consecutive numbers Jumping frogs Squareeyed Using letters Sequences Which key Three jumps to l Scanned with CamScanner Shape treeHO All about meHI Triple cones Spinners Fixture listMore or lessNew shoes Ready reckoner Tallying Table repeats Heads and tails Exchange rates At the dentist Pie charts Venn diagrams Happy birthday Curved graphs Wonder bar Pick me up Mobius band Making twodimensional shapes Towers of Hanoi Circles in space Big numbersMirror pictures Birthday presentsBig handMulti squaresWhat comes nextTilingPentominoesUpsidedownFraction gridsNetsSizing upTangramsThree in a rowReflectionsGet the pointFencesCircle surprisePlotting pointsFind your way Handling data Shoe muddle Matching up Which set What next Birthday map Flaming June Favourite sports Hair and eyes Pet count Shape Venn Party time Book countScanned with CamScanner
3133
SYED ZAHID ANWER
COMPUTER HAND BOOK
16A
URDU
COMPUTER SCIENCE ACADEMY
1991
ammaMeemmaaSeenraasAabaabmanuunComputer ki Nasley mu Computer ki darjah bindiRaw darDa Computer ProcessingBay dunya par siingin peysh aalaatMi
Scanned with CamScannerjyrfyU sibSJPdpjJcJuJ e Jy zC CLj £cjf rJ JJijdy££zfaUjfWVSfsJhfjJWj uJZfc—HyUrrrrrrronrrAM orororooozOAOflHScanned with CamScannerirCjVsixCitit Jtj±UdrfVfOli£J rDyCy c wKJiff AdsJjfjjy jwjskicMifJitf ftl iuuziriridArrrAAAAArArScanned with CamScannerfjfjPJVdXji SMfyMjM Ji fcftSfi——iAsft JIJtjijicr jitiXtfr j jf jVtJV X XSJLOjUyIrrra z A IIiririrlaiiIA jJiiiJ jr dXrri fjulwtJi—Scanned with CamScannerrrlctt—JVI c TVVJlr JyvU AJrijy JWMIdJLaCyJr JU ZurifLsJjrrrrrartrcrMrnrrrrrrrdrtrrArrnScanned with CamScanner
3184
P ABBOTT
TEACHYOURSELF ALGEBRA
7D
ENGLISH
ELBS
1980
JCZCDIToCLOW PRICEDEOlTiONCONTENTSCHAPTER ITHE MEANING OF ALGEBRAPARA PAriF Transformation of a Algebraic Forms Algebra and Arithmetic PACE Formula IS A Formula CHAPTER IIELEMENTARY OPERATIONS Multiplication Powers of Numbers Multiplication of Powers Division of Powers Easy Fractions Symbols of Operation Algebraic Expression Terms Brackets Coefficient Addition and Subtraction Evaluation by Substitution SCHAPTER IIIOPERATIONS WITH THEM Systems of BracketsBRACKETS AND Removal of Brackets Addition and Subtraction ofExpressions within Brackets CHAPTER IVPOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS Operations with NegativeNumbers Rules for Signs Powers The Scale of a Thermometer Motion in Opposite Directions Positive and Negative Numbers CHAPTER VSIMPLE EQUATIONS Problems Leading to Simple Solving Meaningan ofEquation an Equation Equations CHAPTER VIFORMULAE Treatment of Formulae Transformation of Formulae Literal EquationsCHAPTER VIISIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS Solution ofEquationsSimultaneous Problems Leading to Simul taneous Equations SSScanned with CamScannerCONTENTS CHAPTER VIIIGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUANTITIESr r v The Object of Graphical Work The Column Graph A Straightline Graph PACK PARA Examples of Graphs and theirUses PAGE CHAPTER IXTHE LAW OF A STRAIGHT LINE COORDINATES Equation of a Straight LinePassing Through the Origin Equation of a Straight LineNot Passing Through theOrigin Graphic Solution of Simultaneous Equations The Law Represented by aStraightline Graph Graph of an Equation of theFirst Degree Position in a Plane Coordinates A Straight Line as a Locus c CHAPTER XMULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSIONS Product of Binomial Expres Product of Sum and Difference sions CHAPTER XIFACTORS Factors of the Difference of Binomial Factors Two Squares CHAPTER XIIFRACTIONS Addition and Subtraction Simple Equations InvolvingFractions HO Laws of Fractions Reduction of Fractions Multiplication and Division CHAPTER XIIIGRAPHS OF QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS The Curve of y x The Curve of y — x The Curves of y ox The Curves of y x db l H Change of Axis The Graph of y x x — The Graph of y— s— x Constants and Variables Dependent and IndependentVariables Functions Graph of a Function Graph of a Function of SecondDegree CHAPTER XIVQUADRATIC EQUATIONS I Problems Leading to Quadra tics I Simultaneous QuadraticsI Algebraic Solution Solution by Factorisation General Formula Scanned with CamScanner CONTENTSCHAPTER XVINDICES PAGE of Numbers Fractional Indices Negative Indices Standard FormsPAGE PARA Laws of Indices Extension of the Meaning ofan Index CHAPTER XVILOGARITHMS I Rules for the Use of LogarithinsChange of Base of a System of Logarithms A System of Logarithms C Characteristic of a Logarithm Mantissa of a Logarithm CHAPTER xvyRATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio and Pro Theorems onportionConstant Ratios Meaning of a RatioICC Proportion CHAPTER XVIIIVARIATION Inverse Variation Functions of More than OneVariable Direct Variation To Find the Law ConnectingTwo Variables CHAPTER XIXTHE DETERMINATION OF LAWS Plotting Against a Power of Use of Logarithms a Number CHAPTER XXRATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL NUMBERS SURDS Operations with Surds CHAPTER XXIARITHMETICAL AND GEOMETRICAL SERIES Simple and Compound Interest Accumulated Value of Periodical Payments Annuities Irrational Numbers The Meaning of a Series Arithmetic Progression Harmonic Progression Geometric Progression Infinite Geometric Series APPENDIXPermutations tions and Combina The Binomial Theorem Answers Logarithm Tables Equation °f Quadratlc i Scanned with CamScanner